violent only because we have made ourselves delicate and tender; we are on every side in danger of error and of guilt, which we are certain to avoid only by speedy forgiveness.

“ From this pacific and harmless temper, thus propitious to others and ourselves, to domestic tranquillity and to social happiness, no man is withheld but by pricle, by the fear of being insulted by his adversary, or despised by the world.

“ It may be laid down as an unfailing and universal axiom, that all pride is abject and mean.' It is always an ignorant, lazy, or cowardly acquiescence in a false appearance of excellence, and proceeds not from consciousness of our attainments, but insensibility of our wants.

“Nothing can be great which is not right. Nothing which reason condemns can be suitable to the dignity of the human mind. To be driven by external motives from the path which our own heart approves, to give way to any thing but conviction, to suffer the opinion of others to rule our choice or overpower our resolves, is to submit tamely to the lowest and most ignominious slavery, and to resign the right of directing our own lives.

“ The utmost excellence at which humanity can arrive, is a constant and determinate pursuit of virtue without regard to present dangers or advantage; a continual reference of every action to the divine will ; an habitual appeal to everlasting justice; and an unvaried elevation of the intellectual eye to the reward which perseverance only can obtain. But that pride which many, who presume to boast of generous sentiments, allow to regulate their measures, has nothing nobler in view than the approbation of men ; of beings whose superiority we are under no obligation to acknowledge, and who, when we have courted them with the utmost assiduity, can confer no valuable or permanent reward ; of beings who ignorantly judge of what they do not understand, or partially determine what they never have examined ; and whose sentence is therefore of no weight, till it has received the ratification of our own.conscience.

“ He that can descend to bribe suffrages like these at the price of his innocence ; he that can suffer the delight of such acclamations to withbold his attention from the commands of the universal Sovereign, bas little reason to congratulate himself upon the greatness of his mind; whenever he awakes to seriousness and reflection, he must become despicable in his own eyes, and shrink with shame from the remembrance of his cowardice and fully.

“ Of him that hopes to be forgiven, it is indispensably required that he forgive. It is therefore superfluous to urge any other motive. On this great duty eternity is suspended ; and to him that refuses to practise it the throne of mercy is inaccessible, and the Saviour of the world has been born in vain.” (1)

Admirably, however, as these noble precepts are expressed, the specimen that we have next to quote will, it is probable, be deemed still superior both in diction and imagery. The close is, indeed, one of the most exquisite

(1) Rambler, No. 185.


and sublime passages in the works of its eloquent author. Speaking of those who retire from the world that “they may employ more time in the duties of religion ; that they may regulate their actions with stricter vigilance, and purify their thoughts by more frequent meditation, he adds,

To men thus elevated above the mists of mortality, I am far from presuming myself qualified to give directions. On him that appears to pass through things temporal,' with no other care than not to lose finally the things eternal,' I look with such veneration as inclines me to approve his conduct in the whole, without a minute examination of its parts; yet I could never forbear to wish, that while Vice is every day multiplying seducements, and stalking forth with more hardened effrontery, Virtue would not withdraw the influence of her presence, or forbear to assert her natural dignity by open and undaunted perseverance in the right. Piety practised in solitude, like the flower that blooms in the desert, may give its fragrance to the winds of heaven, and delight those unbodied spirits that survey the works of God and the actions of men : but it bestows no assistance upon earthly beings, and however free from taints of impurity, yet wants the sacred splendour of beneficence.(1)

The publication of the “Rambler” produced a very rapid revolution in the tone of English composition : an elevation and dignity, an harmony and energy, a precision and force of style, previously unknown in the history of our literature, speedily became objects of daily emulation ; and the school of Johnson increased with such celerity, that it soon embraced the greater part of the rising literary characters of the day, and was consequently founded on such a basis as will not easily be shaken by succeeding modes.

588. Johnson sketched by Himself. The character of Sober in the “ Idler,” No. 31., was intended by the author as a delineation of himself. Johnson was constitutionally idle, nor was he roused to any great effort, but by the imperious call of necessity : his exertions, indeed, when sufliciently stimulated, were gigantic, but they were infrequent and uncertain. He was destined to complain of the miseries of idleness, and to mitigate his remorse by repeated but too often ineffectual resolutions of industry. The portrait which he

(1) Adventurer, No. 126.

has drawn is faithful, and divested of flattery—a result not common in autobiography :

“ Sober is a man of strong desires and quick imagination, so exactly balanced by the love of ease, that they can seldom stimulate him to any difficult undertaking; they have, however, so much power, that they will not suffer him to lie quite at rest, and though they do not make him sufficiently useful to others, they make him at least weary of himself.

“Mr. Sober's chief pleasure is conversation ; there is no end of his talk or his attention ; to speak or to hear is equally pleasing ; for he still fancies that he is teaching or learning something, and is free for the time from his own reproaches.

“But there is one time at night when he must go home, that his friends may sleep ; and another time in the morning, when all the world agrees to shut out interruption. These are the moments of which poor Sober trembles at the thought. But the misery of these tiresome intervals, he has many means of alleviating. He has persuaded himself that the manual arts are undeservedly overlooked; he has observed in many trades the effects of close thought, and just ratiocination. From speculation he proceeded to practice, and supplied himself with the tools of a carpenter, with which he mended his coal-box very successfully, and which he still continues to employ as he finds occasion.

“ He has attempted at other times the crafts of the shoemaker, tinman, plumber, and potter ; in all these arts he has failed, and resolves to qualify himself for them by better information. But his daily amusement is chemistry. He has a small furnace, which he employs in distillation, and which has long been the solace of his life. He draws oils, and waters, and essences, and spirits, which he knows to be of no use; sits and counts the drops as they come from his retort; and forgets that whilst a drop is falling, a moment flies away.

“ Poor Sober! I have often teazed him with reproof, and he has often promised reformation ; for no man is so much open to conviction as the idler, but there is none on whom it operates so little. What will be the effect of this paper I know not; perhaps he will read it, and laugh, and light the fire in his furnace; but my hope is, that he will quit his trifles, and betake himself to rational and useful diligence.”

589. Horror of Death. One of the best written and most impressive of the essays of the “ Rambler” is No. 78., on the power of novelty, in which he appears to have exerted the full force of his genius. It is in this paper that the horror of death, which embittered so many of the hours of Johnson, is depicted in more vivid colours than in any other part of his periodical writings :

“ Surely," he remarks, "nothing can so much disturb the passions or perplex the intellects of man, as the disruption of his union with

visible nature ; a separation from all that has hitherto delighted or
engaged him ; a change not only of the place, but the manner, of his
being ; an entrance into a state not simply which he knows not, but
which perhaps he has not faculties to know; an immediate and per.
ceptible communication with the Supreme Being, and, what is above
all distressful and alarining, the final sentence, and unalterable allot-
a passage which, in its sentiment and tendency, strongly
reminds us of the admirable description of Claudio in the
“ Measure for Measure" of Shakspeare: -

“Ay, but to die, and go we know not where;
To lie in cold obstruction, and to rot;
This sensible warm motion to become
A kneaded clod; and the delighted spirit
To bathe in fiery Acods, or to reside
In thrilling regions of thick-ribbed ice;
To be imprison'd in the viewless winds,
And blown with restless violence round about
The pendent world ; or to be worse than worst
Of those, that lawless and incertain thoughts
Imagine howling ! -'t is too horrible!
The weariest and most loathed worldly life,
That age, ache, penury, and imprisonment
Can lay on nature, is a paradise

To what we fear of death." Our author seems likewise to have remeinbered a couplet in the “ Aureng-Zebe” of Dryden :

Death in itself is nothing; but we fear

To be we know not what, we know not where.” It is in this paper, also, that one of the few pathetic paragraphs which are scattered through the pages of Johnson may be found.

Whether considered with regard to its diction or its tender appeal to the heart, it is alike exquisite :

“ It is not possible," observes the moralist, “ to be regarded with tenderness except by a few.

That merit which gives greatness and renown diffuses its influence to a wide compass, but acts weakly on every single breast ; it is placed at a distance from common spectators, and shines like one of the remote stars, of which the light reaches us, but not the heat. The wit, the hero, the philosopher, whom their tempers or their fortunes have binilered from intimate relations, die, without any other effect than that of adding a new topic to the conversation of the day. They impress none with any fresh conviction of the fragility of our nature, because none had any particular interest in their lives, or was

united to them by a reciprocation of benefits and endearments. Thus it often happens, that those who in their lives were applauded and admired, are laid at last in the ground without the common honour of a stone ; because by those excellencies with which many were delighted, none had been obliged, and though they had many to celebrate, they had none to love them.”

590. Anningait and Ajut. Never was the passion of love, or the assiduities of affection, placed in a more entertaining or pleasing light, than in the Greenland story of Anningait and Ajut ('); which, owing to its wild and savage imagery, and the felicity with which it is adapted to the circumstances of the narrative, possesses the attractions of no ordinary share of originality. Mr. Campbell, in his truly sublime poem on the pleasures of Hope, has thus beautifully alluded to this story :

“Oh! vainly wise, the moral Muse hath sung

That 'suasive Hope hath but a syren tongue !
True; she may sport with life's untutor’d day,
Nor heed the solace of its last decay,
The guileless heart, her happy mansion spurn,
And part like Ajut — never to return.”

591. Rasselas. Many of the topics which are eagerly discussed in the History of Rasselas are known to have greatly interested, and even agitated, the mind of Johnson. Of these the most remarkable are, on the Efficacy of Pilgrimage, on the State of Departed Souls, on the Probability of the Reappearance of the Dead, and on the Danger of Insanity. The apprehension of mental derangement seems to have haunted the mind of Johnson during the greater part of his life; and he has therefore very emphatically declared, that “of the uncertainties in our present state, the most dreadful and alarming is the uncertain continuance of reason.” (?) It is highly probable, that his fears and feelings on this head gave rise to the character of the Mad Astronomer in Rasselas, who declared to Imlac, that he had possessed for five years the regulation of the weather, and

(1) Rambler, Nos. 86 187.

(2) Rasselas, chap. 43

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