Art. 37. As there is a whole tone between C and D, it is evident The i in the syllables, sound like ė; and the e like a. that there is room for another sound between them, a half tone higher This same scale may be written upon the staff according to the F clef. than C, and of course a half tone lower than D. Again between D and ART. 41. The Chromatic Scale may be extended indefinitely upwards E is a tone; there may be then, a sound between them dividing the dif- or downwards. And it is of no consequence where it commences, as all ference. So also, between F and G, G and A, A and B.

the intervals are alike, viz: half tones. The succession of the notes is Art. 38. As these sounds are of constant use in music, it becomes not agreeable to the ear, but they are all used in music and should be necessary to have a method of representing them. As the natural notes, understood. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, already occupy all the lines and spaces of the staff, we are obliged to write these new sounds on the same places with those to which they are nearest. We find it convenient also to name them by the same letters. But to distinguish them we make use of two

CHAPTER VI. characters, viz: the sharp #, and the flat b. The sharp placed before a note represents a sound half a tone higher, and the sound is called by

TRANSPOSITION. the same letter with a sharp after it. Thus we say, C, sharp; D, sharp, &c., written thus: C#, D#

Art. 42. When the Diatonic Scale is made to commence on any The flat placed before a note or after a letter, represents a sound a half tone lower than the letter alone. Thus

sound other than C, it is said to be transposed; and we shall find it ncwe say B, flat, G, flat; written Bb, Gb, &c.

cessary to introduce one or more of the sounds which are peculiar to the Art. 39. Practically, C# and Db are regarded as the same sound, Chromatic Scale, in order to preserve the succession of the intervals as though in theory they are treated somewhat differently; and the same

required in art. 34. remark applies to the other sounds which appear to coincide.

Art. 43. Let us commence the Diatonic Scale with G. Art. 40. The scale which is written in art. 28, is called the diaTONIC


å When in all the whole tone intervals of this scale, the new sounds mentioned in art. 37 are introduced, a series of TWELVE sounds


ES is formed, called the Chromatic SCALE. It is written below, with the

с D

F numerals, letters, syllables and signs which apply to it. When this scale If we examine the intervals between the several letters, remembering is written upwards, sharps are used, when downwards, flats. The nu

that the half tones are between B and C, and E and F. And also, bearmerals are read, sharp 1, sharp 2, &c., or flat 7, flat 6, &c. The sylla- | ing in mind that the half tone intervals should be between three and four bles applied to the sharped notes change their termination to e as in eve; and between seven and eight, we shall find this scale to be erroneous; and applied to the flatted notes, to long a as in mite.

but in order to increase the interval between six and seven to a whole CHROMATIC SCALE.

tone as it should be, we must place a sharp before F to raise it half a C CH D D E F F# G G# A A# B C C B Bb A Ab G Gb F E Eb D Db C

tone, thereby also making a half tone from seven to eight, which is required by the constitution of the scale. Corrected, it stands thus:


















do "di re

#2 3 4 4 5.5 6 #6 ? 8 8 7 676 66 5 6 5 4 3 63 2 b 2 re mi fa fi sol si la li si do do si se la le sol

se fa mi me re

re do B

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upon C#

Thus we have the same order of intervals as when we commence A, in which F, C and G are sharp. with C.

E, in which F, C, G and D are sharp. The syllables follow the numerals constantly, and one is always do, F, in which B is flat. with an exception which will be noticed in art. 59.

Bb, in which B and E are flat. Art. 44. Again, commence the scale with F.

Eb, in which B, E and A are flat. 3

Ab, in which B, E, A and D are flat.

The other three, viz: be

B, in which F, C, G, D and A, are sharp.

F#, in which F, C, G, D, A and E, are sharp.
А B5


Db, in which B, E, A, D and G, are flat, are seldon used as the Here it becomes necessary to flat B, otherwise it would be a whole principal scale in a piece of music, tone from three to four, and a half tone from four to five, which are Art. 48. "The sharps or flats rendered necessary in each scale, are wrong.

not written before the notes they affect, throughout a piece as often as ART. 45. In like manner we may construct a Diatonic Scale upon they occur, as it would be inconvenient, but they are placed once for all any sound of the Chromatic Scale, whether sharped, flatted, or in its at the commencement, on their proper lines and spaces; and they are to natural state. One only is here exhibited, namely the scale founded be understood as affecting every note of the same letter throughout the

It is obvious, as the first note is a half tone higher than the piece. first note of the natural scale of C, it will be necessary to raise every Art. 49. These sharps or flats placed at the beginning, constitute note of the natural scale a half tone in order to preserve the proper what is called the signaTURE or sign of the scale; because they show in intervals.

what scale the music is written, and by knowing that, we know where to

find do. SCALE IN C#

Art. 50. Each scale takes its name from the first letter, as the scale 1 2 6 7 8

of C, the scale of E, the scale of Bb, &c.

Art. 51. A piece written in the scale of C, is spoken of usually as in the key of C. In like manner we say the key of D, the key of Eb,

&c., when the scale commences with those notes. It is also common to са DH


say, such a scale or such a tune is in C, in B, in Ab, &c. It is incor-
Sol La

rect to say, such a piece is in four sharps, or three flats.








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ART. 52. All these scales may of course be written according to the F clef.

The following table will enable the learner to find the key Art. 46. As there are twelve different sounds in the Chromatic

note, that is one, or do, in any scale of the kind we have been considScale, there may of course be twelve different Diatonic Scales.

ering. ART. 47. There are but nine of these however, in common use, viz:

If there be no signature, it is the scale or key of C. C, which is called the natural scale, as all the sounds belonging to it

If the signature be one sharp #, it is the scale or key of G. are in their natural state, and unaffected by flats or sharps.

two sharps # it is in the scale or key of D. G, in which F is sharp.

three sharps ***, it is in the scale or key of A. D, in which F and C are sharp.

it is in the scale or key of E.

four sharps et


xi If the signature be one fat b, it is in the scale or key of F.

be required to name the interval from D up to B, we count the letters, two flats bb, it is in the scale or key of Bb. D, E, F, G, A, B; six in number and the interval is a sixth. Whether three flats bb, b, it is in the scale or key of Eb.

it be major or minor, we ascertain by counting the tones and semi-tones four flats 66", bob, it is in the scale or key of Ab.

which compose it and then comparing the result with the definition given in art. 53.

Art. 55. The interval from any letter to the same letter above or

below, is called an eighth or OCTAVE. CHAPTER VII.


Art. 53. Intervals reckoned upon the diatonic scale, are called dia-

Two sounds of the same pitch are called a unison. This is not strictly an interval, but it is classed as such. The interval from a note to the next degree above is called a second; as from C to D, from D to E, from E to F. There are the major and the minor second, among the diatonic intervals. The one consisting of a tone, the other of a half tone.

The interval from a note to two degrees above, is a THIRD; as from C to E, and from D to F.

Thirds also, are of two kinds, major and minor. The former, two tones; the latter, a tone and a half.

The interval from a note to three degrees above, is a FOURTH, As from C to F, or from F to B.

There are two. The perfect fourth, (two tones and a half,) and the sharp fourth (three tones.)

The interval from a note to four degrees above, is a Fifth, as from C to G. Perfect fifth, (three tones and a half,) and from B to F, flat fifth, (two tones and two half tones.)

The interval from a note to five degrees above, is a sixth. From C to A, major sixth, four tones and one half tone. From E to C, minor sixth, three tones and two half tones.

The interval from a note to six degrees above, is a seventh. As from
C to B, major seventh, consisting of five tones and one half tone. From
D to C, minor seventh, consisting of four tones and two semi-tones.

Art. 54. In naming intervals, we reckon both extremes; thus if we

THE MINOR SCALE. Art. 56. There is another scale called the MINOR SCALE, the characteristic of which, is its having but a half tone from two to three, and a whole tone from three to four. In these respects it differs from the scale which we have hitherto considered, and which in distinction from this, is called the MAJOR SCALE.

Art. 57. In its natural position, it commences with A. It has two forms.

Art. 58. There is a character called a NATURAL, used to contradict the effect of a sharp or flat, and to restore a note to the sound which it has in the natural scale. This is the form of it 64. ART. 59.

MINOR SCALE. No. 1. _a#e#e 의의의회의

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It will be seen that in No. one, the sixth and seventh a resharped in key, which is to be long continued, for sharps, fats and naturals to be ascending, and they are restored in descending.

introduced into the signature. In such cases, the syllables should conIn No. two, the seventh is sharped both ascending and descending. form to the new scale indicated.

Art. 60. The minor scale may be constructed upon any sound of the Art. 69. A sharp placed before four, generally, though not always, Chromatic Scale. By this means we have twelve different ones, of which serves to introduce the scale founded upon five of the original one. those whose signature is more than four sharps or four flats, are seldom Art. 70. A flat before seven, introduces the scale founded upon four used. We speak of these keys as A-minor, D-minor, F-minor, &c. of the original.

Art. 61. The manner of applying the numerals, is seen in art. 59. Art. 71. It is to be observed, that a natural may have the effect

Art. 62. The syllables commence with la and go up to la. The of a sharp, or Aat, as to its raising or depressing a sound, according as changes in termination which are requisite, are made according to the the note affected by it, has been previously made sharp or flat. rule in art. 40.

Art. 72. The effect of an accidental extends to every note of the same letter in the measure, but it is not continued beyond it, except when the last note of a measure is affected, and the first in the next

measure is the same letter. CHAPTER IX.



MODULATION. ART. 63. Psalm tunes are generally written mainly in one key, yet in common with other music, they admit of departures from the principal key into others nearly related to it. These changes of key constitute what is called MODULATION.

Art. 64. It is very common for instance, to make a transition from the principal key to the scale of its fifth or fourth, as from C to G or F. Also, from the principal key to the relative minor key, as from C to A-minor. Modulations may sometimes be made into more remote keys.

Art. 65. Modulations are introduced by means of sharps, flats and naturals, bringing into the harmony, notes foreign to the principal scale. These sharpe, flats and naturals, when not introduced into the signature, are called ACCIDENTALS.

Art. 66. Where the change of key is only for a few notes or measures, we make no change of syllables, except for the particular notes affected by the accidentals. These have a change of termination, according to the rule in art. 40.

Art. 67. But where the change of scale is decided and continued for a considerable time, the syllables should be all changed accordingly.

Art, 68. It is common where a modulation takes place into a new

Art. 73. A Brace is used to connect the staves upon which the difserent parts are written.

ART. 74. A DOUBLE BAR shews the end of a strain.

ART. 75. A PAUSE shews that a note is to be prolonged beyond its usual time.

Art. 76. A repeat | requires the repetition of the strain.

Art. 77. A slur or TIE connects notes to be sung to the same syllable. It sometimes indicates the legato style. Art. 78. A CLOSE or ENDING

li shews the end of a tune or piece of music.

Art. 79. Staccato marks ili placed over notes, require them to be performed in a short detached manner. The word staccato is also used for the same purpose.

Art. 80. LEGATO is the opposite of the last, and signifies a smooth, gliding manner, with the notes at full length




ART. 81. Ornamental notes are sometimes introduced in music which fourth line of their staff, and the Treble a note on the fourth line of do not belong to the essential melody. They are called APPOGIATURES theirs, which is D in both cases, when this note is sounded by them reswhen they occur on the accented part of the measure, and they borrow pectively, it is heard in two different points of pitch, varying from each their time from the note before which they are placed. If that note be other a whole scale or octave. dotted, the appogiature takes two thirds of its time, if not, one half. Art. 88. There was formerly used another clef, called the C clef,

When they occur on the unaccented part of the measure, these orna which was applied to the Tenor part, shewing it in its proper pitch. It mental notes are called AFTER NOTES, and they borrow their time from is very much to be regretted that this clef has gone out of use. the preceding note.

Very little practical inconvenience will be felt by singers, however, from the use of the G clef in the Tenor, if the fact is borne in mind that it represents that part an octave too high, and provided, moreover, that

Tenor singers, especially leaders, do not take it into their heads to sing CHAPTER XI.

the Treble, than which, no practice can be more abominable.

Art. 89. It is not uncommon in the country, for players of instruPITCH AND EXTENT OF DIFFERENT VOICES–EXPLANA- ments, flutes and fiddles for instance, to play the Tenor as if it were

TION OF CLEFS, AND THE RELATION OF NOTES IN Treble. Such persons ought to be made to understand that this is an DIFFERENT PARTS.

outrage upon common sense. It should be played an octave lower.

ART. 90. Sometimes ladies indulge themselves in the delightful recreART. 82. Psalm tunes are commonly written in four parts, viz: First

ation of singing Tenor as if it were 'Treble; they ought to be seated TREBLE, SECOND TREBLE, TENOR and BASE.

among the men. ART. 83. The First Treble is sung by the highest voices of women. Art. 91. Below is exhibited the pitch of the parts, respectively. The second by boys, and the lowest voices of women. The Tenor by

No. 1. the highest voices of men, and the Base by the lowest.

No. 2. No. 3.

No. 4. ART. 84, The Base part is written upon the staff according to the 1st. & 2nd. TREBLE.

TREBLE: F clef, €:.

ART. 85. The two Trebles and the Tenor are written according to the G clef But the Tenor is to be understood as being an octave

BASE. lower in the same position upon the staff, than the Treble.

Art. 86. Men's voices are naturally an octave lower than women's.
Thus, when G, for instance, is sounded upon the third string of the vio-
lin, and the Tenor and Treble singers are called upon to sound the same

TENOR. pitch, the former give it an octave lower, that is, in unison with the open

# fourth string of the instrument, while the latter give the pitch in unison with the note sounded by the instrument.

Art. 87. Again, if the Tenor and Treble voices sing the same part, they sing in octaves to each other. If the Tenor have a note on the In the scale, at No. 1, all the parts are in strict unison as to pitch.

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