At No. 2, the note C is precisely the same sound, in all the parts. no, is a DIMINUENDO or decreasing tone, denoted by dim. or

At No. 3, there is the interval of an octave between the Treble and Art. 97. A tone commencing piano, increasing to forte and then Tenor, and between the Tenor and Base.

diminishing to piano, is the swelling or swELL, denoted by At No. 4, is shewn how the two clefs, as used for Treble and Base, connect with each other. The note united in the two parts, is the same Art. 98. A sudden crescendo is marked < or <>. pitch, and the lower staff shews the Tenor in unison with the Base.

Art. 99. A sudden diminuendo is marked > or fz or ss. This sign is an abbreviation of forzando or sforzando.

ART. 100. The following signs are applied to long passages as well

as to single notes, viz: cres. dim. and CHAPTER XII.


CHAPTER XIV. ART. 92. There are commonly reckoned five degrees of strength or loudness of sound, viz: very loud, loud, medium, soft, very soft. These

THE SINGING SCHOOL. are signified by the following terms and signs:

Medium, by mezzo; abbreviated, m.
Loud, by forte; abbreviated, f.

Art. 101. The following remarks are designed for the assistance of Very loud, by fortissimo; abbreviated, jf.

Teachers, who need any, in conducting a course of instruction under the Soft, by piano ; abbreviated, p.

ordinary circumstances of a New England singing school.

ART. 102. The object of the common singing school in the country, Very soft, by pianissimo; abbreviated, pp. ART. 93. These varieties of force or loudness with the characters

is to prepare a choir for the musical part of divine service. which denote them, are applied not only to single notes, but to whole

Art. 103. Old and young, practiced singers and unpracticed learners strains, and sometimes to whole pieces of music.

join in the school. Some have learned all they know about music, within ten years, some within twenty, and some within a hundred. There are also not a few just out of leading strings.

Art. 104. All claim the privilege of learning to sing, and all hope to CHAPTER XIII.

have a seat in the choir. The teacher is expected to make them all sing.

Of course, he must pursue a different method from that which would be DYNAMICS CONTINUED.

proper, if sufficient time were allowed to complete the musical education

of each individual. Art. 94. A tone which is of uniform force throughout its whole du Art. 105. The number of lessons is usually from 20 to 30. The ration, is called an ORGAN TONE.

teacher will apportion the time to Theory and Practice, in such a manART. 95. A tone which commences piano and gradually increases to ner as to secure, if possible, the main object of the school as stated in Art, forte, is a CRESCENDO or increasing tone, denoted by cres. or by this 102. character

Art. 106. The best way to commence a course of lessons is to exART. 96. A tone commencing forte and gradually diminishing to pia- || plain the general principles as laid down in Chap. I. The various dis


XV tinctions in sound may be made perfectly intelligible by means of the Art. 119. Explain sextuple measure - representing it as compound voice ; though on many accounts a violin is to be preferred.

triple measure. It is not worth while to try to beat it, until you have ocArt. 107. Exhibit upon the blackboard* the different forms of notes casion to introduce tunes in that movement. Show the two varieties upon explaining their relative value-also, dots, triplets.

the blackboard, viz : and G. Art. 108. State and illustrate the principle mentioned in Art. 7. Art. 120. Sing the scale part of the lesson, so that all may underArt. 109. Exhibit and explain the different forms of rests, with the stand what succession of sounds the term implies. effects of the dots as applied to them.

ART. 121. About the third lesson will be a good time to examine the Art. 110. State the matter of Art. 23, and introduce the singing of individual scholars as to their capacity to learn to sing. The true questhe scale. It is not yet the proper time to exhibit it, but the singing of tion to be settled in regard to each one is not, whether he might by posit

may be commenced in order to give variety and interest to the lesson. sibility learn to sing, if there were time and labor enough bestowed upon The above will furnish material for one lesson.

him, but whether upon the whole it is probable he can go on with Art. 111. After questioning the class upon what has hitherto been the class in the present course of lessons. The best test of the requisite stated to them, and making perfectly sure that it is fully comprehended, degree of capacity is the singing of the scale. If a pupil can do this in the next step will be to explain measures, and the divisions which are an endurable manner he may be suffered to proceed; if not, he should supposed to be made of them into what are called parts of measures. be dismissed. The teacher ought to be cautious not to mistake timidity Care must be taken here not to convey the idea that all measures are in a candidate for want of capacity. actually divided into such and such parts, but that to assist in determin- Art. 122. By the fourth lesson, the school ought to be furnished ing their duration, a division of this kind is supposed, marked by beating with their singing books, so that the teacher may select portions of tunes, time. Some of the evil consequences of entertaining the idea that this for exercises in Rhythm. division is real may be found stated in Art. 173.

Art. 123. There is no better plan, practicable in the common singing Art. 112. Explain the beats—let the class beat with counting-also school, than for the class to sing portions of tunes selected by the with the words, downward, upward, inward, outward, according to their teacher as exercises in Time--that is singing the notes with reference to proper application.

their duration merely, all upon the same pitch. This will save the timeArt. 113. Explain accent—and let the class beat time, using the consuming process of writing upon the board. And it obviates the words, loud, soft, accordingly.

necessity of having exercises, composed expressly for the purpose, occuArt. 114. Let them sing in double measure, one note to each beat, pying the room in the books which is wanted for other purposes. accenting properly.

Art. 124. It is now time to introduce the subject of Melody, as laid Art. 115. .Write these notes in two varieties of double measure,


down in the chapter on that subject. one directly under the other, as in Art. 19.

Art. 125. Explain and exhibit the staff. Art. 116. Let the class understand, as you go along, that there may Art. 126. Exhibit the scale, upon the black board, with the letters, be as many varieties of double measure as there are different kinds of numerals, and syllables. notes, and the same is true of triple, quadruple, and sextuple measure.

Art. 127. Illustrate the relationship between the first and eighth Art. 117. Introduce triple measure by the same means, showing the sounds of the scale. A violin will furnish the means.

It may be done three varieties in common use.

thus : Art. 118. Introduce quadruple measure, in its two varieties.

A string of a given thickness and length extended upon the violin with * It is taken for granted that the teacher makes use of the blackboard.

a given tension, will upon being made to vibrate, give forth a sound

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which is called G. Half that length of string will vibrate with twice the good way is to let the class sing up to 5 and stop there. Let the teacher rapidity of the other, and will give out a sound which is also called G. then sound 3 distinctly with his own voice and desire them to keep that And these two strings upon being set in vibration at the same time will in mind as the point at which they should aim. Perseverance will finally so blend their sounds that it will be impossible to distinguish between prevail. them. The reason is that the vibrations of the longer string coincide Art. 133. Nothing can be of more importance than to establish the severally with every other vibration of the shorter. This coincidence scale with the most rigid accuracy in the outset. Any negligence in this may be illustrated upon the blackboard in this manner:

respect with produce immense evil.

ART. 134. Show the extended scale - as in art. 32.

Art. 135. Exercise upon the scale with its extension both up and down. It will be well to change the pitch occasionally to A or Bor D, especially if the class have fallen from the right pitch, as they are sure to do at first. You

may then revert to the true pitch of C, and the class

will come up to it readily. The deep black perpendicular bars show the vibrations of the long ART. 136. Exercise upon different sounds of the scale extended, string, and the smaller perpendicular bars those of the short string. skipping about irregualarly. In order to enable the singers to strike 3 from Every alternate one coincides with the black bars.

1, let them sing one, two, three, then one, three. Pursue the same course The two sounds are at the same distance from each other, as to pitch, with the other sounds. as 8 of the scale is from 1.

Art. 137. Four will often be made too flat as well as eight — correct Art. 128. The proportion of the vibrations to each other, in any it - make them open their mouths — and give the fa an open sound, sounds which are the distance of a fifth from each other as C to G for in- straight from the vocal organs. Three will be made flat sometimes, but stance, is as 2 to 3, — other intervals are in other proportions, but it is oftener in other keys than in C. not necessary to exhibit them to the class. The only thing important is Art. 138. Give a definition of an interval — the violin may furnish to give them an idea of the nature of the octave.

the means of a good illustration. By the help of that, show the difference Art. 129. Explain the Clefs and their uses. These Clefs were orig- between a tone and a half-tone or semitone. inally the letters whose places they fix upon the staff. Thus the character Art. 139. Describe the order of intervals in the scale. Let attencalled the G clef, was originally the letter G, but it has undergone various tion be directed to the letters, numerals, and syllables, between which the transformations until it has arrived at its present shape.

half-tone intervals occur. Art. 130. Explain the application of the letters to the degrees of the Art. 140. You may prove to the class the fact that the order of interstaff — of the numerals to the sounds of the scale -- and point out the vals in the scale is founded in nature, by firstly referring to their own uses of the syllables.

testimony that it is agreeable to the ear, -- and, secondly, by showing, Art. 131. Let the class practice the scale a portion of each lesson from the fingering of the violin, that a scale consisting of whole tone inwith the syllables, and also with one syllable, la. The other portion tervals only, is very disagreeable. of the time of the lesson should be employed in exercises in time.

Art. 141. Explain the use of sharps and flats. Art. 132. A trouble will arise in most classes at this stage. It will Art. 142. Construct upon the black-board the chromatic scale — be found difficult to get them to sing 8 sharp enough with the syllable, do. with its numerals, letters and figures — with the manner in which they To remedy the evil, it will be well to substitute la for 8 sometimes. A are each spoken of or read — as sharp 1, flat 5 – D# — Bb &c.

that part


xvii Call upon the class to point out the corresponding sounds in the ascend at an earlier period than this, though the explanation of the terms and ing and descending scale.

signs peculiar to Dynamics, need not be exhibited until now. Art. 143. You will before this time, have introduced exercises in Art. 149. After the key of C has been pretty thoroughly studied melody from easy tunes in the key of C. The second treble part is gen you may proceed to transpose the scale to G. Select such keys as you. erally most convenient. The Bass ought also to be used as an exercise think best to have well studied – and practice them. You cannot in a by the whole school, for it is important that the two clefs should be fully common term make them read in all keys. comprehended by all. It is best at first to sing these exercises without Art. 150. Be sure to make them comprehend the nature of the reference to rhythm.

changes of notes required in transposition. Exhibit each scale before Art. 144. Let the scale be sung in various kinds of measure.

singing in it, and let it remain upon the board in view of the school until ART. 145. Let the second treble of suitable tunes in C be sung in you change your key. time and tune.

Art. 151. Explain intervals as described in Chap. VII. Art. 146. It is now the proper stage to distribute the voices into the Art. 152. Exhibit the minor scale — and describe its peculiarities. four parts. A few voices will be found suitable for 'Tenor,- a few are Art. 153. Explain modulation when you have an instance of it in enough. The rest of the men belong to the Base. The boys whose practice — and describe accidentals when you meet them. voices have not changed will sing second treble. All the little girls will Art. 154. Present the subjects in Chap. XI. sing second

of the rest of the females nearly one half should belong to . Art. 155. After some practice in the different keys, the class may

the residue to the first treble. Voices, peculiarly fitted for commence singing words. Let each tune be sung by the syllables until any part, should be required to sing it, whether they are disposed or the music is familiar before the words are applied. Dot. All those ladies who have an incurable propensity to flat, should be Art. 156. Explain the subject of articulation — something in this way. placed in the second, or dismissed altogether, which is better.

Words are composed of vowels and consonants. The most common form Art. 147. Proceed to practice tunes in C. with the syllables and fre of a syllable, embraces three elements of speech, viz. a consonant sound quently with la alone, beginning with the easiest — and learning thesecond first, then a principal vowel sound, then a consonant sound at the close. treble first. Then add the base; then the first treble and tenor - make For example the word, bead is composed, first, of the consonant sound, the scholars describe the names and uses of every musical character to b, next the vowel, e, lastly the consonant, d. The teacher may exhibit be found in the tune, viz. the brace the staff — the clefs — the notes the articulation of the, b, by attempting to give utterance to it, without and rests – the kind of measure the number and application of the opening the lips. A guttural noise will be heard, which is the proper beats. Let them do all this before they begin to sing.

There are gen

sound of that letter. The d may be shown in a similar manner. The erally two or three smart little girls and now and then an intelligent lad class should be told that a syllable is to be sung or prolonged upon the or two, who will answer all your questions if you suffer them.

It is a

vowel sound, and that the form of it is not allowed to change in the slightgood way to have all the seats numbered and then after proposing your est degree during the length of the note or notes belonging to the syllaEnquiry, let no one answer until you call upon a particular number. This ble. The consonants are to be given as short as possible, but with smartwill secure the attention of all and there will be emulation excited, ness and force. which will do great good.

Art. 157. A syllable may consist of one vowel sound alone — as, oh, ART. 148. You


introduce earlier than this, if thought best, the ah. Attention is to be directed to giving it correctly, and holding it in the matters treated of under the head of Dynamics — and such musical the same form, throughout the note. characters and tunes as may be useful. It will be well to practice the Art. 158. A syllable may consist of a consonant and a vowel

- as, scale in the different degrees of force - and in the various kinds of tone, day, me, do, fa,- or of a vowel first - as, add, in, up, at.


Art. 159. There is in every syllable, a principal vowel sound, upon sense requires it. The time of pauses is not added to the length of the which the time of the note belonging to it, is employed. Many syllables measures, but is a part of the time of the note preceding them-or, in have more than one vowel (letter) but all but one are generally silent — other words, you shorten the note before the pause, sufficiently to furas in the words, day, rain, bean. As to the pronunciation of these sylla-. nish the time required for the pause. Thus when there is no rest at the bles, they might as well be spelt, da rân bin. The silent letters will be end of a strain, you make the last note in the line, less than its nominal disregarded of course.

value - so at any required pause. ART. 160. Some syllables however, which have two vowels, have a ART. 166. BREATHING. The breath should be inhaled quickly, and sound different from that of any single vowel. Thus, voice -- fear -- but where possible to the full capacity of the lungs. It should be expended all such words have a single sound upon which they are prolonged. In without waste, and in such a manner that it may all contribute to the fulvoice it is the sound of o in the word on which is dwelt upon, what comes ness of voice. Many persons fail to fill the lungs, and besides that, waste after that should be brought together as much as possible into one sound, half their breath, for want of good management. Of course they don't which should be articulated like a consonant. The same remarks apply sing more than half a measure before the breath is gone. Sad work is to the words, fear, tear, here — the e is the prolonged sound. Also the made with words through this fault. A habit arises of breathing at reguwords there, hire, roar.

lar intervals, which does more mischief than any other one thing. Art. 161. Many words have several consonants together, sometimes ART. 167. GROUPING OR PHRASING Words. The language should one or more of them is silent, but often, they are all to be articulated, be connected in the breath according to its connections in phrases and The endeavor should be to crowd them as much as possible into one sound, parts of sentences. and give them with great quickness and force, by no means, however ART. 168. The time which respiration requires, (for it amounts to a slighting any of them, but making each one distinctly audible. Perhaps good deal especially in unpracticed singers,) must be borrowed from the there is no worse word to sing than hosts.

note preceding each breath, in the same manner as pauses. Art. 162. Many single letters have a compound sound, as a in the

Art. 169. It will be many times, impracticable to inhale a full breath, - hare; y and i, in try, high. There is a sound of e heard owing to the rapidity of the moveinent, or the shortness of the potes. In after the principal sound which may readily be perceived, upon speaking such cases the singer must be content with what he can get. the words with a slight extension of the vowel, – i sounds like a-e - - (the ART. 170. In regard to all these stops, pauses and breathings, the a as in father) — a sounds like a-e. In these and similar cases you take general rule is to commence every measure and every note, strictly in its the first sound as the principal, and dwell upon it through all the notes proper place in the time, according to the regular beating, however you belonging to the syllable, and then regard the other element of the sound

may end them. as coming into the character of a consonant, so far as to require a rapid ART. 171. ACCENT AND Emphasis. If the accent of music conform enunciation. Unless this is done, the syllable becomes double, in fact, to that of the words it is well; but if not it must be made to. two syllables, and ought to have two notes.

Art. 172. The important words should be loudest as in reading. Art. 163. Let the teacher analyze various words — and cause the Emphatic words should be emphasised in singing. Little, unimportant pupils to do it. Have them point out the principal vowel sound.

words, as articles, prepositions, conjunctions, &c., should be sung lightly. ART. 164. Caution the class against carrying the last letter of a word Art. 173. Expression, Taste, &c. A country choir usually consists forward to the following word. The rule in opposition to this practice, of from 25 to 75 individuals, singers and players upon divers instruments. is, to Finish erery syllable on the note thnt belongs to it.

They are of all sorts, good, bad, and indifferent. It is obvious that with Art 165. Pauses. A pause is to be made at the end of every strain; such a company, all that can be done in the way of expression, must be also, whenever there is a comma or other stop in the words; also where the of a very general nature, such as is pointed out in these rules.

word may

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