Cathars in Question
Cathars have long been regarded as posing the most organised challenge to orthodox Catholicism in the medieval West, even as a "counter-Church" to orthodoxy in southern France and northern Italy. Their beliefs, understood to be inspired by Balkan dualism, are often seen as the most radical among medieval heresies. However, recent work has fiercely challenged this paradigm, arguing instead that "Catharism" is a construct, mis-named and mis-represented by generations of scholars, and its supposedly radical views were a fantastical projection of the fears of orthodox commentators. This volume brings together a wide range of views from some of the most distinguished international scholars in the field, in order to address the debate directly while also opening up new areas for research. Focussing on dualism and anti-materialist beliefs in southern France, Italy and the Balkans, it considers a number of crucial issues. These include: what constitutes popular belief; how (and to what extent) societies of the past were based on the persecution of dissidents; and whether heresy can be seen as an invention of orthodoxy. At the same time, the essays shed new light on some key aspects of the political, cultural, religious and economic relationships between the Balkans and more western regions of Europe in the Middle Ages. Antonio Sennis is Senior Lecturer in Medieval History at University College London Contributors: John H. Arnold, Peter Biller, Caterina Bruschi, David d'Avray, Jörg Feuchter, Bernard Hamilton, R.I. Moore, Mark Gregory Pegg, Rebecca Rist, Lucy J. Sackville, Antonio Sennis, Claire Taylor, Julien Théry-Astruc, Yuri Stoyanov
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1 Questions about the Cathars
2 The Paradigm of Catharism or the Historians Illusion
3 The Cathar Middle Ages as a Methodological and Historiographical Problem
Localism and Resistance to Roman Clericalism
Local Holy Men and Women or Organized Religious Group? New Evidence from Inquisitorial Notarial and Historiographical Sources
6 Cathar Links with the Balkans and Byzantium
7 Pseudepigraphic and Parabiblical Narratives in Medieval Eastern Christian Dualism and their Implications for the Study of Catharism
8 The Cathars from NonCatholic Sources
Ranier Sacconi Explains Cathars
Moneta of Cremonas Cathars
Heretics and Heresy in Papal Correspondence
An Alternative to Cathars?
The Debate of April 2013 in Retrospect
14 Goodbye to Catharism?
Adversus Catharos Albi Albigensian crusade albigeois Anselm apocryphal argument Baziège beliefs Bernard Gui Bernard of Castanet Biget Biller bishop Bogomil boni homines Bruschi Bulgaria Byzantine Carcassonne catharisme Cathars Catholic Christian Dualist Church Collection Doat consolamentum context Corruption of Angels debate described discussion dissidence dixit doctrine document Dominican Dondaine dualist dualist heresy Durand of Huesca early edition evidence example Fanjeaux groups Grundmann Hamilton heretici hereticorum heretics historians holy Ibid ideas Innocent inquisition inquisition records inquisitors Italy Ketzer App l’hérésie L’histoire l’inquisition Languedoc Latin M. G. Pegg manuscript medieval Middle Ages Moneta Montauban Montségur narrative orthodox Paris Patarenes Paulician Persecuting Peter Peter of Verona pope Praedicatorum preaching pseudepigraphical quod R. I. Moore Raimon Ranier references religion religious ritual Sacconi Saint-Félix Šanjek scholars sect Slavonic sources Summa texts theology thirteenth century Toulouse tradition translation treatise twelfth century vols Waldensians western women XIIIe siècle Zerner