be discovered which differ widely from those which are already known, and that the true readings of some passages may lie concealed in those citations of ancient authors which have eluded the vigilance of Porson and other critics. It is probable that the printed and unprinted remains of the ancient grammarians would repay to an editor of these plays the labour of a minutely attentive examination. In the mean time, much may be done in a small way by a careful and reiterated perusal of the text. Although most of the observations contained in the following pages are of very little consequence when separately considered, perhaps they may derive some value from their number. Nothing but want of room has prevented us from enlarging the number very considerably. We request the reader, before he lays aside this article, to compare the following corrections with the received text. Suppl. 92. καινών. V. S03. σφάλλει. V. 393. εκούσά γ.. V. 408. το πλείον. V.455. νυμφεύσεται. V. 543. κρυφήσονται. V. 726. τοιόνδε τοι. V. 745. Οι τόξ' επεντείνοντες. V. 767. Δεινόν μεν ούν, V. 782. εμοι δε δή παίδων. V. 797, κοίν' εις Αίδου. V. 842. είπε '. V. 1020. Φερσεφόνας (Φερσεφονείας Aldus). Ιph. Aul. 141. αλσώδεις έζη. V. 193. τον Oιλέως. V. 194. τας Σαλαμίνος. V.675. εστήξεις. Vv. 873, 880, 1131. κτενείν. V. 1358. μαχεί. V. 1438. μήτ' ουν συ. V. 1450. έπος τι. V. 1458. δόλω γ, αγεννώς τ'. V. 1484. ή χρεων. Iph. Taur. 4. του δ. V. 105. θεού τε. V. 311. απέψη. V. 375. ιούσα Πηλέως. V.400. δονακοχλόαν. V.489. τάς τ' εμάς. V. 658. ταυτά. V. 848. δόμοισιν. V. 856. ώ ξύγγον'. V. 932. ηγγέλθης. V. 950. παρέχον, οίκων όντες. V. 961, 9. εις δίκης | έστην. V. 954. είπων δ'. V. 1014. πόλισμα Παλλάδος. V. 1064. καλόν τοι γλώσσ'. V. 1206. κάκκομιζόντων γε. V. 1910. ξυναντώσιν. V. 1995. Δηλίοις. V. 1435. ποϊ δη διωγμον.

SUPPLICES. V. 21. "Αδραστος, όμμα δάκρυστίγγων όδε, Κείται. The comma after öde ought to be expunged. The words õde xeitai are to be translated Lies here. So in the Hecuba, V. 486. Αύτη πέλας σου, νώτέχουσ' επί χθού, Ταλθύβιε, κείται. In English, Here she lies. . Ιph. Taur. 267. "Ελεξ.

ούχ οράτε; δαίμονές τινες Θάσσουσιν οίδε. Some gods are sitting here. It is proper to admonish learners, that the pronouns öde and otros are frequently to be rendered Here, and still more frequently Hither. In the Heraclide, the Chorus says to Iolaus, V. 81. “Οδ' εκ τίνος γης και γέρον τετράπτολιν Ξύνοικος ήλθες λαόν; So the passage is pointed in the two earliest editions. In the third edition, that is to say, the Basil edition of 1514, 8 is followed by a note of interrogation, as if the meaning were, Is this the man? The ancient punctuation has never been restored. The nominative plural oide, when joined to a verb which signifies mo. tion to a place, is often corrupted into ώδε. See Soph. Oed. Col. 111. wbere Brunck ought to have adopted the reading of his Membranæ, and


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of the old editions : Σίγα. πορεύονται γαρ οίδε δή τινες Χρόνω παλαιοί, σής έδρας επισκόποι. So Eurip. Οr. 348. Και μην βασιλεύς όδε δή στείχη Μενέλαος άναξ. Here also most of the editions read δε.

V. 37. Κήρυξ προς άστυ, δεύρο Θησέα καλών. Μarkland and Mr. Gaisford, in their notes on this line, point out several verses, in which the last syllable of the accusative singular of nouns ending in ETE is made short, contrary to the ordinary practice of the Attic poets. To these instances we are inclined to add Εurip. El. 409. "Έλθ' ώς πάλαιών τροφίλ εμού φίλου πατρός. The common reading is παλαιόν τροφών, which we apprehend not to be better Greek than παλαιόν παρθένον. . Compare va 16. Τον μεν πατρός γεραιός εκκλέπτει τροφεύς. In v. 276. of the same play, the last syllable of the accusative plural is made short: 'Ελθών δε δή πώς φονίας αν κτάνοι πατρός;

V. 50. Ρυσά δε σαρκών πολιών καταδρύματα χειρών. Read καταδρύμματα Xespoñ. So v. 774 many editions, including that now before us, read λελειμένος with a single M.

V. 87. Τίνων γόων ήκουσα, και στέρνων κτύπον, Νεκρών τε θρήνους, τώνδ' ανακτόρων άπο Ηχούς ιούσης; Read, Τίνων γόους ήκουσα. In order to establish this alteration, we will subjoin the Aldine reading of a few passages of our poet, in which the termination of a substantive has been improperly assimilated to that of an adjoining word. Some examples of the same depravation of the termination of an adjective will be given in a subsequent page. Phen. 739. Τί δ' ει καθιππεύσαιμιν 'Αργείων στρατών (στρατόν); Suppl. 16. νεκρούς δε τους όλωλότας δορί Θάψαι θέλουσι τωνδε μητέρων (μητέρες), χθονί. Ιbid. 25. Νεκρόν (νεκρων) κομιστήν, ή λόγοισιν, ή δορός Ρώμη γενέσθαι. Ιbid. 1151. Χαλκέοισιν όπλους Δαναιδων στρατηλατών (στρατηλάταν). In this verse, the common reading is two degrees removed from the true reading, Δαναιδάν στρατηλάταν. Tro. 685. Ο μεν, παρ' οϊαχ, ο δ' (38' Aldus) επί λαίφεσιν βεβώς, ο δ' άντλων (άντλον) είργων ναός. Ηel. 454. "Αγγεκλoν είσω δεσπότοισι (δεσπόταισι) τοϊσι σοις. Ιon. 1181. 'Ην δη φερόντων μόχθους (μόχθος) αργυρηλάτους Χρυσέας τε φιάλας.

V. 16. οίσθ' ην στρατείαν έστράτευσ' όλεθρίαν; Eferri potest sine interrogatione. M. Perhaps we may say, Efferri debet sine interrogaέχone. So Iph. Taur. 517. Τροίαν ίσως οίσθ', ής απανταχού λόγος. Αndrom. 564. "Έριν δε την κατ' οίκον οίσθά που κλύων. Βacch. 462. Τον άνθεμώδη Τμώλον οίσθά που κλύων. Heracl. 89. Τον Ηράκλειον Ίστε που παραστάτης Ιόλαον. ου γαρ σωμ' ακήρυκτον τόδε. The enclitic που has not prevented the two last examples from being printed with the mark of interroga. tion. Mr. Porson has retained the interrogation in Hec. 239. Oloh' ηλίκ' ήλθες Ιλίου κατάσκοπος, and has omitted it in v. 994. Οίσθ' ούν 'Αθάνας Ιλίας ίνα στέγαι.

V. 133. Τω δ' εξέδωκας παίδας 'Αργείων σίθεν; Τους pro τω optime conveniret, si quemadmodum pro rívo, ita ross pro tios ponerent Tragici. Quod non factum puto. M. Soph. Trach. 986. Παρά τοϊσι βροτών κείμαι;

V. 149. ο δ' οιδίπου παίς, τίνι τρόπω Θήβας λιπών. Παις, φuod ab omnibus eremplaribus aberat, inserendum putavi metri gratia. G. Mr. Gaisford's emendation is confirmed by the authority of Mr. Porson, who has collected several instances of the same omission.*

A person who is not familiarly acquainted with the rude and inartificial economy of the Greek drama, can bardly read this verse without exclaiming, in the words of Mr.

G G3

V. 159.

V. 158. Το δε πλέον; ήλθον 'Αμφιάρεω γε προς βίαν. Instead of τί δε πλέον, Mr. Porson (Praef. ad Hec. p. 40.) silently reads ti ideñor, which reading Mr. Gaisford has admitted into the text. It is certain, that in tragic iambics, a monosyllable which is incapable of beginning a verse, as av, rap, di, miv, ti, tis, is very rarely employed as the second syllable of a tribrach or dactyl. To the best of our knowledge, Æschylus affords no example of this license, and Sophocles only two: Phil. 999. Ουδέποτέ γ' ουδ' ήν χρή με πάν παθείν κακόν. Ιbid. 1392. Ουδέποθ' εκόντα και üoti tøv T polar idsav. Perhaps, however, in these verses oudénote is to be considered as one word, as it is commonly represented. In the remains of Euripides, we have observed the following examples : I. Or. 2. Oude πάθος, ουδε συμφορά θεήλατος. It is obvious that ουδέ may be considered as one word, as well as otSÉ TOTI. We shall hereafter endeavour to shew, that the rhythm of the verse is not much improved by considering oude as a disyllable. II. Phæn. 541. Evrder. yåp icov, róuerpos ár Openous équ. III. Suppl. 368. Ei yap éri tépuce, xai tò maior fueño xaxwr. IV. Iph. Aul. 308. Ουδε σε φέρειν γ' άπασιν "Ελλησιν κακά. The common reading is, Ουδε σε φέρειν δει πάσιν. V. Ιbid. 498. Ει δέ τι κόρης σης θεσφατων μίτιστι σοι. VI. Bacch. 192. 'Ara' oík ouobws åv å Osos topino igor. The true reading seems to be, 'Ar' oux òpolar Beds år topese éxos. VII. Ibid. 285. 'Note δια τούτον ταγάς ανθρώπους έχειν. Perhaps Διά τούτον ώστε.It may be observed, that in five of these seven verses, as well as in the verse now under consideration, the foot which we consider as licentious, is the first foot of the verse.t

Sneer, Pray, Mr. Puff, how came Sir Christopher Hatton never to ask that question before? The ignorance of Theseus is more surprising, because it appears from the beginning of the play, that his mother Acthra, for an old lady, was reasonably well versed in the history of Thebes. There is, however, a greater deiect in the character of Theseus than bis inattentiou to foreign affairs :--we mean, the total absence of courtesy and delicacy in luis conduct towards a great prince in distress. In one passage, (F. 513,) Adrastus, who very naturally wishes to ease his mind by railing at the representative of bis enemy, is roughly interrupted by Theseus before he has time to pronounce three words. In another place, (v. 590,) be is desired to keep out of the way, that he may not do mischiet by his unlucky presence. It must be confessed, that this is very different from the stile of Racine, and, to say the trutlı, from the stile of Racine's master, in his conversations with James the Second. Markland is sensible of the incivility of Theseus, but attributes it, in his second edition, to the poet's dislike of the Argives. See his note on v. 127.

* Quam ex emendatione addidisti, says Mr. Porson, (Praef. ad Hec. p. 17.) particula T: (vel qe) si in MSS. omnibus reperiretur, ejicienda esset : quippe quae nunquam secundu pedis trisyllabi syllaba esse possit. Nir. Porson notices, as exceptions to his rule, Aristoph. Plut. 315, 403. He passes over in silence v. 421 of the same play: OÜTE θεός, ούτ' άνθρωπος ώστ' απολώλατον. So also Ran. 807, ούτε γαρ 'Αθηναίοις ξυνέβαινεν Aloxúaos. Among the fragments of Alcais preserved by Arbenæus, we find three verses beginning witli ούτε. Ρ. 23, Ε. Ούτε γάρ ύπνος δήπουθεν ουδέν' αν λάβοι. Ρ. 125, F. Ούτε φιάλη. μετείχε δ' αμφοίν τον ρυθμούν. Ρ. 562, Ούτε θεός, ούτ' άνθρωπος, ούτ' &BEATEpos. Mr. Porson has not noticed the following fragment of Menander ( apud Athen. p. 364, Ε.): Εγώ μεν ούν, ών γε θεός, ουκ είασα την οσφύν αν έπί τον βωμόν επιθείται

Ει μη καθηγιζεν τις άμα την έγχελυν. . + In Brunk's edition of Aristophanes we have been able to discover only thirteen instances of the license in question in any foot except the first. Of these at least tour are corrupt. I. Ach. 392. 'S25 oxitov av ågày cŪTOS củn to digetal. The particle is omitted by Suidas v. Sicudos. The true reading, we oxñter ayày, is pointed out by Mr. Porson

V. 220.


V. 220. Όστις κόρας μεν, θεσφάτους Φοίβου ζυγείς, Ξένοισιν ώδ' έδωκας, ως ζώντων θεών. The δε which answers to this μεν occurs in v. 209. Εις δε στρατείαν πάντας Αργείους άγων. We must read λαμπρόν τε ν. 299, and ευδαιμονούντάς τ' ν. 225. The words χρήν γαρ ούτε σώματα, ν. 223, together with the five following verses, form a parenthesis.

V. 258. "Αγ, ώ γεραιαι, στείχετε, γλαυκής χλόην Αυτού λισούσαι φυλλάδος καταστροφή. Read, 'Αλλ', ώ γεραιαι, as Τη ν. 359. 'Αλλ', ώ γεραιαι, σέμν' αφαιρείτε στέφη Μητρός, πρός οίκους ώς εν Αιγέως άγω. *

V. 296. Αισχρόν γέλεξας, χρήστ’ επικρύστεις φίλους. Mr. Hermann's emendation, χρήστ' έση κρύσταν φίλους, is specious. See Erfurdt ad Oed. Tyr. 635, which verse may perhaps be read as follows: Δράσαι δικαιού, τοϊνδί γ' ασοκρίνας κακούν.

V. 346. Δράσων τάδ' είμι, και νεκρούς έκλύσομαι, Λόγοισι σείσων. Read, Λόγοισι αείσας. So Iph. Taur. 1048. ΟΡ. Λάθρα δ' άνακτος, και ειδότος,

in Maty's Review, Vol. IV, p. 65. ΙΙ. Ιbid. 1909. Τί με συ κυνείς ; τί με συ δάκνεις. Read τι συ με. ΙΙΙ. Εφ. 20. 'Αλλ' ευρέ τιν' απόκινον από του δεσπότου. Perhaps wa ought to read την απόκινον. IV. Vesp. 767. Περί του και τι ληρείς και ταύθ' άπερ εκεί πράττετε. V. Αν. 1043. Συ δε γ' οίσί περ 'Οτοτύξιοι χρήσει τάχα. VI. Αν. 1614, Νή τον Ποσειδώ, ταύτά γε σύ (ταύτά γε τοι Παυ.) καλώς λέγεις. Mr. Porson (ad O reads ταυταγί" καλώς λέγεις. VΙΙ. Ιbid. 1364. Τον μεν πατέρα μη τύπτε" ταύτην δέ γε λαβών. The true reading is undoubtedly ταυτηνδι λαβών. VIII. Thesm. 8. Ουδ'. αρ δράν δεί μ' ; ουχ, άγ' αν ακούειν δέη. IX. ibid. 354. 'Αλλ' ουκέτ' αν έχoις. σα γαρ ήδης, εξέχεας άπαντα. X. Ran. 1436. Περί της πόλεως ήντιν' έχετoν σωτηρίαν. ΧΙ. Εccl. 1087. "Ελκοντε τους πλωτήρας αν απεκναίετε. ΧΙΙ. Ρlut. 227. Και δη βαδίζω, τούτο δε το κρεάδιον. The Ravenna MS. reads τούτο δή το κρεάδιον. We read τουτοδι κρεάδιον. ΧΙΙΙ. Ιbid. 813. Χαλκή γέγονε, τους δε πινακισκους τους σαπρούς. The same eleven comedies contain near fitty instances of this licence in the first fout of an iambic verse.

* Theseus, however, does not conduct his mother to the mansion of Aegeus, but takes her behind the scenes, where she changes her dress, and soon afterwards returns in the habit and character of the Theban herald. The competitors for the prize of tragedy at Athens, like the competitors for the prize of equine velocity at Newmarket, were compelled to observe several regulations, which were instituted for the purpose of preserving some degree of equality in their performances. The actors were not only assigned by lot to the several competitors, but the number which each competitor was allowed to employ was limited to three. See Isesychias, v. Népegos imionpitäv. In consequence of this regulation, when three characters were already on the stage, a fourth could not be introduced without allowing one of the three actors suflicient time to retire and change his dress. As the actors were not allowed to edge away at the top, like the confidant of Tilburina, it was always necessary to furnish the performer, whose services were required in a new capacity, with a decent reason for retiring. Thus, in the Edipus Coloneus of Sophocles, Ismene goes away to offer sacrifice at v. 509, and returns in the character of Theseus, atter about forty lines, during which interval (Edipus and Antigone remain on the stage. Soon atterwards, (v. 847,) while Edipus, Creon, and Antigone, are on the stage, Antigone is violently carried off by Creon's attendants, and returns as Theseus after about the same interval as before. It may be observed that, in this play, as in seve. ral others, it is impossible to distribute the parts to the three actors so as to give the whole of each part to the same actor. Theseus, at his second appearance, cannot chuse but be a difierent individual trour his first representative. In the same play, (iipus, Aprigone, Ismene, and Polynices, are on the stage wgether from v. 1249 to v. 11-16. But it is to be observed that Ismene is not only mute during the presence of Polynices, but that, in this part of the play, she does not speak a word from her entrance to lier exit. The poet was at liberty to employ as many mutes as lie thought proper. Perhaps this noic may appear somewhat long, and rather irrelevant. We can only say, that the type is small, and that the French critics, in their interpretation of the Nec quarta loqui persona taboret of Horace, have omitted to point out the origin of that rule. GG 4


δράσεις τάδε; ΙΦ. Πείσασα μύθοις. ου γαρ αν λάθοιμί γι. In the old editions of the Supplices, the contrary fault to that which we have just corrected, occurs in v. 542. Kάμοι μεν ήλθες δείν' άσοιλήσας έση. Μarkland reads απειλήσων on the authority of all the MSS. .

V. 469. Ει δ' έστιν εν τη, πριν θεού δύναι σέλας, Λύσαντα σίμια στεμμάτων μυστήρια, Τήσδ' εξελαύνειν. Although the common reading is defended by Musgrave, we do not hesitate to read with Markland, Ει δ' έστιν εν γη. We also read, Iph. Taur. 1454. 'Επώνυμον γης Ταυρικής, πόνων τε

In v. 481 of the Helena, Aldus reads : Λακεδαίμονος της δεύρο νοστήσασ' άσο. Mr. Porson refers to a similar error in 1902. (1193 Barnes.) of the Phænissæ.* Markland makes no observation on the expression τήσδ' εξελαύνειν, which occurs twice in the Andromache: ν. 651. “Ην χρήν σ' ελαύνειν τήνδ' υσές Νείλου ροας, Υσίς τι Φώσιν. ν. 710. Και σαϊς άτεκνος, ήν όδ' εξ ημών γεγως, Ελα δί οίκων τησδ' (τηνδ' MSS.) έπισσάσας κόμης. If τήνδ' is the true reading in these two passages, it probably ought to be adopted in the Supplices. We do not understand the expression.

V. 494. Συ δ' άνδρας εχθρούς, και θανόντας ωφελείς, Θάστων, κομίζων θ' ους ύβρις απώλεσεν. This is the reading of Markland's own editions, as well as of all the preceding editions. In the present edition, M. Gaisforu has admitted into the text two emendations proposed by Markland. In the first line, Mr. Gaisford reads, Συ δ' άνδρας εχθρούς, θεούς, θανόντας ωφελείς. With this reading, the truth of which seems to admit of no doubt, may be compared the Aldine lection of Androm. 1259. Todo do ήδη και θεός συνοικήσεις θεώ. In the following verse, Mr. Gaisford reads, ούς ύβρεις απώλεσαν. Mr. Porson and the Quarterly Reviewers prefer Musgrave's emendation, oύς ύβρισμαπώλεσεν. We believe that the plural ύβρεις occurs only three times in the tragedies : Bacch. 247, Heracl. 924, Merc. 741. In the first of these passages, we prefer ißesore ußeisen, and ύβρισμυβρίζων in the third. In the Heraclide, Heath and Musgrave read ißgor on account of the metre. Perhaps, however, the true reading is, "Εσχν δ' ύβρις ανδρός, in which έσχεν must be interpreted επαύσατο. In v. 1296 of the Bacchæ, where the common reading is ύβριν υβρισθείς, we read ύβριν γ' έβρισθείς.

V. 506. Φιλείν μεν ούν χρή τους σοφούς πρώτον τέκνα, "Επειτα τοκέας, πατρίδα θ' ήν αύξειν χρεών, Και μη κατάξαι. Ας αγω has no other aorist than ήγαγον, κατάξαι ust be the aorist of καταγνύναι, to break. Notwithstanding the authority of Varkland, who retains the version of Portus, Εt non frangere, we do not believe that καταγνύναι πατρίδα is Greek. Read, Kai ni taçatar. All the editions of Aristophanes before that of Brunck read καταρξω for ταραξω, Ach. 621. Instead of κατάρξω, Reiske proposes to read κατάξω, confringam. Ταράξαι πατρίδα is good Greek, as To disturb one's country is good English. So Herc. 604. πόλιν τε την Μη πριν ταραξης (f. μη ξυνταραξης), πριν ταδ' ευ θέσθαι, τέκνον. See also a passage on the Heraclidæ, which we shall produce in our observation on Suppl. 732.

Heracl. 163. Τι δήτα φήσεις και Φοία πεδί αφαιρεθείς, Τιρυνθίοις θης πόλεμον 'Αργείοις έχω; Read, ποία πεδί αφαιρεθείς Τίρυνθίας γής.

V. 511.

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