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nition. This we may well suppose was matter of great joy to Cromwell and his masters, and no less so, if we give credit to some historians, to the Scots king, who

friends of the covenant, he makes but little change ; for he hath the same friends and enemies he had be fore, with this only difference, that by his and his party's becoming, in appearance, friends to the covenant for a while, they have the opportunity at the last to make use of this engine, the better to undermine and oppose the true ends of the covenant, than by a flat opposition to it: and, to obtain a crown, what dissimulation is not thought lawful by politicians ? Though a larger measure than what is held forth in this declaration cannot easily be instanced; and which therefore, we doubt not but God, who is the searcher of the hearts and trier of the reins, will proceed further to discover in the face of the sun, and more severely judge in this new king of Scots and his house, than if he had dealt plainly with God and men, and held him, self forth in his own colours. The little time which he hath been upon the stage having sufficiently laid him open what he is, a true inheritor of his fathers principles and counsels, wherein he may be traced all along; and even in this last action, wherein he hath trod in the steps of his father, as well as other his predecessors; who, whenever they found theinselves in Scotland beset with the power of the kirk and state, did subscribe and emit whatever was press'd upon them, though they resolved to break all that ever was so done by them upon the first occasion." In this strain the rest of the answer runs. I will give one extract more from it; which will shew the resolution

was then at St. Johnstons. Though Cromwell' neglected not making use of his victory, the Scots were not disheartened. Different and adverse parties united in his

of the parliament, and their defiance of the king. It relates to an act of oblivion offer'd by him in his declaration.--"Touching the act of oblivion offered," say they, “it is no doubt the effect of a great desire the king of Scots bath to receive that which he pretends unto in the government of England, an acknowledgment of his power to dispense such favours : But, in the mean time, we must observe who it is that makes this offer, a traitor to the parliament and people of England, and who by his past actings against them, hath rendered himself obnoxious to their severest censures, from which we hold him no way absolved by assumption or declaration of a Scots kingship. He who by law, and his guilt, stands incapable of the meanest priviledge amongst us, doth he think himself qualified to exercise the greatest ? Shall the malefactor be presumed to have power to give pardon to his judge? Or do the Scots or their king imagine, under pretence of an act of oblivion, to seduce England to receive their laws from Scotland ? The obstructors of real reformation we are as much against as he or they can pretend to be, as by our acts and actions appear; amongst which we reckon it not the least, that that grand enemy to reformation, the father of the now declarer, after his long and bloody progress made in destruction and devastation of the innocent people in the three nations (the guilt whereof upon him being a truth so apparent, as both himself and son, and our now enemies of Scotland, have been forced to acknow

majesty's service against the common foe, and agreed to set the crown on the head of their king. This was performed at Scone, January the first, one thousand six hundred and fifty, old style. Here the same's dis

ledge) hath been, by our authority, tried, adjudged, and executed for his notorious treasons, tyrannies, and murders; whereof, whatever the interpretation be given by the son of that murderer, or other his partizans, old or new malignants, late apostates, or detestable neutrals, who style the act of justice, murder, with like truth, as those who call good, evil; and evil, good; light, darkness; and darkness, light; we, for our parts, bless God for that opportunity put into our hands of offering that sacrifice to divine justice, towards vindication and cleansing of our land from that blood wherewith, by that murderer and his party, it was so miserably defiled.” Men that speak in this strain, must have little apprehension of danger, or be greatly superior to the fear of it.

Is At the coronation at Scone, Charles practised the same dissimulation, and was obliged to hear things not most pleasing.] The king, we see, scrupled not to say, or do, any thing that was thought requisite, by those about him, to accomplish bis purposes. By his former professions, he had deceived a number of honest, ignorant zealots, to risk and lose their lives in his quarrel at Dunbar: and by like professions, he attempted again to engage people in his behalf, and expose themselves to innumerable woes. For mankind are led by appearances, and deceived by sounds, which are insignificant

* Parliamentary History, vol. XIX. p. 364-380.

simulation was practised by Charles; and he was forced to hear things not most pleasing to kings in general, or acceptable to himself in particular.---That the sovereign of right was liable to controul ;

and unmeaning in the mouth of the utterer. A fresh farce was now necessary, and his majesty had a principal part assigned him in it. The particulars I shall give from unexceptionable authorities.--"The battle of Dunbar,” says Burnet,“ procured a great change in the counsels of Scotland, for by that time the honester and better part of the clergy were, by the murder of the king, and the other proceedings in England, filled with distaste and horror at them, and began to think how defective they had hitherto been in their duty to the king, and therefore resolved to adhere more faithfully to it in all time coming. Others of the church party did also see, that as Cromwell was setting up a commonwealth in England, so they found many of the forwarder amongst themselves very much inclined to it in Scotland. This divided them from the other violent party, and made them join more cordially with the king, and be willing to receive his other faithful servants to oppose the common enemy: therefore it was brought under debate, if the act of classes, that excluded them from trust, should not be rescinded, and all subjects allowed to enjoy their priviledges, and suffered to resist the common enemy. After long debate, it was carried in the affirmative; yet none were to be received but upon particular applications and professions of repentance. The commission of the kirk, being also asked their opinions, declared that in

and, that the people had laws and liberties to defend; he was given very plainly to understand. At the same time, the iniqui

such an exigency, when the enemy' was master of all on the south of Forth and Clyde, all sensible persons might be raised for the defence of the country. This was called the Resolution of the General Assembly, and was ratified by the subsequent General Assembly. But against this many ministers protested; and from thence arose great heats and divisions among those of the kirkmen, who owned the public resolutions, and those who protested against them, the one being called Publick Resolutioners, and the other Protestors. And now all churches were full of pretended penitents; for every one that offered his service to the king, was received upon the publick profession of his repentance for his former malignancy, wherein all saw they were only doing it in complyance to the peremptory humour of that time ?." As to Charles himself, he again promised, covenanted, and swore all and every thing required from him. On receiving the news of Dunbar, he wrote a letter to the committee of estates, in which, in canting hypocritical terms, he condoles and encou

“Wee cannot but acknowledge, that the stroake and tryall is very hard to be borne,” says he, “ and would be impossible for us and yow, in human strength; but in the Lord's we are bold and confident, whoe hath always defended this antient kingdom, and transmitted the government of it upon us from soe many worthy predecessors, whoe in the lyke difficulties have not fainted; and they had only the honor

rages them.

* Memoirs of Hamilton, p. 424. fol. Lond. 1677.

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