However here he abode, till called into

particulars; in all which they were resolved to give the law themselves; and which had been fitter to have been adjusted in Jersey, before he put himself into their power, than disputed afterwards in the court of France; from which there could be then no appeal.And it can hardly be believed, with how little respect they treated him during the whole time of his stay there. They were very careful, that he might not be look'd upon as supported by them, either according to his dignity, or for the maintenance of his family; but a mean addition to the pension which the queen had before, was made to her majesty, without any mention of the prince her son; who was wholly to depend upon her bounty, without power to gratify or oblige any of his own servants; that they likewise might depend only upon the queen's goodness and favour, and so behave themselves, accordinglya.” All this was very naturally to have been expected. For France was too much engaged with the whole house of Austria, to wish to raise up new 'foes, which, probably, would have been the event had they received Charles with the ceremonies to which his birth entitled him, and enabled him to live in splendour. Nor would it have been becoming the prudence of Mazarine to have lavished the treasures of the crown on an exiled prince, when their armies were frequently in want of pay, and money was of so great importance to their affairs. Add to this, that misfortunes seldom create respect in standers by; and that dependence, of course, meets with slights and neglects.

a Hist. of the Rebellion, yol. V. p. 33, 34.

action by the revolt of part of the fleet

If there be man (ye gods) I ought to hate,
Dependence and attendance be his fate.


Those have little sense of their own dignity, or rather can have no dignity at all, who stoop for favours, or pay attendance in expectation of them, when by economy or industry they can maintain their independency, and, by that means, rank with the greatest.-The neglect of the French court was not the only evil felt by the prince. His mother exerted her authority over him, and required the like submission she had exacted from his father. “ The prince,” says the writer so often quoted in this note, “remained at Paris under the government of his mother; exercised with that strictness, that though his highness was above the age of seventeen years, it was not desired that he should meddle in any business, or be sensible of the unhappy condition the royal family was in. The assignation which was made by the court of France for the better support of the prince, was annexed to the monthly allowance given to the queen, and received by her, and distributed as she thought fit; such cloaths and other necessaries provided for his highness as were thought convenient; her majesty desiring to have it thought that the prince liv'd entirely upon her, and that it would not consist with the dignity of a prince of Wales to be a pensioner to the king of France. Hereby none of his highness's servants had any pretence to ask money, but they were to be contented with what should be allowed to them ; which was dispensed with a very sparing hand; nor was the prince ever master of ten pistoles to dispose as he desired. The lord Jermyn was the


from the parliament, which, together with the commotions in England and Wales, and the Scottish army, under the command

queen's chief officer, and governed all her receipts, and he loved pienty so well, that he would not be without it,, whatever others suffered. All who had any relation to the prince, were to implore his aid; and the prince himself could obtain nothing but by him; which made most persons of honour of the English nation, who were driven into banishment, as many of the nobility and chief gentry of the kingdom then were, choose rather to make their residence in some other place, as Caen, Roan, and the like, than in Paris, where the prince was, and could do so little: nor was this æconomy well liked even in France, nor the prince himself so much respected as he would have been if he had lived more like himself, and appeared more concern'd in his own business." What a hopeful plight must the prince be indeed in; poor, and subjugated to the will of an imperious mother, directed by an all-commanding, sole favourite ! No condition could be less worthy of envy.

* The revolt of part of the fleet from the parliament, &c.] After the vote of, No more addresses to the king, a strong inclination for peace with him took place in the minds of the majority of the British nation. For suffering excites compassion; and compassion is active and powerful. Besides this, those who had taken the lead, since the new modelling of the army, in the house, had many enemies, on account of their ayowed principles and behaviour. Their dis

* Hist. of the Rebellion, vol. V. p. 116.

of Hamilton, intended for the service of the king, gave him and his friends some hope of his deliverance from captivity.

regard to the covenant disgusted the Scots: the restraint laid on the fiery zeal of the English presbyterians was very ill brooked by them; and the cavaliers could not with patience see themselves subjected by those who had formerly been the objects of their derision. -Add to this, that there was not a man of these three parties, though disagreeing among themselves, but looked with horror on the dethroning, imprisoning, or executing of their king.—These men, then full of resentment against the leaders in the parliament and army, and mindful of past wrongs;—the Scots without English pay ;-the English presbyterians dispossessed of command;—the cavaliers smarting under the penalties of delinquency ;-determined, in conjunction, 'to avenge themselves; reinstate the king; and humble those who were now their masters, and would willingly continue so to be. For this end, the Scots had concluded a treaty with the king in the isle of Wight, in which the covenant was approved : the English presbyterians had promised their aid and assistance to promote the success of the Scots; and a commission was given to Lord Holland to raise an army in order to ascertain it. Accordingly, the Scots entered England; Wales was in arms; and Essex and Kent had forces, headed by Holland, Buckingham, Capel, and others who had adhered to the king from the beginning, or repented of their having fallen off from him.-The king had agreed that the prince of Wales should put himself at the head of the Scots on their entering into England. Accordingly he was

But every attempt for the restoration of that monarch proved in vain, through the abilities of those who opposed him ; and

preparing for it, but was hindered by part of the fleet's declaring for his majesty. This was on the 27th of May, 1648. What became of the insurrections in England and Wales is well known; nor can any be ignorant of the total defeat of the Scots at Preston. With regard to the fleet, it will be proper to observe, that it was ten ships and frigates which had revolted from the parliament: for the seamen had caught the contagion of the times, and nothing would serve but they must have the duke of York for their admiral, and have the honour of bearing a part in his majesty's restoration. For which end, sailing from the Downs, they arrived in Holland, where the duke went aboard, and was soon joined by his brother the prince of Wales, accompanied by prince Rupert, the lords Willoughby of Parham, Colepepper, and Hopton. With this force he sailed to Yarmouth, and thence to the Downs (leaving the duke of York at the Hague), from whence he proceeded into the Thames, in order to encourage the king's party in the city, and make the people clamorous for a peace. Here he took some prizes of considerable value, which he apologised for in a letter to the lord mayor and aldermen: and soon after published "a declaration to all his majesties loving subjects, concerning the grounds and ends of his present engagement upon the fleet in the Downs.” In this piece, after declaring himself under a necessity of taking up arms in order to rescue his father from

captivity, and the good people of the kingdom from the cruel tyrànny of fellow-subjects, he adds, --- Being

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