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ART. XXVIII. Obfervations générales sur les Maladies des Climats chauds, &c. i. e.
General Observations on Diseases that reign in warm Climates, the Causes whence they proceed, the Method of treating them, and the Means of preventing them. By M. D'Azille, the King's Physician at St. Domingo, and correspondent Member of the Royal Academy of Medicine. 8vo. Paris. 1785. THOUGH this sensible, learned, and humane physician con1 fines his observacions to the island where he resides; yet he gives many useful lessons in regard to other parts of the world. He painis, in lively colours, the bad management of the French hospitals, which is so fatal to the health and well. being of the colonifts, and shews. how these establishments ought to be regulated in all countries, in order to answer the Salutary purposes for which they are erected. It is alleged as a general defect in the French hospitals, at home as well as abroad, that those patients who are in a state of recovery, are not removed to a separate apartment from the sick and the dying; and that thus, breathing the infected air of the hospital, they often relapse into a state worse than that in which they were before. The management of the French hospitals in the colonies is let out to undertakers, who, to fill their purses, turn the hospitals into charnel-houses, and are, indeed, undertakers in every sense of that word. We do better, it is to be hoped; but let us do better still,
AR T. XXIX. Historia Politica de los Establicimientos, &c. i. e. A politicalHiftory
of the transmarine Settlements of the European Nations. By Odoardo Malo of Lucca. Volumes I. and II. 8vo. Madrid. 1785. THIS work is recommended to curiosity by the importance
1 and extent of its subject, and the high rank and literary merit of its Author *. But as we have not the original at hand, we here communicate to our Readers the account of it that hath appeared in a foreign journal.
In the introduction, the noble Author gives bis readers a general idea, and a methodical enumeration of the commercial settements and colonies of ancient nations; also an account of the succeslive state of these nations, from the earliest history to the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, and the isles and continent of the new world.
It may be almost confidently affirmed, that the first emigrations were made by land ; that a long space of time elapsed before any people were so intrepid as to attempt a paflage over the
* We have no doubt that this is the work of the Duke d'Almadovar, formerly minister from Madrid at the British court:
waves to distant and unknown regions, and that, even when the art of navigation had opened a communication between countries which the ocean had separated, the progress of chat art, from its first discovery to the entire establishment of the Roman empire, was flow and imperfect. The ancients had scarcely any knowledge of those ex!ensive countries that lie to the east of Germany, and fill lefs were they acquainted with the vast regions that form at present the kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden, Prur. fia, Poland, and the Ruffian empire. In Africa their knowledge was confined to the countries which form the coasts of the Me. diterranean, and to those that are situated on the western borders of the Red Sea. In Afia they knew nothing of the rich and fertile provinces beyond the Ganges; nor do we find that they visited the vast regions of Tartary, formerly occupied by the wandering tribes of Sarmatians and Scythians : nevertheless the progress that they made in commerce and navigation, poor and scanty as their geographical knowledge was, justly excices the admiration of our Author. The account of their efforts and discoveries, in the introduction to this work, is accurate ; but Dr. Robertson left nothing new to be faid on that subject.
Book I. of the work itself, is divided into eight chapters, and contains the first maritime trials of the Portuguese in the Atlantic Ocean, the progressive growth of their marine, their arrival in India, China, and Japan, the flourishing state of their navigation, and its decline. The principal facts, relative to this branch of history, are well known; and we have an elegant summary of them given by the celebrated writer above mentioned in his introduétion to the History of America. But our Author's circumstantial narrative of the Portuguese voyages is truly interesting, and exhibits a pleasing view of the knowledge and talents by which the operations of these adventurers were conducted, and of the spirit and genius of the royal patrons by whom they were encouraged and protected.
The second book, which also contains eight chapters, is en. tirely taken up with Dutch history; and it is one of the moft interesting and instructive of the whole work. We can never represent to ourselves a Spaniard writing or reading of the rise and progress of this republic without biting his lips : and yet we see here the Duke d’Almadovar relating, with as much impartiality and temper as could be expected from human and national infirmity, the exploits and revolutions of the Dutch, the foundation of their republic, their firft voyages to the East, their wars with the Portuguese, their conquests in the ifles and on the continent of Asia, the eftablishment of their East India Com. pany, and other objects of Belgic policy and commerce.
The third book, with which the second volume commences, relates to the commercial settlements and conquests of the English in the East Indies.
App. Rev. Vol. LXXV. Mm
wd be expevolutions of the E
. In the first chapter we have an account of the commerce that was carried on in the British ifles, from the rime of the Phænicians, Carthaginians, and Gauls. The noble Author paffis here in review the principal epochas of English history, the first British navigators, the establishment of the English Coinpany, and the expedition of Lancaller, who fet fail in the year 1601, and arrived the year following at Achem, a famous port at that time. The successful voyage and happy return of this able officer determined the Company to form fettlements in India. The original nature of these settlements, which were merely commercial, the state of the Portuguese and Dutch colonies, who were already in possession of several provinces, fortified towns, and commodious barbours, which gave them Gignal advantages above their new competitors, and the altempis of the English to obtain a similar footing in India, are largely de. scribed in this chapter. In the following one we find an account of the disputes to which this rivallhip gave rise, as also cf the league that was formed between the English and the Persian monarch Schach Abbas to drive the Portuguese from Osmus, which was taken by the combined forces of the confederates, in the year 1623. The advantages which the English derived from their new settlement in Persia excited the jealousy of the Durch, who frequently rendered their ficuation uneasy, and would probably have ruined their affairs in that part of the world, had not Cromwell declared war againit Holland, and thus contributed a good deal to prevent the total decline of che East India Company.
The privileges and protection granted to the Company in 1657 by this extraordinary man, who reftored its declining vi. gour, and rendered it respectable in Arabia, Persia, and India, form a part of the contents of the third chapter. The history of the Company is here continued ; all the changes and revolutions it underwent in the reign of Charles II. the losses it luf. fered, the debates occafioned by the continuation and renewal of its exclusive charter, the erection of a new Company in 1698, and the union of the two in the beginning of the present centurv, are largely treated in the rest of this chapter. · The fourth chapter begins with the war that broke out be. tween the English and the French in 1744, which is considered in regard to the influence it had on the maritime commerce of these two nations. We find also in this chapter an interesting defcription of Arabia, an account of the character and manners of its inhabitants, and of the revolutions that have hap. pened in that country, together with a circumftantial account of the trade carried on by the English in that part of the world. In the following chapter we have an ample description of che Persian Gulph, and of the pearl-lithery in the land of Baharem. In treating of this branch of commerce, the Author obe
serves, that these pearls, though of a darker hue than those of Ceylon and Japan, are of a larger fize, and more regular form, and less subje&t to the diminution of their luftre in warm countries.
The Maldive Jlands, and the coast of Malabar, are amply described in the fixth chapter, with an account of the different ftates into which this extensive country is divided, and an accurate enumeration of its various productions.
The seventh chapter contains a description of Canara, of the Islands of Salsete and Bombay, and of the present ftate of Goa, which our Author is pleased to call the center of the riches of India, and the greatest commercial secclement in the world. The State of the Mahrattas and the revolutions of Surat come also under confideration in this chapter ; and the next exhibits a view of the present state of the coasts of Coromandel and Orixa, which are inhabited by nations that differ from each other in their manners and languages. The internal and external commerce, particularly of The English on these coasts, their import. ant settlements, the cotton manufactures, their wars with Hyder
Ali Khan, and many other interesting objects of policy and commerce, are amply created in this chapter.
The settlement of the English at Bencoolen, in the Ife of Sumatra, is the first object of discussion we meet with in the ninth chapter. The Author Mews how this settlement was formed, and what the colony suffered from the despotism and rapacity of the English agents. The settlement that was formed in the Ife of Balambangan was ruined by the same causes, after it had cost its founders about 400,000 pounds. Having given an account of the conquest of Bengal by the English Company, the Author next describes the navigation of that Gulph from the River Ougli and the mouths of the Ganges. He enu. merates also the productions and manufactures of Bengal, and gives a curious account of the ancient customs of the inhabicants of Biloapore, whose manners and character are said to be the same at this day that they were a thousand years ago. This is one of the most interesting chapters of the work. In the three following we have a description of the islands of St. He. lena, Anfovan, &c. with an account of their commerce, and the obstacles it met with ; also a circumstantial relation of the events that have happened at Bengal in these later times.
To this work is subjoined an Appendix, confilting of nine articles, in which the noble Author treats of the British conftitu. tion, of the two Houses of Parliament, of British liberty, of the civil and criminal jurisprudence of Great Britain, of civil and military employments, and other matters relative to the government of this country,
ART. XXX. Histoire de la Societé Royale de Medicine, &c. i. e. The History and Memoirs of the Royal Society of Medicine, for the Years 1780
and 1781 *. 4to. Paris. 1785... THIS fourth volume sets out with the eulogies of nine learned
1 members of the Society, who were ornaments to their profeflion by their characters and abilities, viz. the Drs. Fothergill, Montigny, Du Hamel, Pringle, Herman, Buttet, Vetillart du Ribert, Hunter, and Sanchez. These are followed by a list of the works published by several members since the year 1779, and an account of the reports and memoirs that have been presented to the Society fince the publication of their third volume. Some of these reports are highly interesting, particularly one made by order of government, relative to the nature, fymptoms, and cure of a puerperal fever. This epidemical fever, whose fymp. toms are terrible, and which often terminates in the death of the patient at the conclusion of the third or the commencement of the fourth day, manifefted itself at Paris, in several hospitals, and also in private houses, with peculiar and fatal violence of late years. The efforts of medical art had long proved ineffec. tual for its cure. Ac length M. Doulcer, one of the phyfi. cians of the Hotel Dieu, hit upon a method of treating it, wbich was attended with remarkable success. In the space of four months near two hundred women were perfe&tly recovered from this terrible disorder, while five or fix patients only, who refused the remedy, were victims to its fury, and their own obstinacy. We cannot enter into the minute and accurate details contained in this memoir relative to the fever in question. We shall only observe, that in order to treat it, according to the method fo successfully employed by M. DOULCET, the first moment of its appearance must be carefully observed, and then, without delay, 15 grains of ipecacuanha are to be adminiftered in two separate doses, at an interval of an hour and a half. The next day the same doses are to be repeated, whether the symptoms have ceased or still continue. If they continue the third day, the same doses are to be again adminiftered, and repeated the fourth day in case of neceffity. In the intervals, the effect of the ipecacuanha must be seconded by a potion, composed of oil of sweet almonds, an ounce of the syrop of marshmallows, and two grains of kermes mineral. The ordinary drink of the patient must be linseed or scorzonera tea, edulcorated with syrop of marshmallows. About the seventh or eighth day the patient
* For the first volume of this inftitution, with an account of its plan, see Rev. vol. lxii. p. 511..For the third volume, fee Rer, vol. Ixviii. p. 553.