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the honour of teaching him to lie; and that if he offered to stir, he would trample him to pieces ; a threat, which it was very evident he could find no difficulty in executing. This unexpected incident struck an universal damp over the spirits of the little gentry; and even Master Mash himself so far forgot his dignity, as to supplicate in a very submissive manner for a release ; in this he was joined by all

his companions, and Harry among the rest. Well, said the farmer, . I thould never have thought that a parcel of young gentlemen, as

you call yourselves, would come into public to behave with so much rudeness; I am sure, that there is ne'er a plough-boy at my house, but what would have shown more sense and manners : but since you are sorry for what has happened, I am very willing to make an end of the affair ; more especially for the sake of this little mafter here, who has behaved with so much propriety, that I am sure he is a better gentleman than any of you, though he is not dressed so much like a monkey or a barber. With these words he suffered the crest-fallen Mash to rise, who crept from his place of confinement, with looks infinitely more expressive of mildness than he had brought with him: nor was the lesson lost upon the rest, for they behaved with the greateft decency during all the rest of the exhibition. However, after Malh's courage began to rise as he went home and found himself farther from this formidable farmer; for he assured his companions, that if it had not been so vulgar a fellow, he would certainly call him out and pistol him.

"The next day, at dinner, Mr. Merton and the ladies, who had not accompanied the young gentlemen to the play, nor had yet heard of the misfortune which had ensued, were very inquisitive about the preceding night's entertainment. The young people agreed that the performers were detestable, but that the play was a charming piece, full of wit and sentiment, and extremely improving: this play was called The Marriage of Figaro, and Master Compton had informed them that it was amazingly admired by all the people of fashion in London. But Mr. Merton, who had observed that Harry was totally filent, at length insisted upon knowing his opinion upon the subject. Why, Sir, answered Harry, I am very little judge of these matters, for I never saw a play before in my life, and therefore I cannot tell whether it was acted well or ill; but as to the play itself, it seemed to be full of nothing but cheating and diffimulation, and the people that come in and out, do nothing but impose upon each other, and lie, and trick, and deceive. Were you, or any gentle. man, to have such a parcel of servants, you would think them fit for nothing in the world; and therefore I could not help wondering while the play was acting, that people would throw away so much of their time upon sights that can do them no good; and send their children and their relations to learn fraud and insincerity. Mr. Mer. fon smiled at the honeft bluntness of Harry; but several of the ladies, who had just been expressing an extravagant admiration of this piece, seemed to be not a little mortified.?

Perhaps the Author infifts too much upon his favourite idea of training up children to do, and to bear, every thing, and requires a degree of passive hardiness scarcely to be expected in ihe present fate of society : if it be an error, it lies, however, on

the

the right fide, in an age in which there is so general a bias to: ward luxurious effeminacy. He has also, we think, expressed himself too strongly concerning the difficuities and hardships of the military life. But these trifes weigh nothing against the un. common merit of this work; which we trust the Author will continue, till he has conducted his young friend, Harry, up to manhood.

E.

Art. IX. An Esay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species,

particularly the African, translated from a Latin Differtation which was honoured with the first Prize in the University of Cam. bridge, for the Year 1785. With Additions. 8vo. 45. Boards. Phillips. 1786. A S the subject of the following work,' says the Author in

A his Preface, 'has fortunately become of late a topic of conversation, I cannot begin the Preface in a manner more latis. factory to the feelings of the benevolent reader, than by giving an account of those humane and worthy persons, who have endeavoured to draw upon it that Thare of the public attention which it has obtained.'

We bave in this part of the work a review of all that has been written on the subject, from the middle of the fifteenth century to the present time ; and also an account of the effects, which have been produced among the humane and religious part of the colonists, in consequence of the writings and exertions of those benevolent men, who have desired to remove sorrow from the heart of the oppressed.

The performance before us is divided into three parts; in the first of which Mr. Clarkson (the Author) gives a concise and learned history of slavery : in which he divides slavery into two diftin&t kinds, voluntary and involuntary. The first kind he treats but Blightly; confining himself more especially to the latter, which is the immediate subject of his dissertation. .

Of involuntary slaves, the fiift that are here considered, are prisoners of war. Our Author traces the antiquity of the custom of devoting prisoners of war to Navery, shews it to have been the practice of the ancient Eastern nations, and that the more modern Western ones, though many and various, adopted the same measures. It was not victory alone, or any supposed right, founded in the damages of war, that afforded a pretence for invading the liberties of mankind; piracy contributed not a little to the lavery of the human species. To these, who were taken publicly by a victorious army, or were privately stolen by the depredations of pirates, the Author adds a third class, namely, the descendents of the two former. He then goes on to describe the treatment there wretched mortals met with from their respective owners, and the barbarous and inhuman manner in which dif

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ferent nations exercised their cruelties over there unfortunate
people; and he inquires into the various causes by which they
were produced. The firft cause whence ruch treatment origin
nated, was, the commerce of the human species; for, if men be
considered as pofseflions,-if, like cattle, they could be bought
and sold, it will not be difficult to suppose that they would be
held in the same confideration, and treated in the same manner.
Our Author then traces the origin of the slave trade from its
earliest date, and fixes the first market for Naves, found on rea
cord, in Egypt; he shews, that it travelled over the greatest part
of Asia,- that it spread through the Grecian and Roman world,
mathat it was in use among the barbarous nations who over-
turned the Roman empire, and that it was universally practised
about that period throughout all Europe. The slave trade he
proves to have declined in other parts of the world, but espe-
cially in Europe, about the time when the Northern nations were
settled in their conquests, and to have been totally abolished very
soon after. A difference of opinion has arisen respecting the
causes of its abolition; fome having afferted that they were the
necessary consequences of the feudal system, while others main-
tain that they were the natural effects of Chriftianity. The ar-
guments on both sides of the question are set forth, but the Au-
thor inclines to the latter, with no small appearance of reason.
The Portugueze, within two centuries after the suppression of
slavery in Europe, were the first who renewed the slave trade
among the moderns : they made their descents on Africa, and in
imitation of those piracies, which existed in the uncivilized ages
of the world, committed depredations on the coast. Mr. Clark-
son enters minutely into the history of this modern slave trade,
recites its progress, and the manner in which it is carried on at
present. If the Author does not exaggerare, it is a truly horrido
trade!

In the second part, which, under gloffy language, contains much imperfect reasoning, our Author gives a cursory and unconnected history of mankind, -treats of liberty as the natural and inherent right of man,-of the nature and end of government; and asserts, but without sufficient demonstration, all government to be adventicious. He next endeavours to determine whether mankind can be considered as property, and examines the right, which the sellers and purchasers of Naves claim, of carrying on the commerce. The learning ro amply displayed in the first part of this work, and the tinsel trappings which hide the false arguments in the second, are inconfiftent with each other.

The third part is employed in describing the treaiment which the African laves meet with in our colonies, and in refuting the leveral arguments that have been brought by the colonits, or their friends, to vindicate their conduct. We here again find

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much learning introduced, and the argumentative part of the work becomes more rational. But the language is in general too much laboured, and in many instances too obscure for the fimple, unadorned, and clear style of demonstration. Toward the conclufion of his work, we think the Author has sacrificed at the shrine of enthusiasm, where he says, "The violent and supernatural agitations of all * the elements, which, for a series of years, have prevailed in the European settlements, where the unfortunate Africans are retained in a state of flavery, and which have brought unspeakable calamities on the inhabitants, and public losses on the states to which they severally belong, are so many awful visitations of God for this inhuman violation of his laws.'

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Art. X. The Miscellaneous Companions. By William Matthews.

12mo. 3 Vols. gs. sewed. Bath, printed ; and sold in London by Dilly. 1786. T HE first of these volumes is; in the Author's phrase, a short

1 tour of observation and sentiment, through a part of South Wales. The second contains maxims and thoughts, with refections on select passages of Scripture. The third confifts of dissertations on particular subjects and occasions, together with Dialogues in the world of spirits.

The tour in Wales does not furnith so many travelling events, descriptions, or observations on the country, as might be expected from such a title ; but it is nevertheless entertaining in a plain and inoffenfive way, and always directed to some kind of useful improvement. Ic gives a few amufing accounts of the country, the inhabitants, and their manners, intermixed with the Author's reflections ; among which, Thoughts on Education, and Thoughts on Hunting, occupy many pages : the latter subject is pursued through a course of arguments pro and con; and, in the conclusion, the amusement is condemned.

Concerning the Maxims and Thoughts, which constitute a chief part of the second volume, we cannot do better than to extract from them a short paragraph, as follows: "All I have to say for this part of my work, is, that they (the Maxims, &c.) were written most consonantly with my own occafional views and persuasions of truth: and if they appear sometimes trite, sometimes unflattering to human vanity, and sometimes recurrent of the same sense, they may nevertheless be generally found among the useful way-marks of public and private virtue.' These observa. tions fall very properly under the description of way-marks.' They contain much good-sense, piety, and virtue. A tincture

• In a note the Author recites the different earthquakes in the Welt-Indian Ilands, and the losses our navy has frequently sustained by the hurricanes in those parts.

of this writer's peculiar tenets runs through them, and also discovers itself in the Tour, and in the whole publication *. It is however to be remarked, concerning intelligent persons of this denomination, that, making allowance for some exceptionable explications, and for what is myftical and unintelligible, when they speak of the light, the word, &c. they appear to understand, and enter deeply into the real spirit of Chriftianity. We much approve the philanthropy and charity that breathe throughout these pages, and the warm attachment which they manifest to the just liberties of mankind. Thus, indeed, it must be with thole, who have a true acquaintance with the Christian doctrine; such knowledge and influence will render them advocates for a full and rational freedom, civil and religious. Our Author's maxims, together with the dissertations which compose the remainder of this volume, are chiefly of the grave kind; but, while the reader is edified, as certainly he may, or must be, by the perusal, he will probably be diverted also by such a passage as the following: • It may be nearly as edifying to hear two filh-women scold about reputation, as two grave divines, or any two systematic religionists, dispute about a right or saving faith! ; The third volume presents us with dissertations on Marriage, on the Last-day, and on Everlasting punishment. In each, the writer manifests thought and ingenuity, piety and goodness. On the second of these topics, he discovers somewhat of the peculiarity belonging to his immediate party, while he not only suppores, char dealh is to every man the Lafi-day, and that the Judge ment is progressive and continual, as human souls are perpetually difmissed from this world ; but farther conceives that the accounts of a resurrection of the body are merely to be explained in a figurative and spiritual manner. We Thall principally take norice of the third differtation, written with great modefty, fimpli. city, and candour; and shall insert what is said relative to it in the Preface : .:? The longest treatise in these volumes, viz. that on Everlasting punishment, will perhaps meet some Atrong objections among the more cimorous and inconsiderate part of mankind : while I think it right to say in this place, that, under my own full persuasions respecting the subject, I could not, with an easy mind, avoid treating on it in the manner I have done. In my childhood, I found it impossible to fix my belief in the common notion of endless torments; as I grew older, my sentiments occasionally became known. I was affailed, in consequence, by some few zealous and implicit believers, among my friends; particularly by one, for whom, on account of his moral character, I had considerable respect. And being under the common frailty of human nature, I was influenced, for a short time, to

* Mr. Matthews is one of the people called Quakers.

doubt

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