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What a hard of the house dier be obligen

debarred from leaving any children after them. I think there thould be no barracks; and every soldier be obliged to marry the daughter of the maid of the house where he happened to be billerted. What a singular proposal !

This is not very consistent with what went immediately before. But let us hear our Author on another subject.

We are not surprised that the Paris edicion was burnt by the cominon bangman when we see the following passages :

In describing a picture of the crucifixion, he says, Mary is weeping at his feet : and why weep, when the knows her son died for foron's sake, and can revive again when he likes?'

• The convent Escaleses is a nunnery, which formerly served as a seraglio for the kings, princes, and grandees of Spain; and is still famous for the amorous intrigues of the spouses of God, who are said to bring forth children that are none of his.'

Speaking of devotion, our traveller says, “Whatever enthu. fiafts the Spaniards may be, notwithstanding all their processions and benedictions, the inhabitants of Madrid have less devotion than is generally supposed. Here, as well as every where else, devotion is the resource of old age and disappointed ambition, who offer unto God the leavings of the devil.

lo there, and many other places, we observe a peculiar ori ginality of thought. We fufpect, from the frequent Aalhes of wit, and boldness of expression to be met with in this perform. ance, that it is the production of a student in the school of Vol. taire. The Author's vivacity, though a very light commodity, feems greatly to outweigh his judgment.

A.B. ART. VI. A Narrative of the two Aerial Voyages of Dr. Jeffries with Mons. Blanchard; with meteorological Observations and Remarks. The first Voyage on the 30th of November 1784, from London into Kent: the second, on the 7th of January 1785, from Eng. land into France. By Dr. Jeffries. Presented to the Royal So. ciety April 14, 17857 and read before them January 1786. 4to. 75. 6d. (with the Print). Robson.

A N advertisement prefixed to these narratives informs us, that A they were intended to have been laid before the Public immediately after the events took place; that the president of the Royal Society having honoured them with his attention, and judged them worthy of being read to that illustrious body, the Author thought it his duty to submit them first to their inspection; that the manuscript remained much longer than he expected in the hands of the Society, having but lately been returned; and that the engravings annexed could not be earlier coma pleted.

These engravings are, the Doctor pointing to his barometer, at the joyous moment of the balloon beginning to re-ascend from

its

its unexpected and alarming depression in paffing the channel : and the monument erected to the two aeronauts on the spot where they landed, in the forest of Guines in France.

Dr. Jeffries informs us that he paid a hundred guineas to Mr. Blanchard, the proprietor and manager of the balloon, for his place in the first voyage, and was himself at the whole expence of the second, though he appears to have met with no very grateful returns for his generosity. His view was to gratify a laudable curiosity, and to ascertain some interesting points relative to the state of the atmosphere ; and his plan of connecting himself with a practical aeronaut was certainly well judged, for it is na. tural to suppose that one person would be too much engaged in the care of the aerial vehicle itself to give sufficient attention to philosophical observations.

Of these voyages it will not be necessary for us to give any abstract, as general accounts of them were published in the newspapers at the respective times, and our limits will not admit of our entering into particulars. Unexpected impediments, and unfavourable circumstances, prevented the Doctor from making any great addition to our knowledge of the atmosphere ; nor do his own abilities as a man of science appear to much advantage. The compass traversed freely, but was of no use for ascertaining the direction, on account of the continual rotation of the balloon, and its apparent quiefient state : the Doctor expected that light bodies dropped from the balloon, such as would not fall too quick, but remain visible for some time during their descent, would obviate this difficulty, and serve for objects from which to efti. mate the direction; not suspecting, even after an unsuccessful trial in that way, that the progresive impulse, which the body received in the balloon, mult act upon it, as well as gravity, in its descent, so that its progressive mocion must keep pace with that of the balloon itself, except for the different degrees of re. sistance they might meet with from the medium through which they passed.

The Doctor had provided himself in the firft voyage with the instruments for meteorological observations, and does not leem to be inattentive to them. The electrometer, though frequently examined, he never found to be any way affected : the hygrometer (misprinted hydrometer) Mewed the air to grow dryer as he ascended, and moifter again in his descent: the thermometer, which, at his departure from the Rhedarium near Crosvenor Square, stood 19 degrees above the freezing point, funk, at his greatest elevation, to 31 below freezing. On this subject we would remark, once for all, that the thermometer may lead us into very erroneous conclusions respecting the temperatures of the 'atmosphere at different heights : for, not to mention the eta fects of temporary currents of air coming from warmer or colder

• regions, regions, the thermometer requires some time for receiving the full hear of the air to which it is exposed; and if the heat increases or decreases quickly, or if the instrument is in conti, nual motion through places of different temperatures, it cannot thew the heat really sublisting at any given moment of time, or at any one of the places through which it has pasled.

We shall only add, that though this writer makes no very conspicuous figure in the walks of literature or science, his nar, rative is sufficiently entertaining, and there cannot be a doubt of its fidelity.

Ch.

Art. VII. Experiments and Observations on the Danger of Copper and

Bell-metal in pharmaceutical and chemical Preparations. By William Blizard, Fellow of the Antiquary Society, Surgeon to the London Hospital, and Lecturer in Anatomy, &c. 8vo. 15. Dilly. 1786. THOUGH the principal part of these experiments and ob

servations was made public fome years ago, as an article in Dr. Duncan's Medical Commentaries, vol. vii. the importance of the object, and the continuance of the evil, suficiently juftify this republication (with a few additions), in a form better adapted for bringing them into general notice.

Fatal experience has taught the danger of vefleis made of copper (or compound metals of which copper is the basis), in the case of liquid preparations both culinary and pharmaceutical; but it has not, we believe, been suspected that mortars made of those merais, if properly kept clean, would communicate any noxious quality to the dry substances that are usually pounded in them. The experiments of Mr. Blizard, however, have thewn, that when substances even not of a very hard nature, as coral, crab's eyes, calcined harifhorn, &c. are pulverised in a bell-metal mortar, they actually abrade a portion of the metal, which may be discovered in the powders sometimes by examination with the eye only, but more certainly by its giving a blue colour to volatile alcali, the best and readiest criterion of copper. To obviate any fufpicion of the mortar he employed being of any peculiar compoSition, &c. he procured some of the prepared powders from differe ent shops, and found a cupreous taint in them all ; burnt harts. horn, indeed, seems not only to abrade, but to corrode the metal; for it can hardly be brought in contact (he says) with bell-metal without receiving a cupreous taint, especially if moist.' The case is doubtless the same with many other medicinal preparations and compositions ; and we need not now be at a loss to account for the nausea and sickness which they are often found to produce.

The Author next enquires what other kind of mortars will answer the purposes of apothecaries and chemists? The reply is ready, IRON. The experience of several gendemen has proved,

that

that mortars of this metal answer perfectly well. It may be objected, that iron is apt to contract rust. But let me observe, that attention to the foulness of bell-metal and brass is more necessary than to that of iron, as neglect in the one case would be excessively dangerous, in the other hardly more than an inele. gant omiffion. But cast iron is really less susceptible of the im. preflions of the air than bell-metal. In all respects it has the advantage of it, and is beyond comparison cheaper.'

He informs us that the committee of the London hospital, from a representation of the facts contained in these pages, have ordered their bell-metal mortars to be sold, and iron ones to be purchased for the use of their elaboratory and dispensary; and we cannot doubt that the laudable example will be followed, as soon as the same facts Thall become generally known, by all those who have the direction of medicinal or culinary prepara. tions. With acknowledged conviction of the noxious qualities of copper;- with experiments laid before them, which they may easily repeat themselves, proving that powders ground in those mortars are actually tainted with che copper ;-having so convenient a substitute as iron, which, if it Ihould contract ruft from neglect, be abraded by hard bodies, or corroded by faline ones, will ftill do little or no injury to health ;-having also a material of another kind (which ought to be mentioned on this occasion, though the Author has not done it), of such hardness as to suffer no abralion, and which resists every known species of corrosives ; we mean the mortars made by Mr. Wedgwood, which are now well known to the experimental chemifts ;-so circumstanced, they must feel themselves inexcusable if brass or bell-metal should any longer be seen in their poffeffion. c h .

Art. VIII. The History of Dover Castle. By the Rev. William

Darell, Chaplain to Queen Elizabeth. Illustrated with ten Views and a Plan of the Castle. Folio. 16s. 6d. Boards, large Paper. 125. 6d. small Paper. Hooper. ' 1786. THE ftudy of antiquities, or inquiries into the transactions

1 of remote and early ages, are (when not employed in triling investigations and needless researches into the origin and derivation of names) at once particularly pleasing and profitable. Yet into what absurdity and error are the etymologist and antiquary at all times apt to run ! Pope Alexander the Seventh, as Cardinal De Retz informs us in his Memoirs, was engaged for a considerable space of time in searching whether Musca, a fly,. came from Mosco, or Mosco from Mufca. Others have been nearly distracted in not being able to discover what songs the Syrens used to king-of what ingredients the Spartan broth was composed, and whether Anacreon was fonder of women than of

wines,

wine. Away with such ridiculous, such truly useless inquiries! the ineptiæ of a diftempered brain.

The history of Dover Cafle must be confidered by the lover of antiquities as a valuable publication. It contains an account of that venerable fortress, from its foundation by Julius Cæsar, until the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; together with some curious particulars relative to the alterations and improvements which have from time to time been made in it: a list of its Governors and Commanders, and remarks on their character and conduct. How far the Author is to be credited, indeed, for many of the anecdotes related in the course of his hiftory, we know not; as they are chiefly given without authorities. It is probable, however, that the facts particularly those which are recorded from the Conquest till the beginning of the fixteenth century are for the most part to be depended on, as William Lord Cob. ham (the patron of Mr. Darell, and to whom the book is dedic cated) had been appointed by Queen Elizabeth to the poft of Constable of Dover Castle ; and who, it may reasonably be ima. gined, assisted the Author in his work.

This writer, contrary to the opinion of the most eminent antiquaries, supposes Dover to be the Rhutupium of the ancient Romans. He informs us, that it was originally denominated, by the Britons, Rupecester, i. c. a camp or castle situate upon a sock :- that it afterwards acquired a new name, viz. Dofris, Dobris, or Doris, in consequence of the filling or damming up of the harbour ; which filling up of the harbour (says Mr. D.), was effected by Arviragus, in order to frustrate the designs of the Romans. But Leland, and almost all the writers who have succeeded him, are agreed, that either Sandwich or Richborough, or Ratesborough, or, as Beda calls it, Reptaccastre, is undoubtedly the Rhutupium of the ancients. Somner, indeed, believes, that both Sandwich and Richborough went under the general name of Rhutupium-that the former was the city, and the late ter the fortress; and in this opinion he is supported by the ingenious Mr. Horsley, with this difference only, that Mr. Hors. ley rather chuses (on account of the two places) to style them Rhutupiæ than Rhutupium, in which particular he has been fole lowed by several learned and judicious men.

But that Dover is the Rhutupium of the Romans, or that it bad at any time the appellation of Rupecester, and that for no season than that we there find (to use the words of Mr. Darell) « Caftrum fupra rupem,” we cannot readily believe. The caftic of Richborough, as well as that of Dover, is seated upon an hill; and Richborough has always been spoken of by the earliest writers as the Roman fortress diftinguished by the aforesaid name." In a word, we are inclined to go along with Messieurs Somner

and

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