By his neesings a light doth shine,
And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.
Out of his mouth go burning lamps,
And sparks of fire leap out.
Out of his nostrils goeth smoke,
As out of a seething-pot or cauldron.
His breath kindleth coals,
And a flame goeth out of his mouth.
In his neck remaineth strength,
And sorrow is turned into joy before him.
The flakes of his flesh are joined together:
They are firm in themselves; they cannot be moved.
His heart is as firm as a stone;
Yea, as hard as a piece of the nether millstone.
When he raiseth up himself, the mighty are afraid :
By reason of breakings they purify themselves.
The sword of him that layeth at him cannot hold;
The spear, the dart, nor the habergeon.
He esteemeth iron as straw,
And brass as rotten wood.
The arrow cannot make him flee:
Sling-stones are turned with him into stubble.
Darts are counted as stubble:
He laugheth at the shaking of a spear.
Sharp stones are under him:

He spreadeth sharp.pointed things upon the mire" (xli). The question of the identity of the animal referred to in these sublime utterances, has been as fruitful of controversy as that regarding behemoth. Little notice requires to be taken of the literature of this subject. We must be guided wholly by the Scripture references as to the use of the word, and the approach of any living animal in its general features to this poetical description.

Leviathan,” Heb. livyāthān. The word occurs six times in the Old Testament. Its root points to something wreathed or twisted. When Job curses his day, it has been rendered mourning by our translators

" Let them curse it that curse the day,

Who are ready to raise up their mourning” (iii. 8).

The meaning seems to be that of marshalling against the birthday arrival anything that would lead men to regard it with fear and loathing, as men do leviathan. In Psalm lxxiv. 14, it is evidently interchangeable with dragons (tannin), which certainly means crocodiles; the reference being to the discomfiture of Egypt at the time of the Exodus:


two species are introduced on Plate XXVII., for the sake of comparison —the gavial or Indian crocodile (Gavialis gangeticus, figs. 1, 1); and the jacare or spectacled alligator (Jacare sclerops, figs. 3, 3). "The large front teeth of the gavials fit into a notch in the front of the

upper jaw, and the canines into a notch also. In the crocodiles the canines fit into a notch, as in the gavials, but the large front teeth fit into a pit or perforation in the front of the upper jaw; and in the alligators, both the canine and large front teeth fit into pits or perforations in the edge of the upper jaw.”(Gray.) See also Plate IX., figs. 1, 2, and 3, for illustrations of skeletons of alligator, crocodile, and gavial.

Herodotus gives an account of the crocodile which, though graphic and interesting, has in several particulars given rise to erroneous notions in the popular literature of science. He says—“The following is the nature of the crocodile. During the four coldest months it eats nothing, and though it has four feet it is amphibious. It lays its eggs on land, and there hatches them. It spends the greater part of the day on dry ground, but the whole night in the river; for the water is then warmer than the air and dew. Of all living things with which we are acquainted, this, from the least beginning, grows to be the largest. For it lays eggs little larger than those of a goose, and the first in proportion to the egg; but when grown up it reaches to the length of seventeen cubits, and even more. It has the eyes of a pig, large teeth, and projecting tusks, in proportion to the body; it is the only animal that has no tongue; it does not move the lower jaw, but is the only animal that brings down its upper jaw to the under one. It has strong claws, and a skin covered with scales, that cannot be broken on the back. It is blind in the water, but very quick-sighted on land; and because it lives for the most part in the water, its mouth is filled with leeches. All other birds and beasts avoid him, but he is at

peace with the trochilus, because he receives benefit from that bird. For when the crocodile gets out of the water on land, and then opens its jaws, which it does most commonly towards the west, the trochilus enters its mouth and swallows the leeches; the crocodile is so well pleased with this service that it never hurts the trochilus.” The pretty story of the trochilus and the leeches is unfortunately more than doubtful. Leeches are not found in the Nile, nor have modern observers been able to corroborate the pleasant tale of the father of history. The bird referred to is one of the plovers (Pluvius ægypticus), wbich is attracted to the neighbourhood of the crocodile to pick up the flies, &c., which surround him when he takes to the banks of the Nile for repose.

young is at

Fig. 112.

The lair of behemoth is under the shady trees which fringe the banks of the river, and in the covert of the reed (kāneh) and fens (bitzāh) ver. 21. In chapter viii. 11, and in Ezek. xlvii. 11, the latter word is rendered “mire” and “miry places” respectively. It indicates such a position as reed-like vegetation delights in. For the fuller consideration of “reed," see under Exod. ii. 3, xxx. 23; 1 Kings xiv. 15; 2 Kings xviii. 21; Isa. xix. 6, xxxv. 7; and Matt. xi. 7.

The following species may be named as occurring in the haunts of behemoth :-Of the Sedge family (Cyperacece), the Nile reed or galan

gal (Cyperus nilotica), and the true bulrush (Scirpus lacustris), the reed-like grasses (Graminacece), the common arrow reed (Arundo donax), the common meadow reed (A. phragmites), Egyptian sugar cane (Saccharum cylindricum), and the beard grass (Andropogon arundinacea). As to the true paper reed (Cyp. papyrus), the prophecy of Isaiah has been literally fulfilled—“it is withered, driven away,

and no more." This enumeration includes only a few of the best known and outstanding species. A great many more flourish luxuriantly in the same localities, which have been described as “dense thickets of reeds."

Job had beheld the glory of God, and acknowledged himself vile (xl. 4). Light from heaven broke in on his heart and his house (xlii. 10, 11). “And the Lord turned the captivity of Job, when he prayed for his friends: also the Lord gave Job twice as much as he had before. Then came there unto him all his brethren, and all his sisters, and all they that had been of his acquaintance before, and did eat bread with him in his house; and they bemoaned him, and comforted him over all the evil that the Lord had brought upon him: every man also gave him a piece of money, and every one an ear-ring of gold.” “Piece of money," or kesitah (ancient Hebrew). Pieces of money may be reckoned thus :


Hippopolamus amphibius.

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