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AN

INTRODUCTION

TO THE

CRITICAL STUDY AND KNOWLEDGE

OF THE

HOLY SCRIPTURES.

BY

THOMAS HARTWELL HORNE, B.D.

OF SAINT JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE;

RECTOR OF THE UNITED PARISHES OF SAINT EDMUND THE KING AND MARTYR AND SAINT NICHOLAS ACONS,

LOMBARD STREET; PREBENDARY OF SAINT PAUL's.

NEW EDITION,

FROM THE EIGHTH LONDON EDITION, CORRECTED AND ENLARGE D.

ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS MAPS AND FAC-SIMILES OF BIBLICAL MANUSCRIPTS.

VOLUME II.

Philadelphia:
PUBLISHED BY JOSEPH WHETHAM, 144 CHESTNUT STREET.

STEREOTYPED BY L. JOHNSON.

1840.

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I. Climate

II. Seasons

1. Seed-time

2. Winter

3. The Cold Season, or Winter Solstice

4. Harvest

5. Summer

6. The Hot Season.—Heavy Dews
II. Rivers, Lakes, Wells, and Fountains.-Cisterns and

Pools of Solomon
IV Mountains
V. Valleys
VI. Caverns

VII. Plains

VIII. Deserts

Horrors and Dangers of Travelling in the Great

Desert of Arabia

I. Fertility of the Holy Land

II. Its Productions :-

1. Vegetables

2. Cattle

3. Mines
III. Testimonies of Ancient and Modern Authors to its

Fertility and Populousness
IV. Calamities with which this Country was

visited

1. The Plague

2. Earthquakes .

3. Whirlwinds

ib

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82

ib.
83

CHAPTER VII. On the Treaties or Covenants, Con-

60, 61 tracts, and Oaths of the Jews.

61

I. Whether the Jews were prohibited from conclud-

ing Treaties with Heathen Nations

II. Treaties, how made and ratified

Covenant of Salt

III. Contracts for the sale and Cession of alienable

61

Property, how made

62

IV. Of Oaths

ib.

ib.

ib. CHAPTER VIII. Laws respecting Strangers, Aged,

ib.

Blind, Deaf, and Poor Persons.

62 I. Of Strangers

63 II. Or the Aged, Blind, and Deaf

III. Of the Poor

ib.

ib.

Chapter IX. Of the Military Affairs of the Jews,

63 and other Nations mentioned in the Scriptures.

ib.

63, 64

64

SECTION I. On the Military Discipline of the Jews.

ib.

I. The earliest Wars, predatory Excursions

II. Character of the Wars of the Israelites .

Their Levies, how raised

Mosaic Statutes concerning the Israelitish Soldiers

III. Divisions and Officers of the Jewish Army

IV. Encampments

64 V. Military Schools and Training

VI. Defensive Arms

64, 65 VII. Offensive Arms

65, 66 VIII. Fortifications

65

IX. Mode of declaring War

ib.

X. Military Tactics.

Order of Battle

Treatment of the Slain, of captured Cities, and of

65, 66

Captives

66 XI. Triumphant Reception of the Conquerorg

ib. XII. Distribution of the Spoil .

ib.

Military Honours conferred on eminent Warriors.

ib.

A Military Order established by David

XIII. Trophies .

67

ib.

ib. Section II. Allusions in the New Testament to the

68 Military Discipline and Triumphs of the Romans.

ib.

ib. VI. Divisions of the Roman Army, and Roman Mili-

ib.

tary Officers, mentioned in the New Testament

ib.

II. Allusions to the Armour of the Romans

ib.

III. Allusions to their Military Discipline.-Strict Sub-

ib.

ordination.—Rewards of the Soldiers who dis-

ib.

tinguished themselves .

69 IV. Allusions to the Roman Triumphs

93, 94

94, 95

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5

119

II. National, regular, Weekly, Monthly, and Annual

PART III.

Sacrifices

ib.

III. UNBLOODY OFFERINGS

ib.

IV. Drink-Offerings

SACRED ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS, AND OF OTHER NATIONS

V. Other Oblations made by the Jews.

INCIDENTALLY MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES.

1. ORDINARY OBLATIONS:

PAGE

ih.

95

(1.) The Show-Bread .

ib.

CHAPTER I. Of Sacred Places

(2.) Incense

ib.

2. VOLUNTARY OBLATIONS–Korban

Section I. Of the Tabernacle.

3. PRESCRIBED OBLATIONS :

119, 120

(1.) First-Fruits

96

120

I. Different Tabernacles in use among the Israelites

(2.) Tithes.

11. The Tabernacle so called by way of eminence, not

: 120, 121
ib.

VI. Fitness and Utility of the Jewish Sacrifices
of Egyptian Origin.-Its Materials
III. Form and Construction of the Tabernacle. Its
Contents

96, 97

CHAPTER IV. Sacred Times and Seasons, obscrved by

97

IV. Its Migrations

the Jews.

Section II. Of the Temple.

I. The SABBATH.

1. How observed

121

98

I. The Temple of Solomon .

2. Jewish Worship on that Day; particularly

II. The Second Temple

98, 99

their Manner of worshippi in the Temple

122

Its various Courts

99, 100

II. New MOONS

ib.

Reverence of the Jews for it

100, 101

III. Annual Festivals.-Their important Design

122, 123

III. Notice of the Temples at Heliopolis and Gerizim 101

IV. The PassoveR; when celebrated, and with what

Ceremonies

123-125

Section III. On the High Places, and Proseuchæ or

Its Mystical or Typical Reference:

125, 126

V. The Day of PENTECOST

126

Oratories of the Jews.

VI. The Feast of TABERNACLES

126, 127

VII. Other Annual Festivals, viz.

101, 102

I. On the High Places

127

1. The Feast of TRUMPETS

102, 103

II. On the Proseuchæ or Oratories

2. The Day of EXPIATION

ib.

VIII. Annual Festivals instituted by the Jews in later

Suction IV. On the Synagogues.

times :

1. The Feast of PURIM

128

I. Nature and Origin of Synagogues

103

2. The Feast of DEDICATION

ib.

The Synagogue of the Libertines explained

ib.

IX. Other Festivals observed at stated intervals :-

II. Form of the Synagogues .

104

1. The SABBATICAL YEAR

ib.

III. The Officers or Ministers

ib.

2. The Year of JUBILEE .

128, 129

IV. The Service performed in the Synagogues

104-106

V. Ecclesiastical Power of the Synagogues

107

VI. The Shemoneh Ezreh, or Nineteen Prayers used

CHAPTER V. Sacred Obligations and Duties.

in the Synagogue Service

106, 107

Section 1. Of Vows.

CHAPTER II. Sacred Persons,

I. Nature of Vows

II

. Requisites essential to the validity of a Vow

129, 130

SECTION I. On the Jewish Church and its Members.

III. Different Sorts of Vows:-

1. The Cherem or irremissible Vow

130

1. The whole Nation accounted holy

108

2. Other Vows that might be redeemed :-

II. Members of the Jewish Church.-Hebrews of the

i. Vows of Dedication

ib.

Hebrews

ib.

ii. Vows of Self-Interdiction, or Absti.

II. Proselytes

108, 109

nence. Of the Nazareate

ib.

IV. Jews of the Dispersion

109

V. Hellenists

110
VI. Libertines

Section II. On the Prayers and Fasts of the Jews.

ib.
VII. Devout Men

ib.

VIII. Circumcision

110, 111

I. Various Appellations given to Prayers

131

II. Public Prayers

ib.

III. Private Prayers.-Attitudes of the Jews during

Section II. On the Ministers of the Temple and

Prayer

131, 132

other Ecclesiastical or Sacred Persona.

IV. Forms of Prayer in use among the Jews

132

V. Fasts of the Jews :-

I. Of the Levites .

1. Public Fasts

ib.

111, 112

II. The Priests, their Functions, Maintenance, and

2. Private Fasts

ib.

Privileges

112, 113

3. Solemnities of the Jewish Fasts

ib.

IN. The High-priest, his Functions, Dress, and Pri-

vileges .

Succession to the Pontifical Dignity

113, 114 Section III. On the Purifications of the Jews.

IV. Officers of the Synagogue

114, 115

115

V. The Nazarites; Nature of their Vows

I. Materials with which the Purifications of the Jews

116

VI. The Rechabites

were performed

133

ib.

VII. The Prophets.

II. Ceremonies of Purification

ib.

ib.

III. Of the Persons lustrated

ib.

IV. Account of the different kinds of legal Impurities,

Chapter III. Sacred Things.On the Sacrifices and

particularly

other Offerings of the Jews.

1. The Leprosy of the Person

133, 134

2. The Leprosy of Clothes

134

General Classification of Sacrifices and Offerings .

3. The House-Leprosy,

ib.

I. Bloody Offerings, and the Divine Origin of

116

V. Minor legal Impurities and their Lustrations

ib.

Sacrifices

117

1. Different kinds of Victims

ib. Chapter VI. On the Corruptions of Religion by the

2. Selection of Victims

ib.

Jews.

3. Manner of presenting them

2b.

4. Immolation of the Sacrifice .

5. The Place and Time appointed for Sacri-

117, 118 Section I. On the Idolatry of the Jews.

ficing

6. Different kinds of Fire Sacrifices

118 I. Origin and Progress of Pagan Idolatry

135

ib.

i. Burnt-Offerings

Sketch of its History and Progress among the

ib.

ii. Peace-Offerings

Israelites and Jews

135, 136

ib.

jii. Sin-Offerings

II. Idols worshipped by the Israelites alone

136, 137

ib.

iv. Trespass-Offerings

III. Idols of the Ammonites, worshipped by the Israel.

ib.

ites

139

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