previously doing, which we believed to have been about the temperature of 250, though we did not test it very accurately. In order to effect this Mr. Gurney used a very beautiful contrivance, by which, by the power of the steam-jet, water was driven into the shaft along with the chokedamp in the form of the finest spray. Indeed, the best idea that is to be given of it is that it resembled Scotch mist, a medium universally admitted to have very rapid and powerful cooling properties. This process Mr. Gurney thought very important, as he considered the difficulty of cooling the immense magazine of heat after the fire was extinguished, to prevent reignition on the admission of fresh air, to be the most uncertain part of the whole experiment. That he could extinguish the fire he had no doubt whatever, but to cool down the waste against the existing conditions of non-conduction and non-radiation, he considered far more difficult.

From the Morning Chronicle, 17th May.,

THE UNITED STATES IN THE EXHIBITION. THE number of articles sent from the United States to the Exhibition is neither what was expected of them, nor, we believe, does it adequately represent their capabilities. There are, nevertheless, many things in their collection which may be examined with interest and profit, and which do credit to their industry, ingenuity, and skill.


Foremost among the articles displayed in this division of the Exhibition are a coach, three or four wagons, a "buggy," technically so called, and a trotting sulky." We call these "foremost," because, both by the prominent place they occupy, and on account of the real merit of the vehicles themselves, they are really so. The coach-styled by the exhibitor a "carriola”—is a very creditable piece of workmanship. It is of good design, apparently most thoroughly well built, and finished with great regard to good taste. There is nothing of the gewgaw style about it. The color, decorations, mountings, finish, and ornaments are all rich and neat. It sweeps gracefully over its curve, as a coach ought to sweep. The carvings upon it are admirably well executed, and, for symmetry and good keeping in every part. from the step of the footman to the board of the driver, it deserves high commendation. The wheels are much lighter than in carriages of a similar kind in England. This is claimed as a decided improvement. Certainly the appearance of the vehicle is improved by the absence of that bulkiness which gives a lumbering aspect to many an English carriage; and, if the roads of our transallantic brethren are not too rough to deal fairly with such wheels, we know not why they should be considered unsafe upon English turnpikes.

The water being so minutely divided by the immense force of the jet, was held in suspension in the air, and floated on with it through the water. A large portion was in actual solution, but far the greater part was simply mechanically suspended like fine mist, and did not precipitate or condense. When the temperature was sufficiently reduced, as indicated by the thermometer, so as to leave no fear of reignition, fresh air was blown in by the spray-jet, so as to pass through the mine charged with water, in order to cool it enough to allow of its being entered. After a time the action of the jet was reversed, and the air drawn through the mine in a contrary direction, so drawing out the air we had blown in charged with mist, and we continued drawing out mist or vapor for several days, which showed that it had filled every part of the waste, and had remained suspended. The The other vehicles exhibited are respectively entemperature of the air that was drawn out gradu-titled a York wagon, a Prince Albert wagon, a ally decreased at the rate of about six degrees a slide-top buggy, and a trotting sulky. The chief day. After about one month's operations the down-characteristic of all of these is their extreme lightcast shaft was uncovered and descended, and foundness of weight, when compared with their size. They to be of a temperature of about 98. The waste was examined by Mr. Mather, who had reported that falls had taken place so as to leave no passage to enable us to go any distance into it. A shaft was then sunk into the middle of the burning waste at the point where the fire was supposed to have been most fierce at the commencement of our operations. The roof was here found to have fallen, so that it was impossible to enter. The fire, however, was extinct. Several bore-holes have been driven into the waste at different points, and no fire can be discovered; and this mighty volcano is extinct. The vast amount of property endangered, (in this case of the value of near £200,000,) and the frequency of the occurrence of these kinds of accidents, give a great public interest to this operation. It is but two years ago that the proprietor of the Dalquarren coal-mine in Ayrshire, lost in half an hour £1,200 a year by a fire breaking out in one of his pits, which led to the total abandonment of the seam in which it occurred. It has burnt and destroyed the wood on the surface, and extended over fourteen acres, but is now, I may add, undergoing extinction by the same process, with every prospect of success. The great importance of the subject, in connection with the commercial and mining wealth of the country, must be my excuse for trespassing thus much on your columns and on the public patience.

I remain, sir, your obedient servant, EDWARD CAYLEY. 9, Manchester Buildings, Westminster, May 1.

are richly finished within and without, and beautifully carved; they are upholstered with exceeding taste, made with constant regard to the comfort of the rider, and exhibit very considerable artistic merit in their design. The wheels are made from carefully chosen material, the joints exactly fitted, the felloes (two in number, instead of the usual five or six, for greater strength) are confined by a steel insertion and bolts, and the axletrees are exceedingly neat and strong. It is claimed for these axletrees (an American invention) that, in loss of friction, strength, freedom from all noise in motion, and cleanliness, they are superior to any in England. Several of these lighter carriages are now in use in this country, and give great satisfaction; and several more of a similar manufacture have been recently ordered from New York. Indeed, it is not difficult to understand why they should become favorites out of London; nor how reluctantly a lover of quick driving would return to the heavier vehicles of city manufacture.

There are several sets of harness, both single and double, among the articles exhibited, which deserve notice. That exhibited by Messrs Lacey and Phillips is a rich and elegant specimen of manufacture. It is made from leather of the first quality, and with perfect thoroughness of work. The mountings are of solid silver, with appropriate and graceful designs. In this, as in all the other harness shown, there is remarkable lightness and airiness, and an obvious endeavor to do away with all superabundance of weight.

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On a bay in the main aisle, upon the south side | same purpose is uncertain. In the minds of sailors of the building, are two chandeliers and several there is always an objection to fixtures above deck, lamps, from the manufactory of Messrs. Cornelius which would be likely to impede their general inand Co., in Philadelphia. The great use of oil introduction. the United States has led to many improvements in Together with daguerreotypes, before alluded to, lamps-especially in those upon the solar principle, there are exhibited camera obscuras by C. C. Haras it is called (where increased draught is made rison, of New York, the results of which, in the to bear upon the combustion) which are unknown pictures that hang above them, are exceedingly among us. Unpretending as these lamps appear, favorable. There are shawls from the Bay State it is stated that they will give an amount of light mills, of beautiful color and a high perfection of greater by one half than any others in use The manufacture; white cotton goods, which, in bleachchandeliers hanging above them are graceful speci-ing, finishing, and putting up, appear equal to mens of workmanship, designed in good taste, and Manchester products; some very beautiful flannels, showing a crystal purity of glass. The casting is single-milled doeskins and wool-back cassimeres of remarkable for its fineness, sharpness, and uniform-thorough fabric; tweeds, well mixed and of good ity. The branches, formed by arabesque scrolls, colors; a salamander safe, well made; an improved -profusely ornamented with birds and flowers, bank lock, ingenious and well executed; a patent delicately sculptured or in bold relief, with centres paying machine for pitching the seams of vessels, of richly cut glass, claim particular approval for the box being provided with a ventrical wheel, their elegance and lightness of design. This is which receives the hot melted material, and applies among the youngest branches of manufacture in the it neatly, economically, and directly to the seam to United States, it being scarcely fifteen years since be covered; an air-exhausted coffin, car-wheels for every chandelier, girandole, mantel lamp, and rail-roads, wood and cork legs, clocks, watches, candelabra used in that country was imported from dentists' tools and works, India-rubber goods of Europe; and it argues considerable enterprise and various forms, mathematical and solar instruments, perseverance, on the part of the manufacturers, a self-determining variation compass, trunks, boots that they have attained so much excellence as to be and shoes, hats, specimens of printing and binding, willing to vie in the Exhibition with the oldest and together with pistols, rifles, and other weapons of most celebrated houses of the world. offence and defence. Of these rifles, manufactured by Robbins and Lawrence, it is but just to say that they are among the best, if not the best, of any rifles manufactured in the world, the Americans claiming to excel in this species of manufacture. They are made from the best selected Copake coldblast forge iron, and are of an unpretending style, but remarkable for a plain, substantial and perfect finish; they are strong, simple, and thorough in their workmanship, and eminently adapted for real service.

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On the south side of their portion of the building, the contributors from the States exhibit, under the general classification of raw material, many very excellent specimens. There are among these a large variety of articles, such as Indian corn, ground, hulled, and in the ear; rye, oats, barley, wheat, rice, cotton, tobacco, minerals, chemicals, woods, brooms, beef, pork, lard, hams, and almost everything else identified with the productions of that country. Next in order are to be seen daguerreotypes, paintings, herbaria, and prints, Two bell telegraphs, exhibited in the central with some samples of stained glass suspended from avenue, very deservedly attract much attention. the galleries, and cottons, carpetings, wrought The bell telegraph, otherwise called an annunquilts, calicoes, and needlework, tastefully diplayed ciator," is an invention made to supersede the awkaround. Considering the distance from which ward array of bells, in houses and hotels. It is an these had to be conveyed, not only across 3000 extremely neat and beautiful article, and indicates miles of ocean, but often from little short of that whence the bell was rung, by uncovering a number distance inland-and considering, too, that it is not corresponding to the number of the room-and this, in her manufactures that America makes her chief too, for any length of time afterwards, until, by the impression upon the world-we regard this portion touch of a spring, the number is recovered. In the of her exhibition with great interest. In piano-large hotels in the United States, and in many fortes there is a show highly creditable to the manufacture of musical instruments in the United States. Pirson exhibits a seven-octave grand pianoforte; Chickering a semi-grand, and other instruments of less pretension but of much merit. There are two from the manufactory of Conrad Meyer, of Philadelphia, in neat and very unpretending cases, which combine all the best qualities of the highest rank of pianos. In breadth, freedom, and evenness of tone, in promptness and elasticity of action, and in a combination of every thing that is rich and sweet in this description of instrument, he claims to be unsurpassed.

Among cordage, boats, oars, and models of favorite ships, are exhibited two ship-ventilators, by Frederick Emerson, of Boston. These are intended to supersede the ordinary wind-sail now in use for sending pure air into the recesses of ships. The inventor has given much attention to the subject of ventilation, and his success has been honored by several gold medals in the United States. How far this application of his invention may be superior to the methods now in use for the

private residences, it is much used.

In the moving machinery department, among other objects of interest from the United States, is a machine exhibited by Mr. Charles Morey, called a stone-dressing machine. A machine for dressing stone by power has long been regarded as a great desideratum, and has been the object of many expensive though unsuccessful experiments. One great difficulty has been found in making the cutting tools of a quality to stand the action of stone, unless at such cost as to render their use unprofitable. This difficulty is overcome by the invention before us, which consists in the employment of chilled cast-iron burrs, or rolling cutters. Iron, as is now known, may, by a peculiar process of chilling in casting, be converted to a diamond hardness, that perfectly fits it for reducing, with great facility and economy, the surface of stone. The burrs made in this way retain a sufficient degree of sharpness for a long time, and can be maintained at a small cost, being wholly formed and finished in casting. In dressing circular forms, the stones are made to revolve, when the burrs, which are mounted in

sliding rests, are brought into action. For straight of iron, are very compact, very durable, easily resurfaces, however, the stones are laid on a trans- paired, and are warranted to clean from 15 bushels verse bed, and the cutters, mounted upon a revolv- to 150 bushels per hour, according to the size of ing cylinder, are placed above them. The burrs the machine. These implements are in very general or cutters are so arranged as to turn freely on their use in the United States and in Canada, and are axis when brought in contact with the stone, and worthy the attention of all who are engaged in as they roll over it they crush it away in the form milling grain. of scales and dust. By varying the shape and arrangements of the burrs, ornamental surfaces may be produced.

Among the agricultural implements exhibited which claim the attention of agriculturists particularly, are reaping machines, ploughs, cultivators, fan mills, and smut machines. The American reapers are worked by a single span of horses abreast, with a driver and a man to rake off the grain as it is cut down by movable knives. On land free from obstructions, these reapers will cut from twelve to twenty acres of wheat in a day, depending somewhat upon the speed of the horses and the state of the grain. The grain is left in a proper condition for the binders, who follow after the machine, and the grain is cut quite as clean as by any other method, either by the sickle or the cradle. M'Cormick's Virginia reaper (No. 73) is in very general use, 1,800 machines having, we believe, been sold in the United States in 1850. Hussy's reaper (No. 65) is also in general use, and operates remarkably well. These implements will enable the farmer to gather his crop in a very short time, securing the wheat and other grain at the very time it is in proper condition for harvesting, thus avoiding the alternative to which he now is obliged to resort, of harvesting a portion of his field before fully ripe, and a portion after it is too ripe to make the best flour. In point of economy they are very important, reducing the expense very much from that of the ordinary methods. In a climate as variable as that of Great Britain, the importance of these reaping machines must be apparent enabling the farmer often in a single day to secure a crop which otherwise might be materially injured by the unfavorable state of the weather. The ploughs exhibited are of various sizes, and adapted to various purposes, from a small one-horse plough for ploughing out Indian corn, sugar-cane, potatoes, turnips, &c., to the large plough for breaking up the stiffest soils. They are made of the best materials, are strong and durable, and are warranted to do their work in the very best manner. They are said to be of lighter draught than most ploughs in use, being worked in ordinary soils with entire ease by a single span of medium-sized horses. Among the ploughs exhibited is one upon a new principle, which has not heretofore been in use. It is a plough with two shares-one in front of the other on the same beam-the first being a small share, which takes off some three or four inches, and the other following, and being wider, takes a furrow of eight or ten inches deep, bringing up the soil so as to cover the first furrow entirely, leaving the land in a friable state, and ready for the seed after a slight harrowing. This is designed particularly for stiff soils, and for ploughing in green manure-such as clover, green crop, or other; and it completely covers the herbage, leaving the land in a fine condition for the seed. The cultivators exhibited are convenient and useful implements, at very moderate prices, and work well. The fan mills for cleaning grain are believed to possess some properties which are not found in those generally used-cleaning grain which is damp most perfectly. The smut machines exhibited are made

There are several smaller implements in the Exhibition which will commend themselves to every observer.

From the Times.

Exchequer Chamber, May 17.

(Sittings in Error.-Present, Lord CAMPBELL, and Justices PATTESON, MAULE, WIGHTMAN, CRESSWELL, ERLE, and WILLIAMS.)


MR. BOVILL said this case came before the court by way of a bill of exceptions to the ruling of Baron Rolfe. The object was to bring under review the decision of the Court of Exchequer in the case of "Boosey v. Purday," to raise the question whether there could be any copyright for a foreigner in this country, or whether such a right could be vested in any person who purchased of that foreigner. There was another question, whether there could be any assignment by a foreigner of a portion of the copyright to be confined to Great Britain, and whether an assignment made in Milan ought to have been attested by two witnesses. The facts were these:-Boosey was an English subject; he had purchased the copyright in La Sonnambula of a foreigner, and having purchased that right was the first person to publish it in this country. He had thus a prima facie title against the world; that title was sought to be impeached by the defendant, and his ground for doing so was that the work which he had purchased, and was the first to publish here, was originally composed by Bellini, a foreigner out of the British dominions. Bellini had transferred his interest in the work to Ricordi, at Milan. Ricordi came to England and transferred the right which he had so acquired to Boosey, so far as regarded the copyright in the British dominions. The main question was, whether an English subject could acquire from a foreigner the copyright of a work which was first published in this country. If a foreigner could acquire a copyright, he could transfer such right, and if he had no right, could he not give such permission to an English subject as to enable the Englishman to acquire the right to protection? On the other side it was said there was no property in the foreigner or in the English subject; but it was now submitted that such a work was property before the statute of Anne, and by the common law. The 8th Anne was the first statute passed for the protection of property of this description of literary property.

Mr. Justice Maule.-Suppose Homer had a copyright, he could go about and recite his works. Lord Campbell.-And might have had an injunction.

Mr. Bovill. If there was the copy of one effusion of a man's brain he might withhold it or lend it or dispose of it. The statute of Anne was declared to be for the encouragement of learning by vesting the copyright in the author of literary works, and it enacted that after 1710, the author of any book, who had not transferred it to any other, or the book

seller who had purchased it, should have the right. | right to the copyright, and that the plaintiff in error If the right existed in the author, an alien was was entitled to judgment. entitled equally with a natural-born subject. If it was property, it was self-evident an alien was entitled.

Lord Campbell.-In personal property the law made no distinction.

Mr. Bovill.-By 7th and 8th Victoria, chap. 66, aliens might hold any description of personal property. If foreigners had a right by common law, how were they affected by the statute of Anne?

Lord Campbell.-Suppose a foreigner came over to see the Great Exhibition; he wrote a poem, would he not have a right to that poem?

Mr. Justice Maule.-Or suppose he wrote a very amusing article about it in a French paper? Mr. Peacock said, the difference was as to the place in which he wrote it.

Mr. Bovill.-If the foreigner had the right, what difference did it make whether he wrote it here or elsewhere?

Lord Campbell.-He was encouraging our agriculture and manufactures by consuming our produce while he was writing the poem.

Mr. Bovill.If the test were property or no property, it could make no difference, and it could not alter his right, whether he brought it here himself or gave it to a deputy; and if he could do that, he might transfer it to another, and give him the same right which he himself possessed. But it was said that the statute of Anne had been passed for the encouragement of native talent; but it was of equal advantage to this country that we should have the benefit, not only of the first publication of works of British subjects, but of the literature of the world.

Lord Campbell.-That argument extends to free trade.

Mr. Justice Maule.-A book written by a foreigner may be published with as much benefit as if written by an Englishman.

Mr. Bovill said, the enactments were for the encouragement of learning, to be applied to the public. He could find no reason why the right should be confined to British subjects. The learned counsel then adverted to the 1st Richard, and to the art of printing.

Lord Campbell.—If you go to the exhibition of painting, you will see a very excellent painting of Edward IV. and his queen visiting Caxton's printing establishment at Westminster, where Richard III. appears as Duke of Glocester.

Mr. Bovill said, the result of the authorities was that foreign authors might have the benefit. If it was admitted that these works were property, then there was no difference between a foreigner and an Englishman. In the case of wild animals

Lord Campbell said, stealing a lion, I suppose, would not be larceny, but there might be an action of trover.

Mr. Justice Maule.-It might be a tamed lionnot that I should be inclined to commit the larceny; but this is wandering from the point, and is something like a wild goose chase.

Mr. Peacock, on the other side, would not dispute that a portion of a copyright might be sold, or that a foreigner might be entitled to copyright in this kingdom, or that a foreigner, if he had a copyright, might recover damages for its infringement, but he should contend that under the particular circumstances of this case the plaintiff had not a copyright. His proposition was, that a foreign author residing abroad, and not coming to this country, had no right, so long as he resided abroad at the time of the first publication, to claim protection. Where was the first publication? and where was the author at that time?

Mr. Justice Maule.-A foreign author, not having published it, assigns it to an Englishman, and the Englishman publishes in England after the assignment, the foreigner still living abroad. You say that the Englishman has no remedy for the infringement.

Mr. Peacock. That the foreign author could not assign a right which he did not possess. A foreign author, who was residing abroad at the time when the first publication of his work took place in this country by his consent, had no copyright, and that an author in that situation could not transfer to an assignee any greater title than he had himself.

Mr. Justice Maule.-Suppose an actual inventor abroad sent over and obtained a patent in this country, would not that be a good patent?

Lord Campbell.-When I had the honor of being attorney-general I believe I granted many patents to persons abroad.

Mr. Peacock. If a person introduced his invention abroad, he could not afterwards come here and obtain a patent.

Mr. Justice Maule.-So that persons might get their bread in the world, and support their wives and families, which was said to be laudable, by merely printing books published abroad by other person: ¿?

Mr. Peacock admitted that there were no words expressly limiting the right to native-born subjects. A man was not the author of a work until it was published. He would then urge that to make the assignment to Ricordi valid it should have been attested by two witnesses.

Lord Campbell said, he confessed he had little or no doubt upon the point, but from the high respect he had for the Court of Exchequer, he should like to take further time, and the court would probably give its opinion on Tuesday.


19 May.

THE Court was crowded to hear the judgment in this case.

Lord Campbell said-This was an action for pirating a musical composition, entitled "A Cavatina from the Opera of La Sonnambula," by Bellina. The declaration, which is in the common form, alleges that this musical composition had first been published in England within 28 years; that the Mr. Bovill was about to proceed, when plaintiff was the proprietor of the copyright thereLord Campbell said-I made my bow of grati-in; and that the copyright was subsisting at the tude to you, Mr. Boville, for your very excellent argument, but I thought you had sat down.

Mr. Bovill, amid great laughter, said he had but a few words to add. He submitted that he had made out the proposition that this work was property at common law, that a foreigner had a

time when the grievances complained of were committed. The defendant pleads-first, that the plaintiff was not the proprietor of the copyright in the declaration mentioned; secondly, that there was not at the time of the committing of the said supposed grievances a subsisting copyright in the

composition. The trial coming on before Baron Rolfe, now Lord Cranworth, evidence was given on behalf of the plaintiff, that the opera of La Sonnambula, from which the composition in question was taken, was composed by Bellini, an alien at Milan, in February, 1831; that Bellini then resided and had ever since resided at Milan; that by the law of Milan he was entitled to the copyright in this work, and to assign it to any one he pleased; that on the 19th of February, 1831, by an instrument in writing, signed by him at Milan, he did, according to the law of Milan, assign the copyright to Ricordi, also an alien; that such copyright and the right to assign the same became vested in Ricordi; that on the 9th of June, 1831, Ricordi, in England, made, signed, and sealed, attested by two witnesses, an indenture, whereby, for a valuable consideration, he assigned the copyright of the opera of La Sonnambula, for and in Great Britain, to the plaintiff, who was a native-born British subject; that the plaintiff published the opera of La Sonnambula in London on the 10th of June, 1831; that there had been no prior publication of it in Great Britain or any other country; that on the 10th of June, 1831, the plaintiff made the usual entry at Stationers'-hall in respect of the publication, and deposited copies at the British Museum and other places, and on the 13th of May, 1844, he caused further entries to be made at Stationers'-hall, according to the 5th and 6th Victoria, c. 45. The learned judge, in conformity with the decision of the Court of Exchequer in "Boosey and Purday," directed the jury that that evidence was not sufficient, and directed them to find a verdict for the defendant. To this ruling a bill of exceptions was tendered, upon which the present writ of error was brought. After listening to a very learned argument, we are all of opinion that the evidence was sufficient to entitle the plaintiff to a verdict on both the issues, and therefore there must be a venire de novo. The first question discussed was whether authors had a copyright in their works at common law. That is not essential to our determination of the present case; if it were, we are strongly inclined to agree with Lord Mansfield and other judges, who in several cases declared themselves to be in favor of the common law right of authors, but we rest our judgment on the statutes respecting literary property, which we think entitled the plaintiff to maintain this action upon the evidence adduced on the trial -the Court of Exchequer in "Boosey and Purday," 4 Exchequer Reports, 145, overruling the prior decision of that court on the equity side, the decision of the Common Pleas and the decisions of the Queen's Bench, authorities all directly in point, expressing an opinion that in such an action the right of the plaintiff must depend on the statyte law of this country; that the laws of foreign nations have no extra-territorial power, and the proper construction of the statutes of Anne and of George III., that a foreign author residing abroad | was not an author within their meaning, and could not have a copyright in his works, which acts were intended for the encouragement of British talent, by giving to British authors a monopoly in their literary works, dating from the period of their first publication here. The learned judge therefore held that a foreigner by publishing his work in Great Britain acquired no copyright. If these premises are sound, the inference drawn from them is incontrovertible, that a British subject who purchases from a foreigner such a right as he had in his own country cannot be in a better condition

here than the foreigner would have been himself. But, with great deference to an opinion so expressed, we see no sufficient reason for thinking that it was the intention of the legislature to exclude foreigners from the benefit of the statutes. The British Parliament has no power, and cannot be supposed to intend to legislate for aliens beyond the British territory; but within that territory it has the power, and, as we conceive, the general words must be presumed to do so. The nonopoly which the statutes conferred is to be enjoyed here, and the conditions which they require for enjoyment are to be presumed here. What is there to rebut the presumption that aliens are entitled? The 8th Anne, c. 19, is entitled "An Act for the Encour agement of Learning," by vesting the right in printed books in authors. Assuming the legisla ture intended this necessarily for the encouragement of learning in Great Britain, may it not be highly for the encouragement of learning in this country that foreigners should be induced to send their works here to be first published in London? If Rapin and De Lolme had written their valuable works without ever visiting this country, could it be contended that they should be debarred from assigning their property to the publisher? It would ill become us to offer opinions upon the policy of introducing agricultural produce or manufactures, but, looking at the statutes, we may without impropriety observe that it has been the uniform policy of Parliament to facilitate the importation of foreign literature. Although printing had been introduced and carried on by Caxton in the time of Edward IV., when an act passed to restrain foreigners from carrying on trade here, a provision was added by section 12, that that act should not extend to prevent any trader, of whatever nation he might be, from bringing into this country any books written or printed. The question really is, whether a foreigner by sending to a publisher his work here acquires a copyright. Upon this depends his right to transfer his right to another. It is admitted that a foreigner, if he composes a literary work here,, may acquire a copyright, and Mr. Peacock would not deny that if a foreigner, being here for a temporary purpose, while here wrote a poem, he might publish it and acquire a copyright in it here. If he had composed it in his own country and brought it over in his memory and produced it here for the first time, or if he had written out a book in manuscript, would it have made any difference as to his rights? Can his personal appearance within our realm be essential to his right as an author, if he does that by an agent which it is not disputed he might do in his own proper person? The right is to acquire a monopoly in England for the sale of his work; the right is personal property, which he carries with him wherever he is, and all that is to be done to negotiate it he may do by another. Where, then, can be the necessity of crossing from Calais to Dover before giving instructions for the publication of his work and entering it at Stationers -hall? The law of England will protect his property, and recognize his rights, and give him redress for wrongs inflicted upon him here. In the 6th of Henry VIII. the Common Pleas held that aliens residing in France might maintain an action of debt here, although aliens can have no land. It has been held that an alien, although he had never been in this country, might maintain an action for an injury to his reputation contained in a libeland that great judge, Chief Justice Tindal, had observed that it would create in foreigners an un

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