the American minister knows no disparities among | measure of increased business in the foreign departhis countrymen; all are eligible; but the English ment. minister entertains abroad only his own circle at home. Of course, if he is a nobleman plebeians are not admissible. This at least is Lord Palmerston's version of diplomatic etiquette

"As a large portion of the English travellers are persons who travel for business purposes, is there not a large portion of them who never expect to be invited to the embassy at Paris?"-" Many of them may be invited to the balls at the embassy, but they do not expect to be dined unless they are personally known to the ambassador; those who are not personally known to the ambassador cannot reasonably expect that he should ask them to dinner."

There is only Malthus' fare for them; they may come to the ball and sport a toe, but no plate is laid for them at the palatial residence, which cost 36,000l. in building, and unknown sums in keeping in repair.

Allowing increased activity, doubts may be entertained of a corresponding increase of remunerative returns. In our intercourse abroad the cooperation of the foreign office has not always been essential to successful negotiations; instances were referred to by the salaries committee in which beneficial arrangements had been consummated without any aid from diplomacy. With Spain all diplomatic intercourse had been suspended since the retirement of Sir Henry Bulwer in the spring of 1848. In the interval of two years there had been no communication between the foreign office and the government at Madrid. But English consuls continued to exercise their functions at the Spanish ports; and, strange to relate, the commerce between the two countries has suffered no interruption or detriment; it has, in fact, increased, especially with Malaga. Further, in the interval of suspended diplomatic relations we have obtained commercial Leaving salaries, it is fit to advert to the duties concessions from Spain which we had vainly they compensate. They certainly appear on the sought by political negotiations during the previous first view onerous, and lately to have greatly in- twenty years. Her tariff has been relaxed on many creased. According to Sir George Seymour's articles that England sends to Spain; and this statement, they are oppressive. Upon being asked relaxation seems to have been accelerated by the to give some idea of the routine duties of an embas- circumstance that we had no ambassador at Madrid sy, such as that of Lisbon, to which city he was to excite the jealousy of the French government; accredited, he replied, that "they are very multi- nor could the popular prejudices, in the absence of farious and laborious; I can safely say that I worked the English embassy, be so successfully appealed hard enough to injure my health." He breakfasted to by Spanish monopolists, representing that our at nine, and, immediately after, "set to work and minister was only striving for an alteration in prowrote till two or three o'clock." He had night-tective duties for the special advantage of England work too; leaving company at ten o'clock, and then and the injury of native industry. laboring at his correspondence till two o'clock, In Portugal, too, no reason exists for concluding answering the Madeira consul, the Oporto consul, that diplomacy has worked favorably for English the consul in the Western Islands, and the unceas- commerce; at least it has wholly failed in obtaining inquiries of English merchants. At the foreigning any relaxation in her tariff, &c.; on the office, too, there must needs be great industry in contrary, Portugese commerce has become more dealing with the innumerable and constantly in- restrictive than heretofore. Sir George Seymour coming despatches from ambassadors, their secre- thinks matters would have been worse without his taries and attachés. Lord Palmerston is asked-residence at Lisbon; but this may be doubted; and Upon the average, what is the amount of official the Portuguese ministers like Narvaez, in Spain, foolscap which those gentlemen cover in the de- might have been better enabled to deal with native spatches to the foreign office here, which come interests and prejudices had political relations been twice a week is it considerable in amount?"-" It suspended with Portugal as well as in the adjoinis considerable, and annually increasing. I have ing kingdom. here a statement of the number of despatches received and sent out from the foreign office to all parts of the world in different years; in the year 1829, for instance, the whole number was 10,760; in the year 1849, it was 30,735."


The multiplication of transactions, and the greater importance of events, with increased facilities and rapidity of communication, are the causes assigned for this large augmentation. Further explanations, however, may be given. Official despatches and the answers to them may not be so voluminous as heretofore. In private life the penny post has augmented enormously the amount of correspondence; but it would be erroneous to conclude that the increase in the quantity of foolscap used has been proportionate to the increase in the number of letters. People now send and answer letters on the instant; the postage is not a consideration, and they have no occasion to postpone writing till matter enough accumulate to be worth the outlay of a shilling or eighteenpence. Similar causes, só far as facilities of transit have been opened, have doubtless tended to augment the correspondence of the public offices; but it would be a mistake to adopt Lord Palmerston's "arithmetical measure" of the increase of despatches as the

Ambassadors appear naturally obnoxious to suspicion; if they make a move on the chess-board, the ministers of other states must needs meet it by a counter-move; thus resistance is organized, and the intercourse of nations, whether for commercial or other objects, more likely to be obstructed than facilitated. Then, as to their assumed usefulness in procuring intelligence and watching over the policy of foreign governments, their pretensions are extremely questionable. State affairs have become the common property of all classes, not the exclusive topics of patrician saloons; and it is difficult to conjecture what information diplomatists can transmit, either earlier or superior to that open to every one in club or newsroom. In this the veteran minister, Sir George Seymour, concurs, and owns that "a man must be a very good diplomatist who will outstrip the newspapers." (Evidence, 2374.) What the journals do not contain, foreign ministers rarely communicate; of which the once engrossing but now forgotten Spanish marriage question is an example. Pending that Orleans intrigue, we had an ambassador at Madrid and another at Paris, with large salaries, good dinners, and all the other assumed requisite appliances for ferreting out intelligence; but they availed not. The match was

arranged without the slightest foreknowledge of Lord Palmerston, and consummated in the face of all his diplomatic videttes.

The long peace has nearly superseded diplomacy, and rendered the political relations of European states of secondary concernment. Commercial tariffs, railway communications, new postal arrangements, telegraphic intercourse, and conventions for the mutual surrender of criminals, now form the engrossing subjects of international interest and negotiation. For the due management of these, consulates seem the chief description of foreign missions requisite, and, under an improved system, likely to be more apt for the purpose than the pompous inanities of diplomacy. It forms a collateral branch of the subject, which the committee only incidentally referred to, strongly recommending it for investigation next session. Enough, however, was revealed to them to show the urgency of future and thorough inquiry into consular establishments. Nothing can be imagined more crude and inefficient than the existing system as respects the selection of consuls, their duties, occupations, and modes of remuneration. Of their qualifications the foreign secretary, who has the appointment of them, may be allowed to speak

highest terms of the strangers, for the constant employment and good wages they afford." To the westward, at Letterfrack, is another English settlement, formed by Messrs. Evans and Ellice, members of the Society of Friends, where hundreds of people are at work, reclaiming the wastes around the village. The writer adds, "A mile or two westward of Letterfrack, is another cluster of English or Scotch settlers, who are now hard at work in erecting large dwellings and stores. The quantity of land reclaimed here is incredible, and now under tillage and meadow. Here also the gardens and tillage fields of the natives show great marks of improvement, arising from the example set by the new comers. On the Mayo side of this region, it is said, "the scene is different, and scarcely a human habitation is to be seen, where hun→ dreds stood a few short summers since."

From Household Words.


THE first of the following Sonnets was quoted some years ago in a newspaper (the "Nation," if we remember rightly), with the following editorial note :—

Which of our readers can tell us the author of this sonnet-the noblest, we think, in the English lan"If I were to form my own estimate of the guage? It has the deep philosophy of Wordsworth, qualifications for the office of consul from the in the direct and nervous language of Milton. We estimate made by those who apply for the appoint-heard it recited some years ago as Coleridge's; but it ment, I should say that every former condition of life is considered a qualification for being a consul; whether a man has been in private life without any employment, or whether he has been a lawyer, or a merchant, or in the army, or in the navy, they all consider that they can fulfil the duties."

Foreigners many, or naval or military officers on half-pay, they are certainly a motley class; and the appointment is worth seeking; some of them, as those to Egypt, Algiers, Venice, Hamburg, Havana, Manilla, Tripoli, and Tunis, with not oppressive duties, have incomes of from 1800l. to not less than 10007. per annum.

ENGLISH SETTLERS IN THE WEST OF IRELAND.-An interesting account of the state of the wild and romantic district of Galway and Mayo, along the western coast, appears in the Castlebar Telegraph. The population, always very scanty in this region, has been greatly reduced by famine, emigration, and in some instances by clearances. But in various places there are appearances of revival and good cultivation, wherever English settlers are located. "We were told," says the writer, "that recently possession was given, on the part of Lord Sligo, to an English gentleman, of a large tract of country a few miles to the east of Delphi, which is about being stocked by the purchaser with sheep and horned cattle. Thousands of acres in this fairy land are capable of being put in use for tillage. We know not if we have been rightly informed, but we were told the purchase-money was only fivepence per acre for hill and lowlands. In other parts of those extensive wilds, especially in Connemara, English settlements have been formed, and occasionally are to be seen an hotel, a police-barrack, neat cottages, with numerous fields reclaimed beneath the towering hills, and fully cropped with oats, bere, barley, and potatoes. In Connemara, adjacent to Streamstown, is an English colony established by the Messrs. Eastwood, and it is stated that "the example they have set in reclaiming wastes and raising crops is now on a small scale emulated by the inhabitants, whose gardens are tastefully laid out with peas, onions, potatoes, &c. ; whilst the people speak in the

does not appear in any edition we have seen of his collected works; and though it is unmistakably of the Lake school, neither is it to be found among Wordsworth's or Southey's :


How seldom, friend, a good great man inherits
Honor and wealth, with all his worth and pains!
It seems a story from the world of spirits
When any man obtains that which he merits,
For shame, my friend, renounce this idle strain!
Or any merits that which he obtains.
What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?
Wealth, title, dignity, a golden chain,

Or heap of corses which his sword hath slain?
Goodness and greatness are not means, but cuds.
Hath he not always treasures, always friends,
The good great man? Three treasures, love, and light,
And calm thoughts, equable as infant's breath;
And three fast friends, more sure than day or night-
Himself, his Maker, and the Angel Death.*

The following answer, (not as to who wrote the sonnet, for that is still unknown to us,) was written in 1847, and is now printed for the first time. Its applicability to the newly-projected Guild of Literature and Art, will be sufficiently apparent.


His hand with grasping, nor his soul with guile,
I would not have a great good man defile
Nor sacrifice, to any outward things,
His inward splendor and his upward wings.

To the world's bitterness and pinching facts-
But also, would I not behold him blind
Far less, if means of life with a free mind

Be his, while penury his friend distracts.
Oh, noble sage, forget not, when the hour
Of inspiration ends, that for its lamp
To burn with purity and constant power,

Oil, and four walls, that reek not with the damp,
Are needful, that the man with steady eye
May look in his wife's face nor o'er his children sigh.

*The author is Coleridge.


I HAD scarcely finished my breakfast, when a group of officers rode up to my quarters to visit



The road

"Well, there it is yonder," and he handed me My arrival had already created an immense his glass as he spoke; “you see that large beetsensation in the city, and all kinds of rumors ling cliff, with the olives at the foot. There, on were afloat as to the tidings I had brought. The the summit, stands the Monte Faccio. meagreness of the information would, indeed, the pathway rather, and a steep one it ishave seemed in strong contrast to the enterprise leads up where you see those goats feeding, and and hazard of the escape, had I not the craft to crosses in front of the crag, directly beneath the eke it out by that process of suggestion and spec- fire of the batteries. There's not a spot on the ulation in which I was rather an adept. whole ascent where three men could march abreast, and wherever there is any shelter from fire, the guns of the Sprona,' that small fort to the right, take the whole position. What do you think of your counsel now?"

Little in substance as my information was, all the younger officers were in favor of acting upon it. The English are no bad judges of our position and chances, was the constant argument. They see exactly how we stand; they know the relative forces of our army, and the enemy's; and if the "cautious islanders"-such was the phrase-advised a coup de main, it surely must have much in its favor. I lay stress upon the remark, trifling as it may seem; but it is curious to know, that with all the immense successes of England on sea, her reputation, at that time, among Frenchmen, was rather for prudent and well-matured undertaking, than for those daring enterprises which are as much the character of her courage.

"You forget, sir, it is not my counsel. I merely repeat what I overheard."

"And do you mean to say that the men who gave that advice were serious, or capable of adopting it themselves ?"

"Most assuredly; they would never recommend to others what they felt unequal to themselves. I know these English well, and so much will I say of them."

"Bah!" cried he, with an insolent gesture of his hand, and turned away; and I could plainly see that my praises of the enemy were very illtaken. In fact, my unlucky burst of generosity had done more to damage my credit, than all the dangerous or impracticable features of my scheme. Every eye was turned to the bold precipice, and the stern fortress that crowned it, and all agreed that an attack must be hopeless.

My visitors continued to pour in during the morning, officers of every arm and rank, some from mere idle curiosity, some to question and interrogate, and not a few to solve doubts in their mind as to my being really French, and a soldier, and not an agent of that perfide Albion, whose treachery was become a proverb among us. Many I saw, too late, the great fault I had committed, were disappointed at my knowing so little. I and that nothing could be more wanting in tact neither could tell the date of Napoleon's passing than to suggest to Frenchmen an enterprise which St. Gothard, nor the amount of his force; neither Englishmen deemed practicable, and which yet, knew I whether he meant to turn eastward to-to the former, seemed beyond all reach of success. wards the plains of Lombardy, or march direct to The insult was too palpable and too direct, but to the relief of Genoa. Of Moreau's successes in retract was impossible, and I had now to sustain Germany, too, I had only heard vaguely; and, of a proposition which gave offence on every side. course, could recount nothing. I could overhear, It was very mortifying to me to see how soon all occasionally, around and about me, the murmurs my personal credit was merged in this unhappy of dissatisfaction my ignorance called forth, and theory. No one thought more of my hazardous was not a little grateful to an old artillery cap-escape, the perils I encountered, or the sufferings tain for saying, "That's the very best thing I had undergone. All that was remembered of about the lad; a spy would have had his whole me was the affront I had offered to the national lesson by heart." courage, and the preference I had implied to English bravery.

"You are right, sir," cried I, catching at the words; "I may know but little, and that little, perhaps, valueless and insignificant; but my truth no man shall gainsay."

This boldness of speech from one wasted and miserable as I was, with tattered shoes and ragged clothes, caused a hearty laugh, in which, as much from policy as feeling, I joined myself.

"Come here, mon cher," said an Infantry colonel, as, walking to the door of the room, he drew his telescope from his pocket, "you tell us of a coup de main-on the Monte Faccio, is it not?" "Yes," replied I, promptly, "so I understand the name."

"Well, have you ever seen the place?"

Never did I pass a more tormenting day; new arrivals continually refreshed the discussion, and always with the same results; and although some were satisfied to convey their opinions by a shake of the head or a dubious smile, others, more candid than civil, plainly intimated that if I had nothing of more consequence to tell, I might as well have stayed where I was, and not added one more to a garrison so closely pressed by hunger. Very little more of such reasoning would have persuaded myself of its truth, and I almost began to wish that I was once more back in "the sick bay" of the frigate.

Towards evening I was left alone; my host

went down to the town on duty; and after the visit of a tailor, who came to try on me a staff uniform a distinction, I afterwards learned, owing to the abundance of this class of costume, and not to any claims I could prefer to the rank-I was perfectly free to stroll about where I pleased, unmolested, and, no small blessing, unquestioned.

Meditating on these things, I strolled back to my quarters. As I entered the garden, I found that several officers were assembled, among whom was Colonel de Barre, the brother of the general of that name, who afterwards fell at the Borodino. He was Chef d'Etat Major to Massena, and a most distinguished and brave soldier. Unlike the fashion of the day, which made the military man affect the rough coarseness of a savage, seasoning his talk with oaths, and curses, and low expressions, De Barre had something of the petit maitre in his address, which nothing short of his wellproved courage would have saved from ridicule. His voice was low and soft, his smile perpetual; and although well-bred enough to have been dignified and easy, a certain fidgety impulse to be pleasing made him always appear affected and unnatural. Never was there such a contrast to his chief; but indeed it was said that to this very disparity of temperament he owed all the influence

On following along the walls for some distance, I came to a part where a succession of deep ravines opened at the foot of the bastions, conducting, by many a tortuous and rocky glen, to the Apennines. The sides of these gorges were dotted here and there with wild hollies and fig trees, stunted and ill-thriven, as the nature of the soil might imply. Still, for the sake of the few berries, or the sapless fruit they bore, the soldiers of the garrison were accustomed to creep out from the embrasures, and descend the steep cliffs, a peril great enough in itself, but terribly increased by the risk of exposure to the enemy's "Tirailleurs," as well as the consequences such indisci- he possessed over Massena's mind. pline would bring down on them.

immediately fell back, to leave us to converse together. I was actually overcome with the flattering terms in which he addressed me on the subject of my escape.

I might have been a General of Division at the So frequent, however, had been these infrac- very least, to judge from the courteous deference tions, that little footpaths were worn bare along of the salute with which he approached me-a the face of the cliff, traversing in many a zigzag politeness the more striking, as all the others a surface that seemed like a wall. It was almost incredible that men would brave such peril for so little; but famine had rendered them indifferent to death; and although debility exhibited itself in every motion and gesture, the men would stand unshrinking and undismayed beneath the fire of a battery. At one spot, near the angle of a bastion, and where some shelter from the north winds protected the place, a little clump of orange trees stood, and towards these, though fully a mile off, many a foot-track led, showing how strong had been the temptation in that quarter. To reach it, the precipice should be traversed, the gorge beneath and a considerable ascent of the opposite mountain accomplished, and yet all these dangers had been successfully encountered, merely instigated by hunger!

High above this very spot, at a distance of perhaps eight hundred feet, stood the Monte Faccio -the large black and yellow banner of Austria floating from its walls, as if amid the clouds. I could see the muzzles of the great guns protruding from the embrasures; and I could even catch glances of a tall bearskin, as some soldier passed or repassed behind the parapet, and I thought how terrible would be the attempt to storm such a position. It was, indeed, true, that if I had had the least conception of the strength of the fort, I never should have dared to talk of a coup de main. Still I was in a manner pledged to the suggestion. I had perilled my life for it, and few men do as much for an opinion; for this reason I resolved, come what would, to maintain my ground, and hold fast to my conviction. I never could be called upon to plan the expedition, nor could it by any possibility be confided to my guidance; responsibility could not, therefore, attach to me. All these were strong arguments, at least quite strong enough to decide a wavering judgment.

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"I could scarcely at first credit the story," said he, "but when they told me that you were a Ninth man,' one of the old Tapageurs, I never doubted it more. You see what a bad character is, Monsieur de Tiernay!" It was the first time I had ever heard the prefix to my name, and I own the sound was pleasurable. "I served a few months with your corps myself, but I soon saw there was no chance of promotion among fellows all more eager than myself for distinction. Well, sir, it is precisely to this reputation I have yielded my credit, and to which General Massena is kind enough to concede his own confidence. Your advice is about to be acted on, Mons. de Tiernay." "The coup de main?"

"A little lower, if you please, my dear sir. The expedition is to be conducted with every secrecy, even from the officers of every rank below a command. Have the goodness to walk along with me this way. If I understand General Massena aright, your information conveys no details, nor any particular suggestions as to the attack."

"None whatever, sir. It was the mere talk of a gun-room-the popular opinion among a set of young officers."

"I understand," said he, with a bow and a smile; "the suggestion of a number of highminded and daring soldiers, as to what they deemed practicable."

'Precisely, sir."

"Neither could you collect from their conver sation anything which bore upon the number of the Austrian advance guard, or their state of prep-aration ?"

"Nothing, sir. The opinion of the English was, I suspect, mainly founded on the great superiority of our forces to the enemy's in all attacks of this kind."


"Our esprit Tapageur,' eh?" said he, laughing, and pinching my arm familiarly, and I joined in the laugh with pleasure. "Well, Monsieur de Tiernay, let us endeavor to sustain this good impression. The attempt is to be made to-night." "To-night!" exclaimed I, in amazement; for everything within the city seemed tranquil and still.

"To-night, sir; and, by the kind favor of General Massena, I am to lead the attack; the reserve, if we are ever to want it, being under his own command. It is to be at your own option on

which staff you will serve."

"On yours, of course, sir," cried I hastily. "A man who stands unknown and unvouched for among his comrades, as I do, has but one way to vindicate his claim to credit, by partaking the peril he counsels."

"These maps are good for nothing, Bressi," cried he. "To look at them, you'd say that every road was practicable for artillery, and every river passable, and you find afterwards that all these fine chaussees are by-paths, and the rivulets downright torrents. Who knows the Chiavari road?"

"Giorgio knows it well, sir," said the officer addressed, and who was a young Piedmontese from Massena's own village.


Ah, Birbante!" cried the general, "are you here again?" and he turned laughingly towards a little bandy-legged monster, of less than three feet high, who, with a cap stuck jauntily on one side of his head, and a wooden sword at his side, stepped forward with all the confidence of an equal.

"Ay, here I am," said he, raising his hand to his cap, soldier fashion; "there was nothing else for it but this trade," and he placed his hand on the hilt of his wooden weapon; "you cut down all the mulberries, and left us no silk-worms;

"There could be no doubt either of your judg-you burned all the olives, and left us no oil; you ment, or the sound reasons for it," replied the trampled down our maize crops and our vines. colonel ; "the only question was, whether you Per Baccho! the only thing left was to turn might be unequal to the fatigue." brigand like yourself, and see what would come

"Trust me, sir, you 'll not have to send me to of it." rear," said I, laughing.

"Is he not cool to talk thus to a general at the

"Then you are extra on my staff, Mons. de head of his staff?" said Massena, with an assumed Tiernay."

As we walked along, he proceeded to give me the details of our expedition, which was to be on a far stronger scale than I anticipated. Three battalions of infantry, with four light batteries, and as many squadrons of dragoons, were to form the advance.


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"Parbleu! so he did," cried Massena, laughing heartily. "That scoundrel was always about "We shall neither want the artillery, nor cav-our mill, and, I believe, lived by thieving!" added alry, except to cover a retreat," said he; "I he, pointing to the dwarf. trust, if it come to that, there will not be many of us to protect; but such are the general's orders, and we have but to obey them."

With the great events of that night on my memory, it is strange that I should retain so accurately in my mind the trivial and slight circumstances, which are as fresh before me as if they had occurred but yesterday.

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Every one did a little that way in our village," said the dwarf; "but none ever profited by his education like yourself."

If the general and some of the younger officers seemed highly amused at the fellow's impudence and effrontery, some of the others looked angry and indignant. A few were really well-born, and could afford to smile at these recognitions ; but many who sprang from an origin even more humble than the general's, could not conceal their angry indignation at the scene.

"I see that these gentlemen are impatient of our vulgar recollections," said Massena, with a sardonic grin; "so now to business, Giorgio. You know the Chiavari road-what is it like?" "Good enough to look at, but mined in four

It was about eleven o'clock, of a dark but starry night, not a breath of wind blowing, that, passing through a number of gloomy, narrow streets, I suddenly found myself in the court-yard at the Balbé Palace. A large marble fountain was playing in the centre, around which several lamps were lighted; by these I could see that the place was crowded with officers, some seated at tables drinking, some smoking, and others loung-places." ing up and down in conversation. Huge loaves of black bread, and wicker-covered flasks of country wine, formed the entertainment; but even these, to judge from the zest of the guests, were no common delicacies. At the foot of a little marble group, and before a small table, with a map on it, Why, I was told that the pass was undefendsat General Massena himself, in his gray over-ed!" cried Massena, angrily; "that a few skircoat, cutting his bread with a case-knife, while he mishers were all that could be seen near it." talked away to his staff. "All that could be seen! so they are; but

The general gave a significant glance at the staff, and bade him go on.

"The white coats are strong in that quarter, and have eight guns to bear on the road, where it passes beneath Monte Rattè.”

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