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And this man

Is now become a god; and Cassius is

A wretched creature, and must bend his body,
If Cæsar carelessly but nod on him.
He had a fèver when he was in Spáin,

And, when the fit was on him, I did mark

How he did shake: 't is true, this god did shake:
His coward lìps did from their color fly;

And that same èye, whose bend doth awe the world,
Did lose its lustre.



DULATION is the act of varying the voice in reading and speaking. Its general divisions are PITCH, FORCE, QUALITY, and RATE.

The four general divisions, or modes of vocal sound, presented in this section, are properly the elements of expression; as, by the combination of the different forms and varieties of these modes, emphasis, slur, monotone, and other divisions of expression are produced.


PITCH' refers to the key-note of the voice-its general

degree of elevation or depression, in reading and speaking. We mark three general distinctions of Pitch: HIGH, MODERATE, and Low.

2. HIGH PITCH is that which is heard in calling to a per

'Exercise on Pitch.-For a general exercise on pitch, select a sentence, and deliver it on as low a key as possible; then repeat it, gradually elevating the pitch, until the

top of the voice shall have been reached, when the exercise may be reversed. So valuable is this exercise, that it should be repeated as often as possible.

son at a distance. It is used in expressing elevated and joyous feelings and strong emotion; as,

1. Go ring the bells, and fire the guns,
And fling the starry banners out;
Shout "Freedom!" till your lisping ones
Give back their cradle shout.

2. Ye crags and peaks, I'm with you once again!
I hold to you the hands you first beheld,
To show they still are free. Methinks I hear
A spirit in your echoes answer me,
And bid your tenant welcome to his home
Again! O, sacred forms, how proud ye look!
How high you lift your heads into the sky!
How huge you are! how mighty and how free!
Ye are the things that tower, that shine, whose smile
Makes glad, whose frown is terrible, whose forms,
Robed or unrobed, do all the impress wear
Of awe divine. Ye guards of liberty!
I'm with you once again!-I call to you
With all my voice! I hold my hands to you
To show they still are free. I rush to you,
As though I could embrace you!


First came renowned Warwick, Who cried aloud, "What scourge for perjury Can this dark monarchy afford false Clarence?" And so he vanished. Then came wandering by A shadow like an angel, with bright hair Dabbled in blood; and he shrieked out, aloud,— "CLARENCE is come-false, fleeting, perjured Clarence ; SEIZE on him, ye furies, take him to your torments.” 3. MODERATE PITCH is that which is heard in common conversation and description, and in moral reflection, or calm reasoning; as,

1. The morning itself, few people, inhabitants of cities, know any thing about. Among all our good people, not one in a thousand sees the sun rise once in a year. They know nothing of the morning. Their idea of it is, that it is that part of the day that comes along after a cup of coffee and a beef-steak, or a piece of toast.

2. The mountains look on Marathon,
And Marathon looks on the sea;
And musing there an hour alone,

I thought that Greece might still be free;
For, standing on the Persian's grave,
I could not deem myself a slave.

4. LOW PITCH is that which is heard when the voice falls below the common speaking key. It is used in expressing reverence, awe, sublimity, and tender emotions; as,

1. 'Tis midnight's holy hour, and silence now
Is brooding, like a gentle spirit, o'er

The still and pulseless world. Hark! on the winds
The bells' deep tones are swelling;-'tis the knell
Of the departed year. No funeral train
Is sweeping past, yet, on the stream and wood,
With melancholy light, the moonbeams rest,
Like a pale, spotless shroud; the air is stirred
As by a mourner's sigh; and on yon cloud,
That floats so still and placidly through heaven,
The spirits of the seasons seem to stand.

2. Softly woo away her breath,
Gentle Death!

Let her leave thee with no strife,
Tender, mournful, murmuring Life!
She hath seen her happy day:

She hath had her bud and blossom;
Now she pales and sinks away,

Earth, into thy gentle bosom!


ORCE' is the volume or loudness of voice, used on the same key or pitch, when reading or speaking. Though the degrees of force are numerous, varying from a soft

'Exercise on Force.-For a genexercise on force, select a sentence, and deliver it on a given key, with voice just sufficient to be heard; then gradually increase the quantity,

until the whole power of the voice is brought into play. Reverse the process, without change of key, ending with a whisper. This exercise can not be too frequently repeated.

whisper to a shout, yet they may be considered as three: LOUD, MODERATE, and GENTLE.

2. LOUD FORCE is used in strong, but suppressed passions, and in emotions of sorrow, grief, respect, veneration, dignity, apathy, and contrition; as,

1. How like a fawning publican he looks!

I hate him, for that he is a Christian.

If I but catch him once upon the hip,

I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him.

2. VIRTUE takes place of all things. It is the nobility of ANGELS! It is the MAJESTY of GOD!

3. Roll on, thou deep and dark-blue ocean-roll!

Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain.
4. O thou that, with surpassing glory crowned,
Look'st from thy sole dominion, like the God
Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars
Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call,
But with no friendly voice, and add thy name,
O SUN, to tell thee how I hate thy beams,
That bring to my remembrance from what state
I fell, how glorious once above thy sphere;
Till pride and worse ambition threw me down,

Warring in heaven against heaven's matchless King. 3. MODERATE FORCE, or a medium degree of loudness, is used in ordinary assertion, narration, and description; as,

1. Remember this saying, "The good paymaster is lord of another man's purse." He that is known to pay punctually, and exactly at the time he promises, may, at any time, and on any occasion, raise all the money his friends can spare.

2. What is the blooming tincture of the skin,
To peace of mind and harmony within?
What the bright sparkling of the finest eye,
To the soft soothing of a calm reply?
Can comeliness of form, or shape, or air,
With comeliness of words or deeds compare?
No! those at first the unwary heart may gain,
But these, these only, can the heart retain.
I have seen


A curious child, who dwelt upon a tract

Of inland ground, applying to his ear
The convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell:
To which, in silence hushed, his věry soul
Listened intensely ;-and his countenance soon
Brightened with joy; for murmurings from within
Were heard, sonorous cadences! whereby,
To his belief, the monitor expressed
Mysterious union with its native sea.
Even such a shell the universe itself
Is to the ear of Faith.

4. GENTLE FORCE, or a slight degree of loudness, is used to express caution, fear, secrecy, and tender emotions; as, 1. Heard ye the whisper of the breeze, As softly it murmured by,

Amid the shadowy forest trees?

It tells, with meaning sigh,

Of the bowers of bliss on that viewless shōre,
Where the weary spirit shall sin no more.

2. They are sleeping! Who are sleeping?
Pause a moment-softly tread;
Anxious friends are fondly keeping
Vigils by the sleeper's bed!
Other hopes have all forsaken;

One remains that slumber deep:
Speak not, lest the slumberer waken
From that sweet, that saving sleep.


UALITY has reference to the kinds of tone used in

reading and speaking. They are the PURE TONE, the OROTUND, the ASPIRATED, the GUTTURAL, and the TREMBLING. 2. THE PURE TONE is a clear, smooth, round, flowing sound, accompanied with moderate pitch; and is used to express peace, cheerfulness, joy, and love; as,

1. Methinks I love all common things

The common air, the common flower;
The dear, kind, common thought, that springs

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