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the words, both as spoken and written, and name the rules in articulation that are illustrated by the exercises.
Sentences that are printed in the usual style are intended for dictation exercises, in which silent letters will be omitted and the words so written as to represent their correct and exact pronunciation.
1. Thou lädst down and sleptst.
2. Thů bold, båd bâiz brók bolts ånd bårz.
8. Thů hosts stud stil, in silent wůndër fikst. 9. A thouzånd shreks får hôplės mersi kál. 10. Thů fölishnes öv fölz iz fölli.
11. Both'z yoths with troths yuz ofhz.
12. Arm it with răgz, à pigmi strá wil pērs ĭt. 13. Nou set thů téth ånd strěch thů nostril wid. 14. He wỏcht ånd wept, he felt ånd pråd får ål. 15. Hiz iz, åmidst thů mists, mêzêrd ån åzer ski. 16. Thů fèbl, fritnd frèmån fèbli fåt får frèdům.
17. Whispers of revenge passed silently around among the troops.
18. No shet når shroud enshrind fhoz shrůngkn shrẻdz öv shrivld klå.
19. He has prints of an ice-house, an ocean, and wasts and deserts.
20. Thů whȧlz wheld ånd whêrld, and bård fhår bråd, broun båks.
21. Jilz ănd Jāsn Jonz kăn not sā,—Arörd, als, amas, mănnå, villå, når Lūnå.
22. It will pain nobody, if the sad dangler regain neither
23. The ragged madman, in his ramble, did madly ransack every pantry in the parish.
24. What thou wûdst hill that thou wûdst holili.
25. Hè åksepts the offis, ekspekts tô lêrn thu fakts, ănd ǎttěmts bi hiz akts tô konsel hiz fälts.
26. Prithee, blithe youth, do not mouth your words when you wreathe your face with smiles.
27. That fellow shot a sparrow on a willow, in the narrow meadow, near the yellow house.
28. Thů strif sẻseth, pès åpprochêth, ånd thủ gûd mån réjáisěth.
29. Thů shrod shrôz båd him sà thắt thủ vil viksnz yüzd shrůgz, ånd shårp shril shrèks.
30. Shôrli, thō wônded, thŭ prodênt rēkrôt wůd not ēt thăt krod frot.
31. Stêrn, růggêd nêrs! thi rijid lor with påshens mêni å yer she bor.
32. At that time, the lame man, who began nobly, having made a bad point, wept bitterly.
33. When loud surges lash the sounding shore, the hoarse, rough verse should like the torrent roar.
34. What whim led White Whitney to whittle, whistle, whisper, and whimper near the wharf, where a floundering whale might wheel and whirl?
35. Amidst thů mists ånd koldest frosts, with barest rists ånd stoutest bosts, hè thrůsts hiz fists ågênst thů posts, ånd stil insists hè sèz thủ gosts.
36. Thăngks to Thaddeus Thikthong, thu thâtles thisslsifter, hô thris thrust thre thouzănd thisslz thrỗ thu thik Ŏv hiz thům.
37. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who taketh his name in vain.
38. Honor thy father and thy mother that thy days may be long in the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.
39. A starm Årizẻth ỏn thủ sẻ. A moděl véssel iz strug gling åmidst thů wâr öv êlêments, kwivêring ånd shivering, shringking ånd båttling lik å thingking being. Thủ mêrsilês, råking whërlwindz, lik fritfül fendz, houl ånd mòn, ånd send sharp, shril shreks thro thů krèking kårdåj, snapping
thů shets ånd måsts. Thů stěrdi sålârz stånd tô fhår tåsks, ånd wether thů sévèrest stârm öv fhů sèzn.
40. Chast-id, chěrisht Chẻs! Thủ charmz ðv thì chê kẻrd chamberz chân mè chànjléshi. Chambérlinz, chăplinz, and chânsellârz håv chânted thì cherobik châisnes. Cheftinz håv chanjd thů chåriôt ånd thủ chàs får thủ chês-bord ånd thủ charming charj ôv thủ chẻs-nits. Nó chỉling chênh, nó chèting chăffërẻr, nó chặttěring chànjling kån bè thì chòzn champion. Thou art thů chássner öv thů chèrlish, thů chider ov thủ chànjĖbl, thủ chěrishër ov thủ chèrful and thủ chåritabl. Fär thẻ ar thủ chảplẻts ðv chánlẻs chảriti and thủ chalis ov childlik chèrfülnės. Chanj kån not chanj thẻ: from childhûd tỏ thủ chårnel-hous, from our fêrst childish chrpingz tỏ thủ chỉlz 8v thủ chërch-yård, thou årt our chèrỉ, chanjlės chèftinės.
LAUGHTER, by the aid of Phonetics, is easily taught,
as an art. is one of the most interesting and healthy of all class exercises. It may be either vocal or respiratory.
2. There are thirty-two well-defined varieties of laughter in the English language, eighteen of which are produced in connection with the tonics; nine, with the subtonics of 1, m, n, ng, r, th, v, and z; and five, with the atonics of f, h, s, th, and sh.
3. Commencing with vocal laughter, the instructor will first utter a tonic, and then, prefixing the oral element of h, and accompanied by the class, he will produce the syllable continuously, subject only to the interruptions that are incidental to inhalations and bursts of laughter; as, ā, hā, hā, ha, ha, ha, &c.,-ă, hă, hă, hă, hă, &c.
4. The attention of the students will be called to the most agreeable kinds of laughter, and they will be taught to pass naturally and easily from one variety to another.
A SYLLABLE is a word, or part of a word, uttered by
a single impulse of the voice.
2. A MONOSYLLABLE is a word of one syllable; as, h me. 3. A DISSYLLABLE is a word of two syllables; as, home-less. 4. A TRISYLLABLE is a word of three syllables; as, confine-ment.
5. A POLYSYLLABLE is a word of four or more syllables; as, in-no-cen-cy, un-in-tel-li-gi-bil-i-ty.
6. THE ULTIMATE is the last syllable of a word; as ful, in peace-ful.
7. THE PENULT, or penultimate, is the last syllable but one of a word; as māk, in peace-mak-er.
8. THE ANTEPENULT, or antepenultimate, is the last syllable but two of a word; as ta, in spon-ta-ne-ous.
9. THE PREANTEPENULT, or preantepenultimate, is the last syllable but three of a word; as cab, in vo-cab-u-la-ry.
FORMATION OF SYLLABLES.
SINGLE impulse of the voice can produce but one radical or opening and vanishing or gradually diminishing movement. Since a syllable is produced by a single impulse of the voice, it follows that only such an oral element, or order of oral elements, as gives but one radical and vanish movement, can enter into its formation. As the tonics can not be uttered separately without producing this movement, but one of them can enter into a single syllable; and, as this movement is all that is essential, each of the tonics may, by itself, form a syllable. Consistently with this, we find, whenever two tonics adjoin, they always belong to separate syllables in pronunciation, as in a-e-ri-al, i-o-ta, o-a-sis.
2. Though oral elements can not be combined with a view to lengthen a syllable, by the addition of one tonic to another, as this would produce a new and separate impulse, yet a syllable may be lengthened by prefixing and affixing any number of tonics and atonics to a tonic, that do not destroy its singleness of impulse; as, a, an, and, land, gland, glands.
3. A tonic is usually regarded as indispensable in the formation of a syllable. A few syllables, however, are formed exclusively by subtonics. In the words bidde-n rive-n, rhyth-m, schis-m, fic-kle, i-dle, lit-tle, and words of like construction, the last syllable is either pure subtonic, or a combination of subtonic and atonic. These final syllables go through the radical and vanish movement, though they are far inferior in quality, euphony, and force, to the full display of these properties on the tonics.
RULES IN SYLLABICATION.
NITIAL CONSONANTS.-The elements of consonants that commence words should be uttered distinctly, but should not be much prolonged.'
2. FINAL CONSONANTS.-Elements that are represented by final consonants should be dwelt upon, and uttered with great distinctness; as,
He accepts the office, and attempts by his acts to conceal his faults.
3. WHEN ONE WORD OF A SENTENCE ENDS and the next begins with the same consonant, or another that is hard to produce after it, a difficulty in utterance arises that should be obviated by dwelling on the final consonant, and then taking up the one at the beginning of the next word, in a
'Initial Elements Prolonged. On this point Dr. RUSH mentions the error of a distinguished actor, who, in order to give great force and distinctness to his articulation, dwelt
the following lines:
"Canst thou not m-inister to a m-ind diseased,
Pl-uck from the m-emory a rooted sorrow?"
on the initial letters, as marked in Such mouthing defeats its object.