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1 O modified. The modified oral element of o, in this work, is represented by (8 or Ŏ) the same marks as its regular second power. This modified or medium element may be produced by uttering the sound of o in not, slightly softened, with twice its usual volume, or prolongation. It is usually given when short o is immediately followed by ff, ft, ss, st, or th, as in õff, săft, cross, căst, broth; also in a number of words where short o is directly followed by n, or final ng, as in gone, begone; lõng, along, prong, song, strong, thong, throng, wrong. SMART says, To give the extreme short sound of o to such words is affectation; to give them the full sound of broad a (a in all), is vulgar.
'U initial-preceded by R.-U, at the beginning of words, when
long, has the sound of yu, as in use. When u long, or its alphabetic equivalent ew, is preceded by r, or the sound of sh, in the same syllable, it has always the sound of o in do; as, rude, sure, brew.
'R trilled. In trilling r, the tip of the tongue is made to vibrate against the roof of the mouth. R may be trilled when immediately followed by a vowel in the same syllable.
When thus situated in emphatic words, it should always be trilled. Frequently require the student, after a full inhalation, to trill r continuously, as long as possible.
'Wh. To produce the oral element of wh, the student will blow from the center of the mouth-first compressing the lips, and then suddenly relaxing them while the air is escaping.
IRST require the student to pronounce distinctly the
word containing the atonic element, then the subtonic cognate, uttering the element after each word—thus: lip, p; orb, b, &c. The attention of the pupil should be called to the fact that cognates are produced by the same organs, in a similar manner, and only differ in one being an undertone, and the other a whisper.
HE instructor will require the students to read or recite the table of Alphabetic Equivalents, using the following formula: The Alphabetic Equivalents of A first power are ai, au, ay, e, ea, ee, ei, ey; as in the words, gain, gauge, stray, melee', great, vein, they.
I. TONIC ELEMENTS.
For à, ai, au, ay, e, ea, ee, ei, ey; as in gain, gauge, stray, melee', great, vein, they.
For å, ai, ua; as in plaid, guaranty.
For å, au, e, ea, ua; as in haunt, sergeant, heart, guard. For â, au, aw, eo, o, oa, ou; as in fault, hawk, George, cork, broad, bought.
For å, ai, e, ea, ei; as in chair, there, swear, heir.
For è, ea, ee, ei, eo, ey, i, ie; as in read, deep, ceil, people, key, valise, field.
For è, a, ai, ay, ea, ei, eo, ie, u, ue; as in any, said, says, head, heifer, leopard, friend, bury, guess.
For ê, ea, i, o, ou, u, ue, y; as in earth, girl, word, scourge, burn, guerdon, myrrh.
For ì, ai, ei, eye, ie, oi, ui, uy, y, ye; as in aisle, sleight, eye, die, choir, guide, buy, my, rye.
For i, ai, e, ee, ie, o, or, u, ui, y; as in captain, pretty, been, sieve, women, tortoise, busy, build, hymn.
For ò, au, eau, eo, ew, oa, oe, oo, ou, ow; as in hautboy, beau, yeoman, sew, coal, foe, door, soul, blow.
For 8, a, ou, ow; as in what, hough, knowledge.
For 8, ew, oe, oo, ou, u, ui; as in grew, shoe, spoon, soup, rude, fruit.
For ù, eau, eu, ew, ieu, iew, ue, ui; as in beauty, feud, new, adieu, view, hue, juice.
For ů, o, oe, oo, ou; as in love, does, blood, young.
For ou, ow; as in now.
For oi (âî), oy; as in boy.
II. SUBTONIC AND ATONIC ELEMENTS.
For f, gh, ph; as in cough, nymph.
For j, g; as in gem, gin.
For k, c, ch, gh, q; as in cole, conch, lough, etiquette.
For t, d, th, phth; as in danced, Thames, phthisic.
For v,f, ph; as in of, Stephen.
For y, i; as in pinion.
For z, c, s, x; as in suffice, rose, xebec.
For z, g, 8; as in rouge, osier.
For ng, n; as in anger, bank.
For ch, t; as in fustian.
For sh, c, ch, 8, 88, t; as in ocean, chaise, sure, assure, martial.
ORAL ELEMENTS COMBINED.
FTER the instructor has given a class thorough drill
exercises will be found of great value, to improve the organs of speech and the voice, as well as to familiarize the student with different combinations of sounds. Students will not pass from these exercises until they can utter the elements represented by the figured vowels in whatever order the instructor may require.
As the fifth element represented by a, and the third element of e, are always immediately followed by the oral element of r in words, the r is introduced in like manner in these exercises. Since the sixth sound of a, when not a syllable by itself, is always immediately followed by the oral element of f, n, or s, in words, these letters are here employed in the same manner.
mås, mår, må, må, må, mà; mër, mẻ, mi, mi; mỗ, mò, mỏ; mů, mù; mou. arm, ẩm, câm, êmm, ẻm, ẻm; ủm, ùm; oum.
mů, âm, ám;
ôm, ôm, òm; âm,
3. nå, nå,
ång, årng, ång, ing, ing; ông,
rå, rå, rår,
4. thà, thả, thải, thảf, thả,
thì, thì; thỏ, thò, thổ; thu,
åfh, åth, åf, àth,
ìth, ith; ôth,
và, vå, vår, vi, vi;
wi; wo, wỏ, wỏ;
pā, pă, pi,
ắng, àng; ễng,
ông; ủng, ủng,
5. yà, yå, yå,
yår, yân; yẻ,
yẻ, yêr; yu; you.
yi, yl; yo, yo, yo; yù, yů,
zou; zů, zů, zu;
zâ, zå, zå,
ik, ik; ōk, Ŏk, ök;
på, på, pår,
rů, rù; rou.
TONIC AND ATONIC COMBINATIONS.
fă, få, fâ,
får, fås; fe,
fi; fo, fo, fo; fu, fu,
thẻr, thẻ, thẻ,
thủ, thủ; thou. ¿th, êrth, èth;
ův, úv, ûv; ouv. wåf; wêr, wẻ, wẻ; wu, wi,
hu; hou. hŭ;
pē, per; pů; pou.