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as nonducted in the same manner, but in public estimation. But on all sides, to en principles more congenial to their events began to arise which con

own; the consequence of which was founded and mortified its most strebara that as soon as the Quarterly appeared, nuous admirers. The whole of its po

it divided the interest with the Edin- litical predictions were falsified, not burghi For some time, however, the only with respect to the war, and the Tories continued to read the latter, for changes in operation on the feelings of

the purpose of comparison ; and also, the world, but with regard to the but because many of them disliked the views which it had taken of individual coarse feeling which was so strong character, and of human nature, in re1 ly allowed to disgrace the general abi- lation to the chief actors in French af

lity displayed in the former. Per- fairs. The triumphs of the Peninsuhaps the circulation of the Edin- lar war overwhelmed and finished its bagh, from the excitement of public pretensions to political sagacity. NeNe curiosity produced by the competition, ver in the history of literature was 129 may have even continued to increase any thing so complete and perfect as

for some time after the first appearance the demonstration of the political insame of the Quarterly. But this did cer- gacity of the Edinburgh Review. Its stainly not continue long; the work inferiority and inability with respect to

was less and less read, while the the estimates of genius also, about Quarterly was continually extending the same time, received an equal expoboth in character and circulation. sure. From the publication of Childe

Nevertheless, such was the general Harold, the author of which it had so en persuasion of the high degree of ta- merrily ridiculed for being no poet, ne lent employed in the Edinburgh Re: all confidence was lost for ever in its

view, that it would perhaps have long dicta in taste; and Jeffrey will herecontinued to hold a distinguished place after be chiefly recollected as the Zoilus

po tal has ceased to sting their souls. We must be pardoned for using this language--WE das INOW OF NO EPITHET TOO HARSH FOR HIM WHO WAS PROFLIGATE ENOUGH her TO THIRST FOR THË BLOOD OF HIS FORMER ASSOCIATES IN REFORM--of the al very men whom his own eloquence, and the protection of his high station, had seduced ime into popular courses and not content with deserting them, to use the power with which he had mounted on their backs for the purpose of their destruction !"*

The absurdity of this passage is almost as ridiculous as the fustián of the composition. Did Mr Pitt mount into power on the backs of Frost, Hardy, Thelwall, and Holcroft? But the nonsense is nothing to the rhodomontade that follows.

"When the wars and the taxes which we owe to the lamentable policy of this rash statesman shall be forgotten--and the turmoils of this factious age shall live only in historical record ;-when those venal crowds shall be no more, who now subsist on the spoil of the myriads, whom he has undone--the passage of this great orator's life, which will excite the most lively emotions, will be that where his apostacies

are enrolled

where the case of the African slavé, and of the Irish catholic, stand black in the sight; but most of all, will his heart shudder at his persecutions of the reformers-and his attempt to faturalize in England a system of proscriptions, which nothing but the trial by jury and by English judges could have prevented from sinking the whole land in infamy and blood." -Ed. Review, No. XXXT: page 120. But, after all this rant and bouncing, we would ask the Reviewer, was Mr Pitt the only persecutor of the said reformers ? and did he persecute them for being reformers after his own kind, or after the Reviewer's kind ?--because the Reformers may have changed their opinion of Parliamentary

reform, and because there are certain dark passages in Thelwall's Letter to Jeffrey, already quoted, which we would gladly see expounded—“You must be well aware, Mr Jeffrey," says the derided reformer and lecturer, " that your FORMÉR 'HIStoky, and that of SOME OF YOUR MOST INTIMATE COLLEAGUÉS, can be no Secret in Edinburgh ;-that you could have no public pretence for volunteering pourselves as my opponents, or as my prejudicators." Now, in the historical distance in whieh we are placed, we should be glad to know what is here meant, and why Mr Thelwall inquires_< By what strange and sinister motive” Mr

* induced to render" himself an instrument of “ calumny, mai lignitý, and injustice," against that then poor persecuted individual.

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Jeffrey was

of Byron. His name may exist in be difficult to name as many volume connexion with that of the poet, but in the English language which afford his criticism will be read no more. so few quotable passages; and per

The Decline of the Edinburgh Re- haps there can be no better proof o view may, therefore, bę dated from the original mediocrity of the contri the appearance of the Quarterly; and butors, whatever may have been th 'the cause ascribed to the general inabi- merit of a few occasional articles. lity of the contributors to maintain the In this sketch of the history of the competition for public favour, with Edinburgh Review, the circumstance the learning and talent engaged in the in which it arose, and by which it was rival Journal. But its fall is entirely affected during its course, have alone owing to itself; the seeds of death were been considered; and in speaking of the in it from the commencement. The causes which contributed to its decline powers of satire and of derision, which and fall, reference only has been made it exercised with as little mercy as to matters of notoriety entirely within modesty, have proved, in the result, the knowledge of the public. To have very

humble powers; and after usurp- adduced other instances of personality ing an authority, the most dictatorial of misrepresentation, or of false or un and audacious, a general doubt is now fair criticism, would have swelled the expressed as to the ability with which notes to an unreasonable length. Per. it was at one time supposed to have haps I may hereafter resume this fer. been conducted. Of this there cer tile theme. tainly can be no dispute, that it will

VINDEX.*

* We shall be glad to hear occasionally from VINDEX.-C.N.

A LETTER CONCERNING HAYDON'S PAINTINGS. MR CARISTOPHER NORTH, ing which is capable of circulating As

you have probably been hindered popularly in this country, as other by that gout of which we hear so fre- works of imagination do, and of awaquently, from going to see any thing kening general and disinterested symout of doors, you may not intend to pathies. Situated as painters are with favour the public with any remarks on us, the truth is, that they must look the pictures which have lately been in the first place, to public exhibitions, sent by Haydon to be exhibited here. for the most expectable remuneration And, if you had upon any occasion for their labours. It is true, that the viewed and considered these works of feelings of the multitude, though cathe pencil, it is most likely that you pable in general of sympathising with would be averse to administer to that any strong expression of passiov, tend appetite for the cant of criticism, naturally towards impurity and degrawhich, when it is prevalent, is more a dation of taste. But if an artist, like sign of vanity than of taste in the pub- a poet, seriously endeavour to express lic. For my part, I entirely agree situations of human nature, which are with those who think that painting is to move and speak home to the hearts a “silent art,” and that much talk of his contemporaries, it is probable that about it tends to pervert the judgment, he will at least attain to excellence in and make us uncertain of what we the dramatic or humanly expressive behold, or rather to supersede the sense department of his art, and afterwards of sight altogether; in which case if the public should be found capable every man is his own Apelles. There- of recognizing higher things, the artist fore, in addressing this letter to you, will of course raise his style. In England, I do not mean to utter particular cri- the painters certainly never seem to enticisms upon the paintings before- joy any of those visions of celestial beaumentioned, but to say a few words on ty and felicity which frequently painting in general, as a sort of com to the mental eyes of the Italian artists. munication of thought among man- The artists here may be expected to kind, like literature, and also to de- succeed most frequently in dramatic fend the credit of that kind of painte expression and in the shewing of situ

came

ations; nevertheless, in choosing in- with more effect than what he copies teresting subjects for paintings, it is from sight.

an error in the artist to seek for other Admiring Haydon's drawings from pogang than those found in the Scriptures, the Elgin marbles, I think as follows

which present conceptions permanent concerning that kind of sculpture. and known to all mankind, and replete External form may either express abwith true meaning and sentiment. stract quantities, which are beautiful These would not be exhausted al. independently of their relation to life, though they were painted a thousand or it may shew the action and power times; for they might still be repeated of the substance which is in the form. differently in other pieces, beyond That which is seen in the Elgin marnumeration. Invention in painting is bles is of the latter kind. The figures shewn in the mode of treating a known there are most expressive of the intersubject, and bringing out its meaning, nal reaction of the parts, and, for that as a great actor does that of a poet. reason, beget in the spectator more

Although I have not always admired feeling of power and substance than the tout ensemble of Haydon's pictures, of pure quantity. Therefore, accordI think that he evidently shews the ing to the ancient and true discrimi. opening up of this kind of genius, (that nation of Aristotle, they may be called is to say, the power of dramatic expres- beautiful or expressive ratu svezyslav, sion,) and that he ultimately will be ef- according to energy. But those other fective in it. The zeal which he has ma- remains of Grecian statuary which are nifested cannot spring from so sapless chiefly intended to affect the mind by a root as the mere desire for fame or mo- shewing pure quantities in the limits ney, but must come from the wish to of the figure, (from whatever position seek after what is generally significant viewed,) may be called beautiful nata and affecting, and to communicate it fyrslexelav, or according to definition. to mankind. Nor ought he to be se To please in painting, the great reriously blamed for using copious means quisite is the well-ordered effect of the to draw the notice of the public ; whole together. This strikes at first since all these things were necessary sight, if grand, with awe and astonishfor overcoming the obstacles which ment, and even in any case continues he must have found in his way. A always to satisfy the spectator as to the manly self-confidence is not only beco- most important particulars of the comming, but necessary; since most Eng- plex appearance which heviews. Foritis lish painters, from timidity and want of a labour to view and comprehend even strong feeling, have resorted to a compi- the most significant forms, if not plalation, which has the merit of correct ced in such lights as give simplicity design, but wants that natural deriva- and perspicuity to the whole. The tion of parts which gives vitality and picture of Haydon's, which is most unity of effect, and which shews a work agreeable to look upon, and best tuned to be the genuine and free-born offspring in the colouring, is that of Christ kneelof a single mind. Therefore, in many ing in the Garden. It has been uncases it is wisest in an artist to resist justly depreciated; for the figure of external and inconsistent impressions, Judas is original, and so much the betand to spread out whatever character ter for verging towards grimace. Since and style he finds the root of in his he already excelsin colouring, as an imigenius; and those conceptions, which tation of nature, it is to be wished that spring from the workings of original the artist would study more to charm thought, will have a vigour like that by colouring as a harmony, connecting of a living and growing

tree. But to all which is comprehended in a picture, this no one can attain, unless he have and spreading from part to part. But, more confidence in his own feelings it must be acknowledged, that a mathan in external impressions. Every jority of those who go to see his picpainter, besides learning from externala tures are more capable of being affectly observing human beings, has a more ed by the sound of a cart or a drum. important knowledge of human nature The feeling of harmony in colouring in himself, and his works will be ac- is like the acquisition of a new sense. cording to the elevation, or sensibility, I am, Mr Christopher, or power of gesture, which is in his

Yours, &c. own nature, and this he expresses

H.

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1.-ESSAYS ON PHRENOLOGY; OR AN INQUIRY INTO THE PRINCIPLES AND

UTILITY OF THE SYSTEM OF DRS GAIL AND SPURZHEIM. 11.--PHRENOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE CEREBRAL DEVELOPEMENT OF

DAVID HAGGART.
III.--LIFE OF DAVID HAGGART, WRITTEN BY HIMSELF WAILE UNDER SEN-

TENCE OF DEATH.
IV-SPURZHEIM ON EDUCATION.
V.-ARTICLE I. OF NEW EDINBURGH REVIEW. NO. II.

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The most inveterate enemies of Gall he had a greater developement of Beand Spurzheim must now be convin NEVOLENCE AND JUSTICE than I had ced-convicted--of the blind folly of anticipated, his countenance softened, their opposition to the doctrines of those and he almost shed a tear.” The most great discoverers in the philosophy of finty bosom must be softened-the the human mind. Fortunately for most stony eye melt--we should think mankind, David Haggart murdered -at this simple recital. Mr Combe, the jailor of the Dumfries prison ; and with his hand slowly moving up and that distinguished Craniologist, Mr down, and round about Mr Haggart's George Combe, having, according to youthful and devoted head-the eye the method of induction prescribed by of the tender-hearted murderer grahis predecessor, Lord Bacon, and ex. dually becoming suffused with tears plained by his contemporary, Mr Mac- the silk and spotted pocket-handkervey Napier, studied the natural cha- chief purchased, no doubt, from the racter of the murderer, as indicated by man at the corner, softly applied by his cerebral organization, he has been the sympathizing phrenologist to the enabled to place Phrenology among face of the too sensitive assassin-Mr the number of the exact sciences. J. R. Sibbald, jailor, we presume, and Looking upon this achievement as by Mr James Law, junior, a gentleman far the greatest that has been perform- to us unknown-standing silent by, ed in our day, we shall endeavour to each probably with a face as long as, present our readers with a short sketch his arm--furnish a scene, inferior in of Mr Combe's discoveries, which have dignified and solemn pathos, perhaps, thus formed an era in the history of only to the death of Socrates. We human knowledge.

recommend it as a subject to Mr. Mr George Combe, who possesses à Geddes, far more likely to attract tenderness of sensibility rarely found public attention than the discovery of united with great intellectual power, the Regalia. A set of quizzical law made his experiments on Mr David officers, with gowns and wigs, peep, Haggart, who was yet unexecuted, ing into a great chest, like a meal with a kindness and a courtesy which garnel, or staring about them with cannot be too highly eulogized, or too ugly and unmeaning faces, upon

the warmly recommended to the practice most unmeaning of all possible occaof other men of true science. Though sions, could never be put into coma Mr Haggart had dedicated his youth, petition, for a single moment, with with an almost exclusive passion, to the first philosopher and the first feloni the pursuits of pocket-picking, thie- of the age, laying their heads together: ving in general, highway robbery, and for the completion of mental science, murder; yet Mr Combe wisely and in the presence of two awe-struck and, humanely saw in this no reason against reverential disciples. treating him with delicacy and re This tender interview was before spect ; and accordingly, there is some- condemnation. But David was tried t thing very touching in the account of -and ordered to be hanged by the the first interview between the great neck till dead, between the hours of craniologist and the great criminal

. eight and nine in the morning of July, “ On going over his head,says Mr 18, 1821. That restraint under which Combe, “I mentioned to him the he had laboured during this afflicting 1 FEELINGS AND POWERS which it in- interview, was now removed. Theres dicated; but he made no remarks as was now, alas ! no longer any reason 1 to the correctness or incorrectness of for concealing the truth-and Mr the observations. On telling him that Combe now saw that many little traits

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in David's character as a thief, a rob- words, burglary, robbery, and murber, and a murderer-many little nice der. It throws a certain air of cheerand delicate shades of iniquity, which fulness and merriment over crimes of had formerly been concealed, would the blackest dye, which, in a great now appear to the inspection of the measure, reconciles us to them, and eye of science, and that, by their ap- thereby enables us to look on them plication to the Theory, new light with little or no disturbance, so that would be thrown on the whole moral we can the better judge of their real and intellectual nature of man. character. An ordinary person cannot

It does not appear from Mr Combe's think of bloody crimes with too great statement at least if it does, it has agitation of abhorrence; but a philoescaped our notice that he performed sopher, like Mr Combe, is superior to any process of manipulation on the ce- these delusions of the imagination, rebral organization of Mr Haggart, and therefore thinks and writes ration after condemnation. But he drew up ally of murders and murderers. Next,

a character of the criminal from the to the wisdom implied in such phrase : developement of his head, as formerly ology, appears to us that shewn in the

noted, and submitted it to his own penultimate sentence of the paragraph:
observation, as to correctness. In do- now quoted. Hitherto we have known
ing so, Mr Combe still observed the nothing of the natural dispositions

same laudable delicacy and refined which lead young men into a sporting
: humanity towards him, who was the line of life, or what makes them rob
i subject of his queries, and soon about bers and murderers. The whole subas,
likewise to be the subject of the still ject has lain hid in utter darkness.
more searching home-thrusts of Dr No attempt ever has been made to
Monro, that had marked the whole of speculate on it; and consequently no
his behaviour during their interview. effectual means ever adopted to edu-,
In the sketch submitted to Mr Hage cate the young people of this or any
gart, every expression was avoided that other country. Mr Combe's object,
: might seem in any way to convey any therefore, was to ascertain facts never
harsh and needless disapprobation of before understood, and thence to deduce
that peculiar mode of life, which he rules for a grand system of moral edu.
had chalked out for himself, or any cation or regeneration. And these
want of sympathy with those pecca- views he recommended, as was proper,
dilloes, which had brought him with- to the enlightened mind and enlarged
in a very few days journey of the scaf- understanding of Mr Haggart, who
fold. Mr Combe, with the wisdom of appears to have entered into them
a. philosopher, and the charity of a with his usual energy, and withi a
Christian, blandly intimates to David, zeal, which, considering the peculiar
" that the motive of doing so is not to circumstances of his situation, may be
indulge in idle curiosity, but to throw thought by some to class him among
light upon the natural dispositions the most disinterested benefactors of
which particuarly lead a young

man into our species,
a sporting line of life!! for the pur The result of Mr Combe's observa.
pose of devising effectual means to re- tions, and of Mr Haggart's own {re-
claim young offenders at the outset of marks upon them, is a more perfect.
their career, by placing them in cire knowledge of the sources of wickedness :
cumstances calculated to cultivate the and crime in the human heart, than
good, and restrain the evil tendencies has ever before been possessed by any
of their nature. The present conver- people ; and now it becomes an impe-
sation is entirely confidential, and will rious duty on Mr Combe, and a duty
not be abused. David Haggart is there- indeed, which he pledged himself to
fore requested to be open and com- the late Mr Haggart and his executors
pletely candid in his remarks." The forth with to perform, to devise effec-
expression,“ sporting line of life," is tual means for reclaiming young of-
most judiciously selected by Mr Coinbe, fenders at the outset of their career.
from the vocabulary most familiar to As soon as this plan is published, we
the gentleman whom he addressed, shall think it our duty to lay an ac-
and is well calculated to keep in the count of it before the public; and if
back-ground all those painful and dis. it is to be carried into effect by sub-
tressing associations, which the mind scription, we put our name down,
is but too apt to connect with the Christopher North, Esq. ten gui-

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