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gree, brought about in the navy by regards science itself; for, babits of the causes we have named, or rather application once formed among no by the progress of society, of which val officers, will speedily diverge into they may all be considered features, many tracks not strictly professional; is the more extended general and pro- and the number of competent obser: fessional education now also dissemi- vers and investigators of Nature thus nating among its members, and of sent to every part of the world, will which we equally see the traces in its be incalculably increased. Its moral institutions. We have already ad- influence on the situation of sailors, verted to the state of tuition on board and prospectively on their characters, ship in 1802-3; besides which, how, is, however, most to our purposé. The ever, there was even then an establish- tastes and pursuits thus given to the ment at Portsmouth, in the nature of officers will, in time, descend, in a do a college, for a limited number of boys, gree, to the people under their com. chiefly officers' sons destined to follow mand: their time will be thus emtheir fathers' profession. But the root ployed, their minds enlarged, their of the evil lay in the examination for thoughts occupied, their pleasures van lieutenants having become a mere ried and purified, and the whole tone form. It had once been strict, as to of their character raised. And there is the practical branches of seamanship; a collateral effect also calculated to be these, however, were found, in time, thus produced on their mere situation so easy, that nobody was puzzled about as seamen, not quite so obvious in them; theory was, as yet, neglected; theory as these, which yet is already on no branch of science was there, shewing itself in no inconsiderable de accordingly,

any.

desire to excel; the gree; and, like every genuine result of ordinary level of information was low; a real, not merely an apparent change and those who entered above it, in of circumstances, is capable of being most cases speedily sank to its neigh- traced to several causes at a time. Hie bourhood. Candidates to pass as lieu- therto, in the navy, or at least up to tenants are now, however, subjected a very recent period, the spirit and to two examinations---each in their activity of temper which are indispenway strict, on the theory and practicesible in the composition of a good ofa of their profession; the stimulus thus ficer, have had no fields of exertion, given is everywhere felt; and but one except either fighting, when it could thing seems to us yet wanting to com.. be had, or very minute internal reguplete the effect, viz. the institution of lations. The consequence has been, an advanced college, such as is pos- that the state of order constituting efa sessed in the army, which should be a ficiency, was, in a great many incertain avenue to distinction and pro- stances, particularly where the service motion, but into which only decided engaged in was inactive, considerably talentsand previous attainments should overstated. Some officers whose teme be able to enter. * Such an establish pers were mercurial, deservedly rating ment would improve the service as promptness of maneuvre very high

, much by the exertions made by un laid their watches on the binnacle successful as siiccessful candidates; head, and demanded almost impossie and we think

that it will ultimately be bilities of their people in this way. given to it. Meanwhile, the scientific Others carried their notions of neatspirit of the age is doing a great deal ness to a similar excess, others those in this way; and we ought to add, of uniformity, respect, &c,; and as that already a class is formed for the failure was, in many cases, unavoid. special instruction of shipwrights in able, so punishment was certainly, every branch of theory, even to hya in some, capricious and severe. Much draulics, connected with their departo. of this, however, was stopped, as these ment; this being among the many re- last came to be progressively restrain cent institutions in the navy, to the ed; and when liberal information shall general spirit of which too much praise be generally disseminated through the cannot be awarded.

navy, it will all terminate in the ea. The entire prospect thus held out, siest and best manner possible for however, is not uninteresting, even as both parties. The superabandant els

Our readers will find a paper on this subject in our 4th Volume, p. 345... N.

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seperties foes abroad at any period of her ser- accordingly, and will receive yet more.

sel; I ergies of officers will have other fields money is made, the people must clothe

on which to expand ; and the intellie themselves upon credit with the puren gence of seamen will be raised, so as ser, and furnish themselves with

to understand the value of order, uni- pocket-money, which they will not i w formity, promptness, and regulation, want, by selling their clothes to Jews corso within their jūst limits. And thus, and pawnbrokers, at the certainty of

as the power to punish gets gradually being cheated by them, and in most creat more and more restricted, (for we do ships until lately, of being punished situata not believe this to have gained even besides, for the unavoidable offence. en der get its lowest point) the occasions of The several pleas made for these to our offence will be reduced in number; regulations in times past have been, 13 this and it is only when the just balance that it was wise to keep long arrears te, dass between these is deranged, that any in hand, to secure against desertion ; e underreal inconvenience is sustained. that Government gained very much wil z* We now assume, that a system of by the use of so much money

without uds es discipline, founded on influence, and interest, and by the numerous confisther not merely coercion, will gradually cations of parcels of it, when men did and ti modify those institutions in the navy desert, notwithstanding their arrears; casei, which impede its march, as having and that the people were much better lo caiz been established on other principles; without their money than with it, they heir me and will thus, in time, perfect its own only squandered it, and besides, they uite w machinery. It would do this, even had prize-money. These pleas, however, hich e sapposing that we continued to work it is plain, will not now all apply, ado inwes in the dark; as in times past; but mitting that they were founded on ry gener much more will it effect it, as men's good policy formerly, which, at the an are eyes open progressively to the real na- same time, we partly deny. We scarceis capo ture of the task in hand. And there ly think that a man was ever kept Uses this much to do, in this way, on minute from deserting by his arrears merely; 5, ora e points on which we cannot now con- the motive is too distant a one for od, ti descend, because the navy, having sailors, as they have been hitherto which a been hitherto ruled chiefly' by force, constituted. But in addition to this, sition cirits institutions are either entirely re- such of them as still remain are noo fieles a medial, or very arbitrarily and repul- toriously unjust, and that, if our foring wis sively preventive. But there is one mer reasoning be correct, is now a serimuite ne department of its regulations--that ous consideration. A labourer has a right

relating to the people's pay, which is to his hire ; if he squanders it, it is his

worthy of special notice from its im- own; and if we wish him to do so, the a real portance, and which will illustrate in certain way to succeed is to suffer him what some degree also, the nature of the re- to take on goods to account, and be

uncertain of the remaining balance; oficeret In all times past, even quite down to feed his imagination thus, first, 1, desta to the present day, pay has, in the with a belief that it is greater than it

havy, been considered due only every is, and then, after all, to give it him, six months ; but when a ship is first when, however reduced, it is a sum becommissioned, two months advance is yond his faculties, which our caution issued, and subsequently, six months has prevented from expanding, to maare always kept back. That is to say, nage. Such a system might answer at the end of the first year, four tolerably well--that is to say, its inmonths more are paid, and ever after- conveniences may not have been very wards, six months, as they successive- much felt, when it was possible to dy fall dué, provided the ship remains punish men for the irregularities into on the home station, and can be spa- which they were thus betrayed; but red at each interval, from the service it must become intolerable, as the rod

in which she is engaged, to repair to a progressively escapes from their offiinitiw port where there is a resident com- cers' hands.-Or rather, as a matter of

inissioner. The balance is ultimately fact, such as we have described it, it settled only when the crew are paid has of late years become intolerable, off and dismissed. But if the ship and has received sundry modifications vice, a is

During the vigour of the old system, till she returns, nor is any interest al- ships were currently kept abroad, lowed on the arrears. And if no prize- under these circumstances, an-inde

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finite length of time : Sir Edward miliar inspection. They will be enHughes' feet, in particular, may be abled, without question, to draw every said, many of them, to have lived and farthing, if they want it; and they died in the East Indies, ten, twelve, - will receive interest, on whatever they and even fourteen years' wages being chuse to leave behind. They will thus: by no means an uncommon arrear at feel their money to be their own, as that time due to them. There was no though it were in their pockets--besystem then either, enabling seamen come familiarized with its possession ; to assign a portion of their current and the following are a few of the ad. ) wages to their families at home; even vantages which would be derived from pursers' charges for slops were not such a change in their situation, which looked after as they should have been; will be found to apply both to discitradition accuses them accordingly, we pline and character, and to be both hope without foundation, of having remedial and preventive. given into many abuses; and, on the Rating and disrating are now, and whole, it is certain that seamen then have long been, familiar rewards and served, in many cases, merely for their punishments in the navy; but they clothes and prize-money-they died, are felt at present only as honour o or deserted, before returning home. disgrace, their consequences on emoluThe commissioned-officers were the ment being so remote. Did these aponly individuals exempted from these pear, however, at the conclusion of hardships; they drew their pay quar- every monthly balancing, their effect, terly, then as now. Of late years, how- whether as stimulus or caution, would ever, much of this has been reformed. be increased many-fold.—To prevent No ship is ever more than three years the sale of clothes by seamen, a monthabroad-men are allowed to assign ly inspection-in some ships it used to half their current pay to their families be even a weekly one-of their effects -it is impossible for irregularity or is constantly held, at she minute seruimposition to creep into a purser's ac- tiny of which the shy proud tempers, counts without detection-slops are in particular of our north-country seaboth very cheap and very good,--and men, (the best in the world,) espethe warrant-officers and mates draw cially revolts; and it is their first amfor their pay, quarterly, under the bition accordingly, when they becoine same testification by the captain, as the petty officers, to escape from it. In commissioned-officers. * But this will old times, officers did not care for their go further yet, and probably in the people's sulks—there were ways and following gradation :--The 'resident means to bring them out of them, er commissioners abroad will first be carry through all; but they would authorized to pay seamen's wages, as mar completely the best possible syswell as those at home-the periods tem of influence; and the occasion in when these are considered due will be question for them would thus, in the shortened and ultimately the captain, way proposed, be altogether removed and other signing officers, as they are - Again, the disposition of seamento called, of each ship, will be empower- sell their clothes to raise the wind, is ed, conjunctly, to draw for them, or connected with some of the very worst for such portion of them as the men circumstances in their situation, with want, almost at any time. Books, of regard to morals and good order; and the nature of savings-bank books, will this is the only way possible by which at the same time be opened, to ac- to overcome it, or even make it very count for the remainder, under the reasonable to repress or punish it. It men's own eyes, and open to their fa- is one of several lures, (all growing

It ought to gratify Scotchmen to be reminded, that a Scotch family, ennobled for this and other services, has had the high honour, and special good fortune, to preside at the Admiralty, father and son successively, almost the whole time that the improvements which we have endeavoured to trace have been in progress in the navy; and that its name is thus identified with them in the memory of every sailor. The truest political wisdom is to catch, in its infancy, the spirit of the age in which we live ;-the highest political fortune is to be entrusted with its guidance, and to be able to bequeath the trust

, as an inheritance, to a son, together with the maxims by which it was administered. This good fortune was the late Lord Melville's.

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'out of the pay system which we have placed ; and that thus all the objects 2 explained,) which make it a matter of contemplated by the present regula1 course that sea-port towns should be the 'tions are certainly defeated, and the 1. common resort of knavish brokers, who only ones really gained are the plunI purchase seamen's tickets for long ar- der of the seamen by pawn-brokers, * rears, give them money on false assign- and their prosperity and multipli*ments of pay, put a thousand false- cation.

hoods into their mouths, (of which, The following anecdotes we sub** and the corresponding habits, they are join, considering them important, as is not unfrequently themselves victims, illustrating two points here insisted s it is true,) but which, when they come on; the one, the indifference of sea

fresh from their mint, are designed to men, under ordinary circumstances, impose on the officers who take an in- even to a very moderately distant peterest in keeping their people out of cuniary motive; and the other, their their clutches ; and finally, coax these accessibility to it, notwithstanding

to drink, and indulge in every simi- their proverbial carelessness, when it rlar excess, just on purpose to profit is directly brought home to them ;eltaby their prodigality and distress. Sai- they both occurred within our own

lors know well that this is their observation. A seaman who was inet character, and these their arts; and if valided on a foreign station, on his h - they could touch their current pay, or way home took a passage in the ship

even a part of it, as they wanted it, he had belonged to, from one port

would never go near them. But they to another; but the vessel touching Edule will not want money altogether; and, at an intermediate port on her way, he ved as matters stand now, they only make was permitted to go on shore with his

bad worse through this knowledge, by comrades to take a walk. And he de

reconciling to their consciences accord- serted,—that is to say, he got drunk, them ingly, upon the approved principle of outstaid his time, was afraid to return;

diamond cut diamond, every imposi- ' (the prospect of his money within a tion which they can put upon them. few months not even weighing down

And lastly, however small the arrears this,) and not appearing, was marked w due to seamen at any time upon our run," on the ship's books, the he plan, and its amount would always only way of disposing of him. Two gre za depend on themselves, it would in years afterwards, however, when the

truth keep them from deserting a thou- shoe began to pinch, and he saw sand times more certainly than any others getting their wages, while he undefined and distant sum can poso was cut out of his, the same fellow sibly do. A sailor's balancing turns walked 400 miles, from London to much more on present and future time, Edinburgh, and back again, to get than greater or smaller emolument: his captain to speak for him that he “What's the use," says he,“ of my might be forgiven; and as his case was hanging on here for this wage? Í certainly a peculiar one, and he never may be dead or ever I get it.' And could have meant to desert, a reprethus, although seamen seldom leave sentation was ultimately made to the their

ships with the intention of de- Admiralty to this effect, and was sucserting, it is inconceivable how small cessful. Again, a ship on the Halia lure will sometimes spirit them fax station, in 1816, received orders to

away. The change in question, how- proceed to Quebec, collect convoy, and en sus ever, would first apply to their pre- return to England, with a tolerable

sent character, and, as shall be after- certainty of being paid off. There wards noticed more at length, will ul- was not a farthing among her crew, timately modify it; and, we repeat it and accordingly, the officer who comtherefore, all these reasons together manded her was familiarized with the will certainly produce it in the long system of clothes-selling, and allowed run. The rather, and we ought to for it; but on the present occasion, on notice this, that the mode of enabling his way to Quebec, he acquainted his seamen to touch a portion of their cur- ship's company with their destination,

pay abroad, by conniving at their and their near prospect, in conseselling their clothes taken up ou cre- quence, of receiving their arrears. dit, is now almost methodized in the Meanwhile, he added, they shculd * service at any rate, in consequence of have leave as usual, and, he knew,

the circumstances in which it has been would sell their clothes as usual ; but

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that those who wanted slops should, same time. In dealing with them, it notwithstanding, have them, to the is necessary to invert the old adage, present diminution of their balance ; and write, fortiter in modo, sed suaviter 2 and on coming out of port, he would in re-musing, perhaps, a strong inyecmake every man complete to two suits, tive, even while the action is benevoto cross the Atlantic with, in further lent, and the feeling most kind. * If diminution of it, if it was necessary. they fancy themselves courted, like it The men could not resist the tempt children, they cast all control behind 5 ation of taking up some slops at the them; but, like the same children, moment, that they might enjoy them- they are very sensible of real interest

, selves while in port; but there they although neither deceived by a soft nor had leave till they would not go out a gruff voice; and when they feel of the ship even to take a walk, not themelves obliged, surrendering enone deserted, and on putting to sea, tirely to the present impulse, (it does 5 it was only necessary to issue four not generally last long,) they will go jackets among them all. Let us add, through fire and water to indulge in at the same time, with respect to their it, and make personal sacrifices which z not deserting, that several of them had calculators would never do. Only really no arrears at all, and were they will do just the same, as they scarcely out of debt when they came whim moves them, in the opposite di home; these did not remain, there. rection; and the strong bit which was fore, from a pecuniary motive, but a once in their mouth being broken, we much better one, a sense of obliga. must ride them with the snaffle, and this tion for sympathy with their feelings, spirit is therefore inconvenient. Their and regard for their interests, peremp- character, in one word more, is just torily expressed, but cordially felt, Burke's character of Lord Chatham's ki and timeously extended. As it hap- last administration, a tesselated TE pens, there is nothing attaches sailors pavement, here a bit of black stone, in their present state so much as this, and there a bit of white, most beautiand it retains their respect at the ful to look at, but now utterly unsafe

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* We do not mean here that it is ever absolutely necessary to swear on these occasions, although, no doubt, it is sometimes exceedingly convenient,—we only generally renew an argument on which we once before touched, that in a certain state of society men must be ruled peremptorily; and add, that in the same state, a bark does not offend their ears, and they are the better for being reminded by it, even when you are most kind to them, that a bite may follow, should they come to want it. There is no argument tempts us so much at all times as this,--we cannot bear to hear the old institutions of the navy sweepingly condemned, without a single reference to the change of times ; and it most especially moved our spleen, only the other day, when we observed that the surviving relations of the late Admiral Burney could not even eulogize his memory without descending to this cant. People should have more sense than thus institute invidious comparisons, when they are in nø degree called for, or conceive that they can only praise an individual by depreciating the profession to which he belonged. Admiral Burney was, unquestionably, an able and highly-gifted officer; every thing, in a word, which this eulogy, abstractly, calls him. What then? He early took to sea with him those literary accomplishments, the operation of which, in moderating the tone of discipline, we have already noticed. And, with them, he had a measure of the faults of the state of society to which tend he thus properly belonged. And be it said, with every proper respect to his memory, he would have been neither a worse man, nor a less eminent officer, had his failings been those rather of the age in which he lived.

To return to our argument, however, we may observe, that the beau ideal of a chief, in a rude people's fancy, is always a bluff speaker; and an anecdote occurs to us, tole. rably in point, which seems to shew that this is not without reason, On the fatal morning of the charge on the American lines before New Orleans, on the 8th January, 1815, a brigade of black troops in the field hung back a few moments, half frozen, in truth, for the night had been very cold. An officer, thinking to encourage them, called out, “ Come along, my brave fellows; come along !” "_" Me no brave, massa, dis morning, me no hab rum,” was the cool reply of one of their number ; but which very naturally enraging the officer, changed his note; and, well rated, perhaps well cuffed, poor Mungo warmed forthwith to bis task, and behaved well throughout the remainder of the affair.

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