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yielded any one ; every where lasted (foe) down; but their own friends in á Slawoy's deadly strife.

safety carried to other banks. “0, thou foe! Fiend is in thee; The cruel kite spreads in breadth si wherefore dost thou drink our blood ?" and length its long wings over the

Zaboy grasped his axe, and Ludeck lands, and keenly darts on each birl. sprung back; he lifted the axe up, and The warriors of Zaboy, dispersed in threw it at his foe. The axe flies; to bands, chased the foe far and wide over shivers breaks the shield, and beneath the country. Every where they killed the shield Ludeck's breast. The soul and crushed them beneath their horses'

shrunk at the heavy blow. It chased hoof. In the night, under the moon, ď the soul from the body, and flew five they hung on their back; in the day, furlongs amidst the army.-Fright

out under the sun, they hung on their of the throats of foe forced shrieks; back; and again, in the dark night, and joy rung from the lips of Zaboy's and after the night, in the dawn of the warriors, and sparkled in their eye. day every where they hung on them.

“Now, dear brother! Gods gave The holy river murmurs by. Wave us victory. One band of your's may towers over wave. All shout shrill, speed to the right, one to the left. Let and close step in step follow each other. them bring coursers hither, hither from Together they cross the foaming stream. every dell.” The horses neigh in all the Its waves had borne down many a fowoods" Zaboy ! dear brother! Thou reigner, (foe); but their own friends art a lion without fear. Cease not in safety carried to other banks. from the bloody work.”

• Go on! thither to the grey mounAt this Zaboy threw away his shield. tains. There will end our vengeance ! 1 In one hand he takes an axe, in the O, Zaboy ! dear brother ! behold the

other a sword, and wielding them from mountains; already they are not far side to side and forward, cuts a way off, and few are our foes; and even those amidst the enemies. They shake with implore our pity. Turn to yonder side; fear, and flee the field. Fright out of thou hither, I thither, to knock down the throats of the foe forced shrieks. all that is kingly! The winds blow deThe horses neigh through all the struction through all the villages : the woods.

armies bring desolation through the “ To horse, to horse ! On horses pur- villages-through the villages to the sue the foe! Through all the lands right and to the left. On, warriors, drive them. Let us carry amongst on! with broad strength, and with cry them terror and destruction.”

of joy. And fierce they sprung on their fiery 0, dear brother! There the broad steeds. Hard behind they press upon top of the mountain. Gods gave us the foemen. Wound on wound they this victory; and there many a soul inflict; heap slaughter on slaughter. lingers, hovering unsteady on the trees The vallies, the hills, the woods pass -a terror to the birds and timorous by-to the right and to the left--all beasts; the owls alone they fear not flies behind.

them. There upon this summit let us Lo! There the holy river murmurs bury the dead, and give food to the by. Wave towers over wave. The pious. There let us bring rich offerwarriors shout shrill, and close step in ings to Gods, who gave us again our step press on each other. Together freedom. Let us sing them pleasing they cross the foaming stream. Its words, and heap up the spoils of the waves had borne many a foreigner, conquered foe.'


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The state of society in Arabia seems by an independent chief, the head of to have continued nearly the same since the family. the first mention of that country in There are two principalities, howhistory. The population is divided ever, in the peninsula, which may

be into tribes, or clans, which are each considered innovations on the patrisprung from one stock, and governed archal form of government. The one

situated on the Persian Gulph is sube of union had associated for purposes ject to the Imaum of Muscat, the of plunder. The Arabs had a nationother on the Red Sea to the Imaum of ality which could not belong to such Senna. These appear to have had a community; and their habits were their origin in the changes produced predatory, not from choice, but as the by the introduction of commercial ha- natural and necessary consequence of bits; and the new form of society and the state of society amongst them. government, which arose from the con- These habits, therefore, did not desequent division of occupations, and cessarily vitiate their moral character the acquirement of fixed property. in its domestic relations, otherwise

The remaining part of Arabia is oc- than as war in general has a tendency cupied by tribes, who acknowledge to vitiate ; for when they confined their no superior beyond their patriarchal depredations to attacks on the Persian leader, and who, for the most part, vessels, they differed in nothing from have no fixed habitations, and no pro- a nation at war with Persia, and when perty that is not moveable. The coun- they became more bold, and attacked try is too arid to promise much from all vessels of whatever country, they cultivation, and the inhabitants sub- differed in nothing from a nation at sist chiefly on the produce of their war with all the world. flocks, which they drive from place to As they were not strong enough to place, as circumstances may require. put down opposition by their power, Like all people in a similar state of so or to carry on their depredations where ciety, they are given to plunder, and they were frequently opposed, they their predatory habits have made them were induced, like other barbarians in warlike.

similar circumstances, to practise a The tribes which settled on the system of terror, and endeavour to coast seem to have lived for a consider- prevent opposition by the dread of able time in a manner perfectly simi- their vengeance. They accordingly lar to those in the interior, but as the put to death all who opposed them, of use of boats obliged them to chuse for whatever nation or persuasion, and their residence situations where these committed every description of barbacould be accommodated, they were in- rous outrage. Thinking it necessary duced to build houses, to plant date to justify such proceedings, they found trees, and cultivate the soil; the in- religious pretexts for what they had cursions of their neighbours forced done, and declared such deeds to be them to erect fortifications for the de- meritorious and pleasing in the sight of fence of their property, and thus they God. When it is remembered for what fixed themselves permanently to the execrable purposes religious pretexts spot where they had first taken up were often found amongst Christians, their abode. *

even in our own country, such a cira As their form of government was cumstance will appear the less extraornot changed, and as they retained dimary and inexcusable. many of their former habits, and The Arabs at first confined their amongst others, their predatory ten- predatory excursions to the Persian dencies, they were induced by the Gulph, and the coasts near its entrance; prospect of a richer plunder, to carry but being almost invariably fortunate, on their depredations by sea, rather success made them more bold, and than by land ; thus they became pirates. more powerful, till at last they issued In doing so, however, they could not forth from their inland sea, and inbe said to have changed their habits, fested the whole coast of India, as far but only the element on which they as Cape Comorin. followed what they considered to be During the progress of these depredatheir original and natural occupation. tions, there arose in Arabia a new sect, These tribes, therefore, differed widely calling themselves Wahabees; from from a body of persons of various nations their leader Abdull Wahab. They and occupations, who had separated taught that the religion of Mahomed theinselves from anorganized and civili- had been degraded, and the true faith zed society, and without any other bond hidin a mass of impure doctrine, little

* Rasul Khymah, which, literally translated, is · The Promontory of Tents," grew in this manner into a considerable town out of the incampment which gave it its name.

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better than the religion of the heathen. mand of Colonel (now General) LioThey condemned the use of the name nel Smith, proceeded to and attacked of Mahomed in prayer, and above all, Rasul Khymah, drove the Arabs from denied him any supernatural power or the town, burnt the boats, and destroyassistance. They considered him a ed all the property in the place. They devout and enlightened man, and they proceeded also to the other ports, and followed his faith and his doctrines returned, having executed all that was with more strictness and attention required by their instructions.' than any amongst the Mussulmen. It was supposed that the Wahabees They trusted themselves to the guid- and Johafsims would not again attempt ance of the one God, whom they wor to molest our trade, but this calculation shipped, and would not associate any proved to be erroneous; they were other name with his. They believed strong on the sea in a few years, and themselves to be under his particular became bolder, more formidable, and protection, and expected, or pretended more successful than ever. to expect, his special interference in The Bombay marine having been their behalf, as the reward of superior much reduced, was inadequate to the devoutness and holiness.

protection of the coasts; even in the Abdul Wahab claimed no temporal vicinity of Bombay, a boat was not authority, but he collected large sums safe a mile from our harbour. In the of money for religious purposes, and year 1819, the insurance rose to such became virtually a ruler in Arabia over a rate, that the premium to Kutch, five a numerous but scattered tribe. Mis- days sail, was as high as to England; sionaries were sent out in every direc and the merchants of Bombay sent up tion, and were successful wherever to government a petition praying for they went. A great part of the tribe the remission of a tax of one per cent. Johafsim, or properly Gohafsin, a on imports, which was levied expressly powerful piratical tribe on the coast, and exclusively to defray the expenses were converted to the faith, and the of an establishment for the protection Bedowins were following their ex- of the coasting trade. ample.

About this time, (1818-19,) MaThe Imaum. of Muscat, one of the hommed Ally-Pacha of Egypt, perceimost powerful chiefs in Arabia, and an ying that the power of the Wahabees ally of the British government, was had grown into a great kingdom, and tottering on his throne. The Imaum that they had taken possession of the of Senna was in danger, and Deria, holy places of Mecca and Medina, led the chief place of the Wahabees, had an army against them into Arabia, and become one of the first towns or cities defeating them in several battles, made in Arabia. Many from amongst the himself master of Deria, and sent their pirates having become Wababees, this chief, Abdullah, prisoner to Constansect supported the predatory system, tinople, where he was beheaded by and were supported by the pirates in order of the Porte. their turn. In a short time they gain In the days of the prosperity of the ed so great an ascendancy on the coast, Wahabees, those of the sect who rethat they became the ruling power, sided on the coast paid a tribute to the and being engaged constantly in pre- chief at Deria, which was collected by

datory excursions, the terms Pirate and Hassin bin Ally, by repute a very ! Wahahee were almost considered syno- learned and devout man, who having nymous in the Gulf.

gone to Deria in his youth, was there In the year 1809, the Imaum of converted to the faith of the WahaMuscat begged the assistance of the bees, and returning to his own counBombay government against the people try in the vicinity of Rasul Khymah, of Rasul Khymah, and of several other preached the doctrines of his sect to ports, which were either in possession the tribe Gohafsin, to which he be

of the Wahabees, or associated with longed, and converting many of them, ĩ them, and under their influence. As became a chief of some power and great by these pirates had molested the trade of influence, and settled himselfat Rumps, 72% India for several years, and even at about six leagues from Rasul Khy- tacked the Company's armed cruizers, mah.

the government were inclined to co Sultan Bin Suggur, chief of the

operate with the Imaum in reducing tribe Gohafsin, at one time ruled in uy them; and an expedition under com, Rasul Khymah, as well as in Shyah,

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which he still holds; but he was for the Arabs deserved retaliation, it was ced, by divisions in his tribe, and by not our interest to retaliate to the exthe power of Hassin bin Ally, to give tent which might be in our power, the government of the former to Has- though it was necessary to establish sin Bin Rahma, the son of his father's our absolute superiority—that it was brother, who became a Wahabee on not advisable to persecute—that the his being put in authority.

nature of the country was such as After the fall of Deria, the death of would make it impossible for a force, Abdullah, and the destruction of the equipped like ours, to follow the Arabs Wahabee power in the interior, Hof- into the interior—that the detention sin bin Ally continued to demand the of all the persons we could possibly tribute from Hassin bin Rahmah, who capture, would not materially weaken refused to pay tribute for a govern- the pirates, but only exasperate them ment that did not exist; and thus a - that the destruction of houses and dispute arose between the chiefs. But plantations would make them despeeach carried on his depredations by rate, without driving them from the sea, as did also Sultan bin Suggur, till coast, and would, moreover, entail far matters being in this situation, the more misery on the women and childgovernment of India ordered a force to ren, than on those who had actually be sent against them, and appointed committed depredations—that the des Sir William Grant Keir to command. struction of all boats indiscriminately

As the Arabs had long dreaded an was impolitic, for that they could be other attack from the side of India, so replaced, though not for some time, they endeavoured to prepare them and that the people could not live hoselves against it, and the people of Ra- nestly or peaceably in the mean time, sul Khymah put aside one-third of without them—that the destruction of their plunder for the purpose of build all boats would therefore force them to ing a fort to protect the town. This a continuance of their predatory hafort was accordingly built, and the bits, whereas, if they retained such as defences of the town repaired and im- were fitted for fishing, they could proved before the expedition under Sir subsist without plunder. They conWilliam Keir had left India.

tended, that to prevent the Arabs Hassin bin Ally, too, had abandon- from plundering, it was necessary to ed Rumps, which was not naturally engage them in some other occupastrong, and had fortified himself in the tion by which they could subsistadjacent bill of Zyaph.

that it was our duty, as well as out Such being the state of Arabia, the interest, to make the transition from question arose, What will be the most a predatory to a peaceful life, as easy alvantageous course to pursue after and profitable as possible, and that it the towns and forts of the pirates shall was therefore desirable to gain their fall into our hands ?

confidence, so soon as we had shewn Some were of opinion that the atro them our power and superiority in cities which they had committed demanded retaliation—that a system of These opinions, however, were persecution, extending to the capture maintained only by a few, and by far and detention of all the armed per- the greater number of persons did not sons who could be taken-the total hesitate to give a decided preference to destruction of all property, boats, the former plan. Of those, however, houses, and plantations-blocking up into whose hands the conduct of the the creeks and harbours, and doing all affairs of the expedition fell, several that could be done towards extermi. were inclined to the latter, and seemed nating the tribes engaged in piracy, willing to leave the matter to the dewas the mode best calculated to restore cision of circumstances. peace and order ; and they proposed, The force destined for the Gulf, conat the same time, to leave a force at sisting of about 1400 European, and some convenient station in the Gulf, as many native troops, with artillery, to check any attempt on the part of pioneers, and a battering train, was the Arabs to return to their former embarked at Bombay on the first day habits. The Bombay government seem- of November, and sailed on the third, ed inclined to lean to this view of the under convoy of his Majesty's ship Liquestion rather than


other. verpool, Captain Collier, and Curlew, Soine however contended, that though Captain Walpole. On the 25th, the


fleet anchored in the Sound between As they were in want of the dates and the Islands of Lorock and Kishm, on other provisions which we had taken the 26th in Kishm Road, where they in the town, they were readily induced took in some fresh water, and reached to treat and deal for them--and findRasul Khymah on the 2d of December. ing themselves safe amongst us, they

Preparations were immediately made acquired confidence, and a friendly for landing, which was effected with- intercourse was established, which was out opposition before day broke on the the more likely to continue, as it promorning of the 3d; on the 4th, the mised ailvantages to both. enemy's piquets in advance of the fort The Arabs were willing to enter in. were driven in, and the batteries com- to any engagements which the British menced. On the 6th, the breaching authorities might deem necessary for batteries opened on the fort, and the the suppression of piracy--and as they ships of war on the town. On the 7th, were the more likely to abandon their the firing continued all day, and about predatory habits when relieved from 8 P.M. the enemy made a sortie, suc- every restriction on the more peace ceeded in taking the mortar battery, able modes of obtaining a livelihood, it and carried a field howitzer to some became our interest to encourage and distance towards the fort ; but the bat- assist such of them as were inclined to tery was retaken, and the gun brought engage in any honest occupation, and back in a few minutes. On the even- to hold out every inducement to others ing of the 8th, the breach was reported to follow their example. A treaty was practicable, but at an hour too late to accordingly concluded upon these prinstorm. On the morning of the 9th, the ciples. storming party advanced, and found While these arrangements were in the fort and town evacuated.

progress, some doubt arose as to the Being now in possession of the chief true import of the word aman, which place of the pirates, it became neces became important, as on the decision sary to adopt some political course. of this point rested the terms on which

The great body of the inhabitants Hassin bin Ally, chief of Rasul Khyhad taken up their abode in a grove of mah, had delivered himself up. He date-trees, to which they might have came to us on a promise of amun, which been followed and attacked, and pro some translated forgiveness, and some bably from 50 to 100 fighting men personal safety. He was at this time a might have been killed and taken ; but prisoner, and complained that his bethe women and children of the town ing kept in custody was a breach of the were also there, and it was worthy of promise of aman. It appeared that this consideration, whether the advantage word admitted of considerable latitude to us in weakening the enemy to the in its use and it was thought more extent which was then in our power, advisable to liberate the Shaik than to would be an equivalent for the misery give room for supposing that the Briwe should necessarily inflict on the de- tish faith had been compromised. fenceless and innocent, and the bur Independent of this consideration, den we should bring on ourselves by it seemed to be more politic to set him the care of the women and children at large, as he was a man of influence who must fall into our hands.

in his tribe--and having more to lose, In the course of the following day, was more interested than any one else before any decided measures had been in bringing the arrangements to a conadopted, the Arabs sent in their sub- clusion. His tribe, too, during his mission, with proposals for an amica- confinement, manifested considerable ble adjustment; and their chief agreed suspicion of our intentions, which it

to come in on a promise of aman, (for- was thought his liberation would reį giveness or personal safety.)*

Thus circumstances led to a more This calculation proved to be corlenient course of policy than the go- rect; for, on his being set- at liberty, vernment had contemplated, or the not only all the chiefs dependent on persons on the spot had made


their or connected with him, but all the minds to adopt or recommend. predatory chiefs of the coast of Ara

In the course of subsequent com bia, with only one exception, sent in munications, the Arabs were found to their submission, and entered on nebe more intelligent and more tractable gociations for participating in the bethan they had been represented to be. nefits of the treaty about to be conVOL. X.


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