ON Tuesday, September 15, 1818, departed this life, (after five days of acute suffering, which she bore with exemplary patience,) Mrs. Elizabeth Browne, wife of the Rev. T. B. Browne, of Buntingford. She was the youngest surviving daughter of Mr. Thomas Cox, late of Winchester-street, London, who was forty years one of the deacons of the Baptist church assembling in Eagle


DIED, September 4, at Hamsterly, near Bishop Auckland, Mrs. Whitfield, aged 62 years. Her remains were interred in the Baptists' burying-ground, September 7, 1818. Mr. Sample, of Newcastle, preached on that, occasion from 1 Peter i. 24, 25 ; and Mr. Williamson, of North Shields, delivered the oration at the grave. Her death is a great loss, not only to her surviving husband, but to the whole church and congregation, by whom she was much and deservedly esteemed. May such Among her numerous ministerial painful events urge upon us all the friends, she had the honour and hap-instruction contained in Matt. xxiv. piness of ranking, as one of her most intimate and affectionate, the late Rev. Samuel Pearce, whose praise is in all the churches.


42-44: "Therefore be ye also ready; for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of Man cometh !"

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the Isle of France, about 60 miles N. E. of Paris. He was first placed in the college of La Marche, at Paris, under the celebrated Mathurinus

THE long and dreary night of Po-Corderius, who afterwards became pery was not without its constella- a Protestant, and died in 1564, at tions. The Paulicians, the Albi- Geneva, at the age of eighty-five genses, the Waldenses, the Wick-years. He next studied logic and littites, and the Hussites, shone with theology under Hispanus. He stuno small splendour even in those died the civil law at Orleans under dark ages. But of the thousands of Petrus Stella, President of the Parpersons who then suffered in defence liament of Paris, and at Bourges of the truth, there are not many in- under Alciat. He read till midnight, dividuals of whose lives we have a and reviewed in the morning in bed particular account. We cannot be what he had read the night before: sufficiently thankful to Divine Pro- his progress was equal to his dili vidence for the wonderful invention gence; for in the absence of the proof printing, which not only by the fessors he frequently supplied their diffusion of knowledge was a great place. At Bourges he also learned instrument of bringing about the Re- Greek under Melchior Wolmar; and formation, but has also handed down sometimes preached at a small town to us the lives and writings of the in that neighbourhood. emirent men by whom it was ef fected.

Of these the person whose life is here présented to us is one of the most illustrious. He was born July 10, 1509, at Noyon, a large town in

On the death of his father in 1532, he returned to Paris, where he made divinity his principal study, and began publicly to teach the doctrine of Oecolampadius, the celebrated Swiss Reformer, who had died at Basil the

By the command of Christ, and the desire of his people. Viret equalled this son of thunder in his eloquence, but it was more mild and gentle. Many became his hearers, who were no friends to the doctrine he taught. His auditory in general were so charmed with his eloquence, that they wished he would preach longer. When he was at Lyons, a populous city, he used to preach in the open air, in so powerful a manner, that some thousands were apparently converted. Many who were occasionally passing by, have been so fixed by his preaching, that they could not leave the spot till he had

preceding December. This exposed him to persecution. He escaped by means of the sheets of his bed from the window of his college, and went to Nerae, where he saw Faber Stapulensis, whom Beza calls one of the most noble persons on earth for learning, piety, and desire of reformation. He returned to Paris in 1534; but it being unsafe to continue there, he went with his brother Anthony to Basil, where he contracted a close friendship with two very learned and pious men, Simon Grynæus, (who died of the plague in 1541,) and Wolfgang Capito; under the latter of whom he learned the Hebrew language. It was here that he pub-finished his discourse. Calvin exlished his Christian Institutions, with a dedication to Francis I. dated August 1, 1536. This work has been translated into almost all the European languages.

From Basil he went to Ferrara, to visit the Duchess of that city, who favoured the Reformation, and who retained for him a great esteem through life. From Ferrara he went to France with his brother, to 'settle his affairs, and intended to return to Basil; but he was arrested at Geneva, on his way thither, by William Farel, (the disciple of Stapulensis,) and Peter Viret, both of whom became his intimate friends. Farel said to him, "You have not any other pretext to refuse me than your attachment to your studies; but I warn you, in the name of Almighty God, that if, preferring your own repose to the cause of Jesus Christ, you do not share with me in the holy work in which I am engaged, he will not bless your designs." The talents of Farel and Viret were different. Farel seemed rather to thunder than to speak: he possessed such a wonderful gift of prayer, that he not only appeared transported himself with the life of heaven, but lifted up the hearts of his audience thither. He was often surrounded with drawn swords: bells were rung to prevent his being heard, but in vain: they could neither interrupt nor terrify the preacher. When they haled him before the magistrates, and it was inquired of him by whose command he presumed to preach, he answered,

celled in grave and sententious discourses. Beza says, “I often thought that the gifts of these three men, meeting in one, would make a complete pastor. Farel died at Neufchatel in 1565, aged 75; Viret in Navarre, under the protection of its pious queen, in 1571.

The Presbyterian church-government was established at Geneva; by virtue of which establishment the church was put under the power of the state. In all religious establishments, the state occupies the place of Christ, who is the only lawful Head of the church. Were the state composed entirely of good men, the practical evil would not be so great as it otherwise is; but even then it would be great; for, besides that it is a dethroning of Christ, it is not right that good men of one denomination should in church matters be under the power of good men of another denomination, which they must be unless they become Dissenters. But where the state is composed either in whole or in part of irreligious men, the evil cannot but be sensibly felt. Farel and Calvin endeavoured to persuade the government of Geneva to attempt the correction of the public morals; and they and the other ministers preached against the vices of the times, and refused to admit profligate persons to the Lord'sSupper. But mark the consequence! Coraut, one of the ministers, was, on account of his faithfulness, first forbidden to preach, and then imprisoned; and Calvin, Farel, and Co,

raut, were soon after commanded to leave the city in three days, which they did, and made room for other preachers who would be more complaisant to their superiors.

How rare a thing it is for great men to be good men! and where they are not, although it is the duty of Christians to be subject to wicked rulers in matters wherein religion is not concerned, yet if the church is yoked with them, it is unequally yoked with unbelievers. It may then be said, "What fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? and what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?" In this case there is no other remedy than to retrace that ground which ought never to have been trodden, and to hearken to the Divine injunction, which ap- || plies to all such improper connexions, "Come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you, and be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty." 2 Cor. vi. 17.

After three years' banishment Calvin was permitted to return to Geneva, and was reinstated in his ministerial office. This was in the year 1541. In 1553, Bertelier was excommunicated on account of his wicked life: but the senate absolved him, and commanded that the sacrament should be administered to him within two days. Calvin then raised his voice, lifted up his hands, and said, that he would imitate St. Chrysostom; that he would not oppose force to force; but that he would rather suffer himself to be massacred, than that his hands should present the holy mysteries to those who had been judged unworthy of them.-Who does not see that both Calvin and Chrysostom were unequally yoked with men with whom they ought not to have been yoked?

thing to do with it. It is true that many of the Reformers approved of his conduct: but if it were in our power, we would wrap it up in im penetrable obscurity. We will, therefore, dismiss the subject with the following quotation, made by Mr. Mackenzie from Mr. Fuller's "Calvinistic and Socinian Systems examined and compared."

"It ought, however, to be acknow ledged, that persecution for religious principles was not at that time peculiar to any party of Christians, but common to all, whenever they were invested withi civil power. It was a detestable error; but it was the error of the age. They looked upon heresy in the same light as we look upon those crimes which are inimical to the peace of civil society; heretics by the sword of the civil magisand, accordingly, proceeded to punish trate. If Socinians did not persecute their adversaries so much as Trinitarians, it was because they were not equally invested with the power of doing so. Mr. Lindsay acknowledges, that Faustus So cinus himself was not free from persecu tion in the case of Francis David, Super intendent of the Unitarian churches in Transylvania. David had disputed with died in prison, in consequence of his opinion, and some offence taken at his supposed indiscreet propagation of it from the pulpit. that Socinus, or his I wish I could say,' adds Mr. Lindsay, friend Blandrata, had done all in their power to prevent his commitment, or procure his release afterwards. The difference between Socinus and David was very slight. They both held Christ to be a mere man. The former, however, was for praying to him; which the latter, with much greater consistency, disap tion to which Socinus was accessary was proved. Considering this, the persecu as great as that of Calvin; and there is no reason to think, but that if David had differed as much from Socinus as Serve tus did from Calvin, and if the civil magistrates had been for burning him, Socinus would have concurred with them. To this it might be added, that the conduct of Socinus was marked with disingenuity, in that he considered the opinion of David in no very heinous point of light: but was afraid of in,,

Socinus on the invocation of Christ, and

We are now obliged, however re-creasing the odium under which he and luctantly, to record the death of Christian churches. It was the opinion his party already lay, among other Servetus. We cannot but drop a tear over the conduct of so excel- | lent a man as Calvin, in having any

that erroneous religious principles are punishable by the civil magistrate, that did, the mischief, whether at Geneva, in

Transylvania, or in Britain; and to this, rather than to Trinitarianism, or to Unitarianism, it ought to be imputed." 2d edit. p. 146.

from the pestilential brood of here. tical and rebellious fanatics, who called themselves Independents, or from the mad adherents of Thomas Venuer, or from the high-church mobs of Sacheverel and Birming ham, notwithstanding, from that part of the preceding quotation which we have printed in Italic characters, he appears to be "agreed with them on the article of baptism."

We proceed to make a few extracts relative to the closing scenes of the life of this excellent man,

Mr. Mackenzie entertains his readers with the old fable of the DESCENT of the present Baptists from the Anabaptists of Munster; which is just as true as that the present Independents are DESCENDED from the fanatics under Thomas Venner. He, however, politely adds, "While it is impossible to contemplate the conduct of these fanatics without feeling the glow of indignation, it is im- "The year 1564, when he entered on portant to guard against a disposition to his eternal felicity, occasioned a deep and transfer our disgust to those who are dis-lasting grief to Geneva. On the second tinguished by the same denomination in the present day. Justice, however, requires us to CONFESS, that they are as far removed from every thing offensive in the conduct of the fanatics of Munster, as they are agreed with them on the article of baptism. It would indeed be equally just to reproach the present Americans, on the ground of the charac ter and circumstances of their remote ancestors.

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of February he delivered his last sermon, and, on the same day, his last theologi, cal lecture. His asthma depriving him of the use of his voice, he abstained from all the functions of his charge. He was indeed sometimes carried to the congregation, but seldom spoke.

"In a letter which he wrote to the physicians of Montpellier, he gave an account of the maladies, which his vari ous labours of body and of mind had brought upon him. For, besides being of a dry and feeble temperament, and strongly inclined to consumption, he slept very unsoundly. During ten years ▾ at least he ate no dinner, taking no nourishment until supper-time. He was subject to a head-ache, the only remedy for which was fasting; on account of which he remained sometimes thirty-six hours without eating. He was also frequently attacked by the hemorrhoids, which were brought on partly by his efforts in preaching, and partly by the excessive use of aloes; and five years before his death he was seized with a spitting of blood. He was no sooner cured of the quartan ague

We can scarcely refrain from laughing out aloud at these self-important and self-complacent airs. Surely Mr. Mackenzie forgets, that as great odium has been attached to the term Independent, as was ever attached to that of Anabaptist; and that in the Indices Hæretici of the last two centuries, the Independents are described as a pestilential brood of heretical and rebellious fanatics. So great was “the odium of sedition and anarchy charged on this sect, that the true and genuine Independents renounced this title, and called themselves Congregational Brethren, and their religious assemblies Congregational Churches."* We are obliged to Mr. Mackenzie for feeling the importance of guarding against a disposition to transfer his dis-larity. gust to the modern Baptists; but we should have been still more obliged to him if he had not felt the necessity of it. For our parts, we feel no necessity of being upon our guard against a disposition to transfer our disgust to Mr. Mackenzie from the followers of Wat Tyler and Jack Cade, or

* Rees's edition of Chambers's Cy clop. Art. Independents,

than he was attacked by the gout: he was afterwards afflicted with the cholic, and a few months before his death with the stone. The physicians exhausted their art upon him, and no man ever observed their instructions with more regu

But as to what relates to the labours of the mind, he had so little respect to his health, that the most violent head

aches never prevented his appearance in the pulpit in his turn.

"Afflicted, however, as he was, by so many maladies, he was never known to tian, or even of a man of constancy and pronounce a word unworthy of a Chris courage. In his greatest agonies, lifting his eyes to heaven, he was accustomed only to repeat the words, How long, Lord?' When in health, he frequently

made use of these words with reference to the calamities of his brethren in Jesus Christ, whose afflictions were much more painful to him than his own. When im portuned not to dictate or write during his illness, Would you,' said he, that when the Lord comes, he should surprise me in idleness?'

"On the 10th of March, being dressed, and seated before the table at which he was accustomed to write, he was visited by Beza, and other friends. Upon seeing them, he leaned his head upon one of his hands, apparently meditating, and addressed them in a low voice, but with a cheerful and open countenance; saying, I return you my thanks, my very dear brethren, for all the care you take of me.. I hope you will soon be relieved from it, and that in a fortnight I shall assist in your assembly for the last time; for I think that after that time, the Lord will remove me from this world, and raise me to his paradise.''

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We could gladly have transcribed many other particulars; but our room will not permit: we pass on, therefore, to the account of his death.

To admit all the persons who wished to express their regret at the prospect of losing him, the door of his chamber must have been open night and day. But as he spoke with difficulty, be requested

that his friends would be contented to pray to God for him, and spare themselves the trouble of visiting him. On being visited by his intimate and highly valued friend Beza, he informed him, that he made it a matter of conscience not to divert him in the smallest degree from the duties of his charge, so much


had he the interests of the church and the glory of God at heart. In this state he continued, until the 19th of May, exhibiting a perfect resignation, and comforting his friends. And as on this day they were, accustomed to partake of a meal together, in token of their intimate friendship, he was anxious that they should sup in the hall of his house and being carried thither from his chamber, he made use of these words on entering I am come to see you, my brethren, and to seat myself at table with you for the Jast time. He then offered up the usual prayer, ate a little, and discoursed in a manner worthy of his piety, and of his zeal: and when his weakness obliged him to retire to his chamber, looking at the company, with a smile, This wall, said he, will not prevent my being united with you in spirit.'

"What he had predicted, happened; for until this day, however weak, he had

never failed to rise, and to be placed before his table. But after this night he remained confined to his bed, so thin and exhausted, that breath only remained, though his face was not much altered.

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"On the day of bis death, which was the 24th of May, he appeared to speak with less difficulty, and more strength. But it was the last effort of nature. About eight o'clock in the evening, the signs of death appeared evidently in his face: he continued speaking, however, with great propriety, until his last breath, when he appeared rather to fall asleep than die."

His works, published at Geneva, comprehended twelve volumes in folio; which the edition of Amsterdam, 1667, has reduced to nine.

He was held in the highest veneration by the foreign reformed churches, and not less so by the most celebrated divines of the

church of England. Witness the exalted testimonies given of him by Bishop Andrews, Bishop Bilson, Mr. Hooker, Bishop Morton, Bishop Stilling fleet, and many others, cited by Dr. John Edwards for this purpose, in his Veritas redux.

Dr. Hoyle, who wrote under tho patronage of Archbishop Usher, says of Calvin, "What shall I speak of his indefatigable industry, almost beyond the power of nature, which, paralleled with our loitering, will, I fear, exceed all credit? It may be the truest object of admiration, how one lean, worn, spent, and wearied body could hold out. He read every week of the year through three divinity lectures; every other week, over and above, he preached every day: So that (as Erasmus said of Chrysostom) I know not whether more to admire his constancy, or theirs that heard him. Some have reckoned his yearly lectures to be 186, and his yearly sermons 286. Every Thurday he sat in the presbytery. Every Friday, when the ministers met to confer upon difficult texts, he made as good as a lecture. Besides all this, there was scarce a day that exercised him not in answering, either by word of mouth, or writing, the doubts and questions of different churches and pastors; so that he might say with Paul, 'The care of all the churches licth upon me.' Not a year passed wherein,

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