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We know not what better answer to return to the above querist, than what is contained in the following extract:

"We inquire whether justification includes the pardon of our sins, past, present, and to come. That it includes the pardon of sin, has been proved already,

*We would earnestly recommend to the heads of families in our congrega. tions, "The Protestant Dissenter's Catechism:"by the late Rev. Samuel Palmer, of Hackney; and "The Principles of Nonconformity sanctioned by the New Testament:" a sermon by Dr. Newman.


from Rom. iv. 6, 7; and seeing
it is promised of him that be-
lieveth, that he shall not come
into condemnation,' it must, in
some way, secure the pardon of
all his sins, and the possession of
eternal life. Yet to speak of sins
as being pardoned, before they
are repented of, or even com-
mitted, is not only to maintain
that on which the scriptures are
silent, but to contradict the cur-
rent language of their testimony.
If all our sins, past, present, and
to come, were actually forgiven,
either when Christ laid down his
life, or even on our first believing,
why did David speak of ‹ con-
fessing his transgression,' and of
God's forgiving his iniquity?"
Why did Solomon teach us, that
'He that confesseth and forsak-
eth his sins shall find mercy?"
Why did our Lord direct us, in
our daily prayers, to say, 'For-
give us our debts, as we forgive
our debtors?' And why add, 'If
ye forgive not men their tres-
passes, neither will your heaven-
ly Father forgive you your tres-
passes?' Finally, Why did the
apostle John teach us, that If
we confess our sins, he is faithful
and just to forgive us our sins,
and to cleanse us from all un-

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"Nor is it sufficient to understand this language, of the manifestation of forgiveness to the mind. Forgiveness is not opcomforts of religion, but to layposed to merely withholding the ing our sins to our charge.' The his fellow-servant by the throat, parable of the servant, who took and was delivered by his Lord to the tormentors, is thus applied by our Lord; So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if from ye hearts foryour give not every one his brother their trespasses.' This undoubt

edly means more than withholding a sense of forgiveness in the present life. Nor is there any thing in all this inconsistent with the certain perseverance of true believers, or with the promise that they shall not come into condemnation.' The truth taught us in this promise is not that if after believing in Christ, we live in sin, and die without repentance, we shall nevertheless escape condemnation; but that provision is made in behalf of believers, that they shall not live in sin; that they shall not die without repentance; but return to God, and so obtain forgiveness. The promise of non-condemnation includes that of repentance and perseverance. I will put my law in their hearts, and they shall not depart from me.'

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RELIGIOUS worship falls under three heads; viz. Moral, Instituted, and Discretionary.

1. MORAL.-Prayer is a moral duty; and the singing of praise appears to be so, Col. iii. 16. Ps. civ. 33. There may be appendages to moral duties, which are not morally obligatory. Thus, under the Old Testament dispensation, incense was an appendage to prayer, and instrumental music to singing; but neither the one nor the other was of a moral nature. No one says that it is sinful not to use instrumental music in divine worship.

2. INSTITUTED.-Instrument


al music was instituted under the
Old Testament dispensation.
the time of Moses were used the
trumpet and cornet: David add-

"We may think, if the Lord appointed us to obtain salvation by Jesus Christ, whatever be our conduct, he will never threaten us with any thing beyond a severe chastisement; but Christ did not act in this manner towards his disciples. He not only gave the unforgiving to expect no forgiveness at the hand of God, but enforced the giving up of that which caused them to offend, though it were as dear as a righted hand, or a right eye, on pain of being cast into hell fire. He allowed no one, while in an evil course, to take it for granted, that he was nevertheless a good man; but pointed him to the end, whither that course, if persisted in, would lead him. Warnings are as necessary in some circumstances, as encouragements are in others; and their being enforced, on pain of eternal destruction, may be the appointed means of saying us from it."

Fuller's Sermons on various Subjects.

many other instruments by the divine command, 2 Chron. xxix. 25. Instituted worship ceased at the death of Christ. Instrumental music was not instituted by Christ or his apostles: they sang a hymn, Matt. xxvi. 30. Singing is not only a moral duty, but it is instituted under the New Testament dispensation, Eph. v. 19. Col. iii. 16, &c.

3. DISCRETIONARY.- -When a moral, or an instituted duty admits of being performed in a variety of ways, none of which are with the divine appointment, inconsistent with its morality, or

there is place for the exercise of discretion in the selection of the best mode of performing it. Thus, every church must judge for itself at what hour to begin public worship, what tunes to sing, how often singing shall be performed, and other similar circumstances.

If music, as a general term, were either a moral or an instituted duty, instrumental music, being included in it, might be lawfully used. But under the gospel dispensation, singing only being instituted, instrumental music is unlawful.

church, contrary to the opinion of Luther; who, as Eckard confesses, reckoned organs among the ensigns of Baal. Organs are still used in some of the Dutch churches, but against the minds of their pastors; for in the national synod at Middleburgh, anno 1581, and in that of Holland and Zealand, anno 1594, it was resolved that they would endeavour to obtain of the magistrates, the laying aside of organs, and the singing with them in churches. The church of England also, in her homilies, strongly remonstrates against the use of organs, and other instruments of music, in churches. In the homily, on the place and time of prayer, after mention of piping, singing, chanting, and playing on organs, which was in use before the Reformation, we are exhorted greatly to rejoice, and give thanks to God, that our churches are de

displeased God so sore, and so filthily defiled the holy house and place of prayer.' I only add, that the voice of harpers and musicians, and of pipers and trumpeters, is mentioned among the glories of the mystical Babylon, that mother of harlots and abominations of the earth, whom God will destroy with the sword of his mouth, and with the brightness of his coming."

The only case in which discretion appears admissible is, in the selecting of a mode of performing a duty which must be performed in some way, but where the particular way is not appointed. From the introduction of discretion, in other cases, arises all the will-worship of the Romish church. If the lawful-livered out of these things, that ness of instrumental music in religious worship were to be granted, we could no longer consistently condemn the farrago of Popish ceremonies. Instrumental music was not admitted even into that church till after the year 1250. Thomas Aquinas, who was born in 1225, and died in 1274, and whose writings are held in the greatest estimation by the Romish church, writes thus: "In the old law God was praised both with musical instruments and human voices; but the Christian church does not use instruments to praise him, lest she should seem we also read in that book of to judaize." "So that it seems," says Dr. Jennings, (Jew. Antiq. book i. chap. 5,) "instrumental music hath been introduced into Christian worship within about the last 500 years, in the darkest and most corrupt times of Popery. It is retained in the Lutheran

If it should be objected, that we read in the Revelation of "harpers harping with their harps;" we answer, It is true: but

the golden altar; of the offering of incense, as an appendage to prayer; and of other imagery borrowed from the Jewish dispensation. But no Protestant will from hence argue, that incense ought to be used in divine worship by Christians.


On Mr. W. Jones's Reply





To the Editors of the Baptist Magazine. MR. WILLIAM JONES has been pleased to reply to a "Vindication of the late Dr. Robert Walker," published in the July Number of your Work.

May I beg, as an additional favour to that already conferred, that you will print the following few remarks on that Reply?

I trust I can readily and heartily forgive Mr. Jones for the contempt with which he treats me. Indeed I have little to boast of;

I have not procured to myself any great distinction in the world, and my obscurity in the metropolis may be pleaded for him in


I must observe, however, that Mr. Jones is mistaken when he asserts that I took care to let him know I was a Doctor. This was no care of mine. My doctorate is now too old to be an object of attention. It has long ceased to

his Reply, refer wholly to my friend's literary character. He has not repeated his charge of "Misrepresentation;" and, on this account, I trust he has seen reason to doubt of the propriety of urging what was the most offensive accusation against the reputation of my deceased friend. I am so far satisfied; and I thank him for this instance of his candour. I can easily acquit Mr. Jones of personal animosity to Dr. Walker. Indeed I never charged him with it, but attributed his conduct to the want of correct information. It now appears that I was not mistaken in

this. The sources of the know

ledge of Dr. Walker's character possessed by Mr. Jones, are "only his writings, and the reports of others." The first is truly a legitimate source of knowledge; but the other, or hearsay, is not generally admitted to be satisfactory evidence.

I am, Gentlemen,

Your obliged and humble
Edinburgh, 46, Hanover-street,
October 2, 1818.


minister to my vanity. Mr. Jones CAUSE AND CONSEQUENCES

will surely excuse me when I ask, whether in this instance, he has not made an assertion somewhat rash, and unfavourable to his neighbour?

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WHAT are the circumstances which lead the soul astray from God? and what the result of such conduct, on the part of the backslider? are questions of vital importance to the welfare of the Christian. I intend not, how

ever, to enter into a minute in- | sin which besets the soul. These

vestigation of the subject, but merely to throw out a few ideas, which must occur to the mind of any one who should sit down to consider it, and which, I hope, will be of service to some of your readers who have but little time for reflection.

excuses are, for the most part, drawn from the infirmity of human nature, and the lapses of some eminent Christians.

5. The door being thus thrown open to sin, it enters with all its force, and the backslider is hurried on to the gratification of his depraved appetite. And as sin is of a hardening nature, Heb. iii. 13, by benumbing the conscience, and weakening its power to rebuke and alarm, the backslider feels less resistance from this inward monitor; and consequently less difficulty in the repetition of his sin. He therefore indulges himself in his beloved lust, apaf-parently without remorse or com punction.

The backsliding state of the heart is not at first openly manifest. It begins in secret, and frequently is a long time before it breaks out to the view of others. It resembles a fire, which first commences with a spark, and gradually spreads itself till it bursts forth in a widely extended blaze. It begins,

In this state of accumulated guilt and awful insensibility he remains, unless God send a Nathan to rouse his sleeping con

1. In an abatement of the fections towards God and divine things, which increases till the heart becomes quite unaffected by those discoveries of God, and Christ, and his grace, which, at one time, filled it with unspeaka-science, and to proclaim his disble delight. pleasure; or, by some alarming 2. This is followed by the neg-providence, or afflicting dispensalect of the more private duties of tion, open his eyes to see the prereligion, such as closet prayer, cipice upon which he stands, and and meditation. There is an ab- awaken him to a sense of his guilt sence of that fervent desire for and danger. those duties which was once felt; and excuses are framed to pacify conscience for the neglect of them.

3. Some besetting sin is secretly cherished in the heart. The imagination feasts upon it, and it is acted over in the mind, again and again; in consequence of which, a familiarity ensues, and the deformity of it insensibly diminishes, and the guilt and danger of actually committing it vanish.

"Vice is a monster of such hideous mien, As to be hated, needs but to be seen; But seen too oft, familiar with its face, We first begin to pity, then embrace." 4. Excuses are invented for the indulgence of the particular

The consequences of this backsliding, are:

1. Loss of peace of conscience. Isa. xlviii. 18.

2. Anticipations wrath. Psalm vi. 1.

of Divine

3. Loss of character. Lam. iv. 1.

4. Injury as to outward temporal circumstances. Rom. vi. 21. 5 Grief and distraction of mind. Psalm li. 8.

Thus the backslider is filled with the bitter fruit of his own ways. And if the mercy of God were not higher than the heavens, and he himself had not condescended to address persons in those circumstances, and invited them to return to him, with the

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