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wash the feet of their brethren who visit them from foreign parts, and of messengers from churches. Others of them perform this cere
nity, as appears from his writings. To this also Heyden, Hoornbeck, and Cocceius, bore the following testimony, in a letter to Huldrick, minister at Zu-mony after the celebration of the rich :-" Many of the disciples of Lord's Supper. They quote in Menno live among us, who are favour of this practice Gen. xviii. esteemed as good citizens. They 4. John xiii. 14. and 1 Tim. v. confess the grace of Christ, and 10. defend it; and strongly oppose the Socinians, who mingle among them."
All of them practise sprinkling instead of immersion. They acknowledge that immersion was the practice of the church, from the age immediately succeeding that of the apostles, down to a
that it was an early corruption, and that either pouring or sprinkling was the apostolic mode.
His Works were published in folio, in 1681. The following are the titles of a few of them. I. " An evident Demonstration of the Saving Doctrine of Jesus Christ." In this work, he treats on the following subjects: 1. The time of grace. 2. Repentance. 3. Faith, which he defines to be, An embracing of the gospel, through the agency of the Holy Spirit. He shows that the believer relies upon Christ and his grace; that he embraces his pro
The distinguishing tenets of his party are the same with those of the ancient Waldenses, not only, as they believe, respecting bap-very late period. But they say, tism, but also with respect to oaths, war, and civil offices. Some time, however, after his renunciation of Popery, he fell into an error, somewhat resembling that of some of the ancient Christians, concerning the incarnation of Christ, but which is now maintained by very few of the Mennonites. From a desire to keep the human nature of Christ as remote as possible from being implicated in that original corruption which proceeds from the fall, he held that, at the incarnation, his human body was not derived, but created. "It must, however," says Mosheim, "be ac-mises; and that he is justified, knowledged, that Menno does not seem to have been unchangeably wedded to this opinion; for in several places he expresses himself ambiguously on this head, and even sometimes falls into inconsistencies. From hence, perhaps, it might not be unreasonable to conclude, that he renounced indeed the common opinion concerning the origin of Christ's human nature; but was pretty much undetermined with respect to the hypothesis which, among many that were proposed, it was proper to substitute in its place."
Some of the Mennonites, likewise, esteem it to be their duty to
not by works, but by faith, which
ple. 5. The Lord's Supper. 6. | nister spiritual things, it is but Secession from the church of reasonable they should receive Rome. 7. The calling of minis- temporal ones. He makes this ters in the church. 8. The doc- clear from the case of the priests trines to be preached by minis- and Levites under the legal disters; showing that the scripture pensation, who, ministering in is the only rule of faith. 9. The holy things, had a provision made life of ministers, and their sup- for them. And lastly, from the port. He denies the lawfulness constitution and appointment of of ministerial stipends: this opi- Christ himself, whose ordinance nion is, however, rejected by it is, that they that preach the many of the modern Mennonites. gospel should live of the gosThe following quotations, from pel." Vol. III. book ii. chap. 4. Dr. Gill's Body of Divinity, will Again, It is the business of deaconvey our sentiments upon this cons to serve, "2. The minister's subject:-"The duty of church- table; to take care that a proper members to their pastors is held provision is made for the subsistforth in various passages, respect-ence of himself and family. ing their maintenance, or a provision for the subsistence of themselves and families, which is part of that double honour a ruling elder and a laborious minister is worthy of, since the labourer is worthy of his reward, 1 Tim. v. 17, 18; and he that is taught in the word, and instructed by it to his comfort and edification, should communicate to him that teacheth in all good things, temporal good things, he stands in need of, Gal. vi. 6. This duty the apostle urges and presses, with a variety of arguments, in 1 Cor. ix. 7-14. He argues from the law of nature and nations, exemplified in the cases of soldiers, planters of vineyards, and keepers of flocks, who, by virtue of their calling and service, have a right to a livelihood; between whom and ministers of the gospel there is a resemblance. He also argues from the law of Moses, particularly the law respecting the ox not to be muzzled when it treads out the corn, which he interprets of ministers of the word, and applies to them. He argues the right of the mainte-able to judge whether their pasnance of the ministers of the gospel from the justice and equity of the thing; that since they mi
Whereas Christ has ordained that those who preach the gospel should live of it, and that he that is taught in the word shall communicate to him that teacheth in all good things; the business of deacons is to see to it that every member contributes according to his ability, and that there be an equality, that some are not eased and others burdened. And it lies upon them to collect what the members give; for it is not proper the minister should collect for himself; this would be to prevent the design of the institution, which was, that those who are employed in the sacred office of the ministry of the word should not be hindered in it. Besides, such a practice would not comport with the case and character of a minister, who would be obliged to receive what the people gave him, without making any remonstrance against it as failing in their duty to him. He might also be exposed to the charge of avarice. To which may be added, that a church would not be
tor was sufficiently provided for or not." Vol. III. book ii. chap. 5. In addition to these weighty and
unanswerable arguments, it may | peasants, rising in rebellion against
be observed, that, even where a minister does not stand in need of the pecuniary aid of the church and congregation, and therefore might not be anxious to receive any such aid, yet a subscription for the remuneration of his labours creates a bond of union amongst the subscribers, which would otherwise be wanting; since they consider themselves as having a common interest, and as united together in the maintenance of the same cause; and also, that it frees them from the uneasy reflection of attending upon a ministry, towards the support of which they yield no pecuniary assistance.
In this chapter, likewise, he cautions magistrates, learned men, and the common people, against false ministers. He also addresses the Munsterites: this is the part of his works which has been appealed to, in order to prove that the Munsterites and the Mennonites were the same people; the passage to which reference is made, is that in which he calls them his "erring brethren." The fact seems to have been as follows: The Munsterites were originally boors,* or
* «The boors of Germany," says bishop Jewel, in his Reply to Harding the Jesuit, "whom you mention, were, for the greatest part, the oppugners of Luther, and were unacquainted with the gospel. They engaged, according to their own statement, by an oath, against the cruelty and tyranny of the landlords; just as they had done twenty years before, in the same parts, in the conspiracy called Liga Sotularica, before Luther began to preach. Whatever was the object of the later conspiracies, it is certain that Luther" (and the same may be said of Menno)" conducted himself towards them with the greatest severity. They, moreover, on being questioned concerning their conduct, disowned any connexion with the evangelical party, or that they knew the same."
their tyrannical lords. Religion does not seem to have been employed by them, in aid of their rebellion, until they were joined and headed by some artful men, who endeavoured, by availing themselves of existing circumstances, to advance their own ambitious designs. These were Munzer and Rotman, who were originally Lutherans, but became Baptists, and John of Leyden, who probably was a Baptist before he joined the insurgents. These men were wild and ambitious fanatics, and had no affinity with the genuine Baptists, who were enemies to war and rebellion. From the latter, however, a few weak persons were seduced to join the insurgents. It was these weak deluded Christians whom Menno addressed as brethren, with a desire to bring them back to the fold of God, and not the general mass, of whom baptism (which they had adopted because their leaders were Baptists) and fanaticism constituted the only religion. In this chapter he shows, that the only sword which Christians ought to use is the sword of the Spirit; and that with this sword Christ so protects his church, that the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. He also admonishes the church, under persecution, to walk in the practice of all Christian virtues.
Sleidan says, "That the tumults in Germany did not originate with the Anabaptists, but with persons of the Popish communion." Perizonius also says, "The general rising of the boors, extending itself over the greatest part of Germany, has, though most unjustly, cast much odium on the Lutherans. For the followers of Luther by no means occasioned the same, but were most avowed enemies to it. Moreover, the insurrection was not excited for the first time then, (1525,) but had already existed a short time be fore Luther's appearance.”
10. He endeavours to show that his religion is founded on the sacred scriptures.
II. "The True Faith of Christians, &c." In this treatise are contained his peculiar views respecting the Incarnation. III. "Fundamental Doctrines from the word of God." Regeneration and its fruits-The regenerate form the true church of ChristTheir weapons not carnal, but spiritual-They seek no kingdom but that of grace-Adult baptism The Lord's Supper Church discipline-Christians daily lament their sins-They have no justifying righteousness but that which proceeds from faith in Christ-Exhortation to the dispersed and concealed children of God faithfully to persevere in sanctity of life. IV. "A consolatory Admonition to the people of God under persecution." Christians are here particularly exhorted never to have recourse to arms. VII. "The Doctrine of Excommunication." Definition - Who are to be excommunicated-Design; namely, that transgressors may be ashamed and may repent; and that the church may preserve its purity-Duty of the pious to withdraw from them, and to have no dealings with them, lest they be defiled, and the name of God be blasphemed-That excommunication dissolves all ciety between father and children, brothers and sisters, husbands and wives, union with Christ by faith being infinitely more important than any earthly union. This severe practice is rejected by all the present Mennonites, except the Uckewallists and the Dantzigers; and even these have abated in some degree its severity. IX. "Reply to Gellius Faber, minister at Embden." This dispute, which respects most
of the distinguishing tenets of Menno, was conducted with considerable acrimony on both sides. Menno accuses Gellius of being the cause of the persecutions of his party. X. "A piteous Supplication of poor Christians, addressed to magistrates, &c." In this work the connexion between the party of Menno and the Anabaptists of Munster is abundantly disproved. XI. "A brief Vindication of miserable Christians and dispersed Strangers, &c. Addressed to all divines and preachers in the Netherlands." XIII. "On the Person of Christ." XXII. "A Treatise against the horrible Blasphemy of John of Leyden, &c." This was written either before his secession from the church of Rome, or very soon afterwards.
He also wrote a Narrative of his Secession from Popery, which he thus concludes: "Because we are with so much acrimony and falsehood accused by our adversaries of assenting to the dogmas of the Munster Anabaptists, and of agreeing with them in the articles concerning the King, the Sword, Sedition, Vindictive Recrimination, Polygamy, and other abominations; know, my good reader, that in the whole course of my life I never assented to those tenets of Munzer, but, acso-cording to my feeble capacity, for the space of seventeen years, have dehorted every one from imbibing their horrible errors; and have led some back into the right way. I never saw Munster; I never was in their society and communion; and I hope, by the grace of God, never to eat or drink with such persons, if any such remain, as the scriptures teach me, except they shall confess their wickedness from the heart, and shall bring forth the genuine fruits of
repentance, and rightly obey the | of different countries, who were gospel."
In Dr. Rippon's Baptist Register, Vol. I. p. 303-312, there is a catalogue of the Baptist churches in the Netherlands. They still bear the names of Waterlanders, Frieslanders, and Flemings; but they all hold communion with each other, except the Switzers and the Old Flemings.
It may not be improper to close the life of so eminent a person among the Dutch Baptists, with mentioning "The Martyrology of the Baptists:" by Tielman Van Braght. It is a work of immense labour. The first edition was published in a large folio volume at Dordrecht, in 1660; the second, with more than 100 engravings, at Amsterdam, in 1685. This work is divided into two books. It is dedicated to the Divine Being. After the Dedication there
are two Addresses: one to the members of the Mennonite
churches; the other to readers in general. Then follows an epi
persecuted under the name of Anabaptists, and contains a history of the cruel deaths of thousands of persons, few of whom have been heard of in this country. This indefatigable author published, likewise, a useful work in octavo, for young persons, which has passed through four editions. He died at the early age of thirty-nine. A quarto volume of fifty-one Sermons was published after his death.
Would not a good translation of Van Braght's Martyrology be an acceptable present to the religious world?*
THE GREAT PHYSICIAN
A WRITER in the last Number of the Magazine, expatiated upon the dignity of the Saviour's person, and the exceeding riches of his grace, in an animated and truly evangelical strain. How happy are the inhabitants of this tome of the work. The first kingdom, who are constantly rebook contains two parts, each this most ceiving instruction upon of which is divided into cen- interesting of all subjects, both turies, from the apostolic age from the pulpit and the press! down to the author's own time. One would think, from the abunThe first part contains "A cirdant means whereby religious cumstantial Account of the True knowledge in England is commuChurch of God in its Origin, Pro-nicated and diffused, that but few gress, and unshaken Stability of its highly-favoured sons and through all Ages." An Appendix daughters could be without opto this part contains Three Conportunities of hearing, in some fessions of Faith of the Mennonway or other, that it is faithful ites. The second part contains "An Account of the Origin, Pro- saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Jesus Christ came into gress, and Conduct of the False the world to save sinners." And Church through all Ages." Each yet century contains an account of the persecutions of the Baptists, and quotations from their writings in favour of believers' baptism. The second book is entirely composed of accounts of the trials and sufferings of Baptist martyrs
who is there that is at all ac
* The engraving, prefixed to this article, was taken from a portrait of Menno, which formerly hung up in the vestry of the Mennonite congregation, at Rotterdam, but which has been presented to the Editors of this Magazine.