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Damascus, through the unfaithfulness of the Christians of Syria.
In 1188, immediately after the retaking of Jerusalem by Saladin, the Soldan of Egypt, the third crusade was undertaken. Past failures had not taught wisdom, and former misfortunes were forgotten. 300,000 men were soon found again to invade the sacred land, and among the heroic chiefs, were the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, Philip Augustus, King of France, and Richard
King of England, in the review of whose reign, in our next essay, we shall have to examine the events of this crusade.
The fourth crusade was commenced in 1195, by the Emperor Henry VI. after Saladin's death. The invaders gained several battles, and took many towns, but the death of the Emperor arrested their progress, and obliged them to quit the prospects of their success, and return to Germany.
the duties of their sex, shamelessly joined the army in disguise. Such extraordinary volunteers, while they presented a motley group, formed almost a countless multitude, and apprehensions were entertained that the magnitude of the armament would prove the cause of its overthrow. The leaders, therefore, in order to render their forces the more manageable, sent forward the undisciplined, to the number of 300,000, under the direction of Peter the Hermit,and Walter,(commonly call-I. ed the Moneyless). These took the road through Hungary and Bulgaria, towards Constantinople, unprovisioned, trusting to the merit of their cause, and the miraculous interposition of that Holy Being, whose will they had declared their project to be. A conduct which, however ridiculous and preposterous in them, affords a lesson to many a fearful Christian, who has often been deterred from evident duty by the prospect of difficulty, forgetful of the power, the faithfulness, and mercy of God. As might have been expected, the disorderly crowd were soon obliged to resort to plunder and violence for their daily support; nor did the failure of miracles, and the destructive attacks of the enraged inhabitants of the countries through which they passed, cause then to suspect the propriety of their motto, or diminish their ardour in the enterprise. The better disciplined armies followed after, and when they were mustered in the plains of Asia, amounted to 700,000 men. In this expedition, the famous Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorrain, took the city of Nice. Jeru-year peace was concluded with the salem also yielded to the combined army, and Godfrey was gratified by being chosen king. The battle of Ascalon, gained by the Christians over the Soldan of Egypt, followed, and terminated the first crusade.
The second crusade in 1144 was still less successful, although commanded by the Emperor Conrad III. and Louis, King of France. The army of the former either perished by the hand of the enemy, or fell a prey to the treachery of Manuel, the Greek Emperor; and that or the latter, abandoned the siege of
Innocent III. in 1198, succeeded in provoking a fifth crusade. But the adventurers had to contend with a more formidable enemy than even Saladin had proved. plague rapidly thinned their ranks, not only by death, but by inducing many to return home to avoid the contagion. Through this calamity, added to the disagreements of their leaders, and the consequent division of the forces, the Soldan of Aleppo found no difficulty in defeating the remnant of the army.
The sixth crusade began in 1228, Daand was speedily terminated. mietta was taken, but was soon surrendered again; and the following
Soldan for ten years. About the year 1240, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, brother to Henry III. King of England, proceeded to Palestine with an English army; but finding, on his arrival, that it would be more advantageous to conclude a peace than hazard a war, he shortly returned. Four years afterwards, the Karasmians being driven out of Persia by the Tartars, fled to the Holy Land, and completely defeated the Christians at Gaza.
St. Louis headed the seventh crusade in 1249, and Damietta was
again taken. His success, however was arrested by disease, which so prevailed among his troops that he attempted a retreat; the infidels, resenting such frequent visits, pursued the fugitives, and massacred the greatest part of them, returning with him and his nobles as their prisoners, and they were obliged to purchase their liberty by a truce for ten years.
The last crusade was commanded by the same Prince in 1270, who, after taking the port and castle of Carthage, in Africa, soon died, leaving his army in very indifferent circumstances to the direction of his son, Philip the Bold. The King of Sicily, however, soon arrived with a fleet, and disembarking his troops, joined Philip; but their united forces
aged weakness; and, monstrous to relate, with hands yet reeking with the blood of the dead and the dying, marching over the bodies they had slain, presented themselves like demons at the holy sepulchre, and sung anthems of praise to the Saviour of mankind.
What a merciful dispensation for the reader, and the writer, that they are permitted to live in a period of the world so much more enlightened, and that they are not the devo tees of that false religion, which can so completely enslave, and so fatally mislead the human mind!
H. S. A.
were repeatedly checked, and after Ten Years' Residence at Tripoli,
obtaining an advantageous peace, they retired to their separate kingdoms. Prince Edward, of England, arrived with some assistance, about the time of this treaty; but being recalled to ascend the throne of England, his visit was fruitless. In 1291, the town of Acre was taken and
WE introduce this article for the purpose of making an extract or two, for the amusement of our young readers.
LOCUSTS. "These destructive insects have been seldom known to annoy this place, though they are almost the yearly scourge of Egypt, and part of Asia. They fly in compact bodies through the air, darken
plundered by the Soldan of Egypt, and the Christians driven out of Syria. So many sufferings, losses, and disappointments, had progressively abated this wild zeal, and succeeding Popes found it impossi-ing the atmosphere, and occupying &
ble to induce another crusade.space of many miles in their pasNicholas IV. in 1292, and Clement sage. They make a noise in the V. in 1311, were particularly anxious act of nipping off the corn and herbto accomplish the object, but hap-age, that cannot be mistaken, and pily failed.
which is distinctly heard at a great distance. While these invaders pass along, as if by enchantment, the green disappears, and the parch
The locusts are salted down in great quantities at Cairo and Alexandria, and carried to different parts of Africa. Many are brought to this place, and eaten by the inhabitants." Page 108. See Exod. x. 12. Joel, ii. 1-11. Matt. iii. 4.
It has been computed that, at least, two millions of poor deluded creatures perished in these various expeditions; and it does not seemed naked ground presents itself. possible to find, in history, parallels to the extravagance and wickedness of these adventures. The fanatics proposed to themselves what they deemed a pious object, and set about accomplishing it by the most anti-christian means: and not only did they employ methods, contrary to the spirit of the gospel, but they committed the most wanton and horrid excesses at the taking of Jerusalem, murdering alike the garrison, and the inhabitants without distinction, unmoved by youthful innocence, female tenderness, and
CAMELS." The Moors were obliged to secure a camel, that, with much difficulty, was prevented from attacking our horses while they stood in the yard, though the camel is in general, with very few exceptions, perfectly mild: this having a young one unable to feed itself, its
ferocity is thereby accounted for. The milk is drank by consumptive people: it is salt and ill-flavoured, richer than cow's, and of a red colour. The camel, when a few weeks old, is very handsome. Its cries then exactly resemble those of a young child. When grown up, their voice is loud and rough; and when angry, they rattle in the throat, which is a warning of their intention to bite. They are in general so inoffensive and tractable, that they commonly go without bridle or halter; and a single straw is frequently used to drive them along with a burden of nine hundred weight. This useful patient animal will sustain many days' thirst when traversing, heavily laden, the burning sands. But in town, where it is cooler, and during the winter, he can remain some weeks without drinking, living on the water he has within him, preserved in a reservoir, from whence he conveys it into the stomach at pleasure. The last time the Bey was encamped, a camel was opened for the water it contained, where several gallons were found in a perfect state. The camp was at that time in want of water. The people were dying daily, when the Bey made use of this costly expedient." Page 45. See Gen. xxiv. 10. Job,
Tunis to purchase slaves in Guinea, The whole of them often perish from the danger and fatigues of the journey, or, buried under mountains of sand, are heard of no more. The Sicilian has often described to us the gloomy and impenetrable forest they passed, where the repeated howlings of wild beasts, excited by the scent of the cattle accompanying the caravan, were increased and heightened as it drew nearer their horrible dens. Sometimes the caravan was constrained to remain for several days near these woods, to avoid the approaching hurricane in the desert they were about to pass through; for by the aspect of the heavens, those who frequent the deserts can often foresee these dreadful winds many hours before they happen. No sooner were the tents pitched and the caravan became stationary, than a peculiar noise.in the forest announced the wild beasts verging to the borders of it, there to wait a favourable opportunity to rush out and seize their prey. The dreadful roar of the lion was not heard during the day; but when the darkness came on, continued murmurs announced him, and his voice getting louder broke like peals of thunder on the stillness of the night. The panther and the tiger were seen early in the evening makDROMEDARIES. "The drome-ing circuits nearer and nearer round dary seems used, in this country, the caravan. In the centre of it only for the courier or post." Page were placed the tents with the wo45. See 1 Kings, iv. 28. Est. viii. 10. men, children, and flocks; the cattle The dromedary is a species of camel. were ranged next; and the camels, WILD BEASTS.-"A part of the horses, and dogs last. One chain great western road from Tunis to of uninterrupted fires encircling the Tripoli cannot be passed without whole, was kept blazing during great danger, on account of wild every night. On the least failure beasts, which not unfrequently at- of these fires, the lion was heard tack passengers in spite of the pre- coming closer to the caravan. cautions taken to prevent their ap- his roar, the sheep and lambs shook; proach. The Bashaw's physician, the horses, motionless, were covered a Sicilian, performed this tremen- with a profuse perspiration; the dous journey by land, with his wife cattle cried out; and the dogs, asand two children, not long since.sembling together in one spot, enHe joined an immense caravan, deavoured by their united howlings (that being the only method by to frighten away the savage dewhich he could traverse the de- vourer, from whom nothing could serts,) and proceeded in safety to save them but a fresh blaze of fire. this place. One of these caravans, Twice the lion carried off his prey, containing from 400 to 500 persons, a sheep, to the terror of the spectawho are soon increased to as many tors, who in vain with fire-arms enthousands, sets out every year from deavoured to prevent him. Sheep
are the lion's favourite food: therefore though he passed their horses, camels, and cattle, and was in the midst of their tents, he was satisfied with selecting a victim from their flocks. The Sicilian said, that the sight of a tiger would have been more dreadful, as his favourite food is man." Page 289.
"Fierce lions lead their young abroad,
Then man to daily labour goes;
MRS. MARY SHEPHERD.
THAT the" memory of the just is blessed," is a truth frequently realized by us, when we reflect on departed worth, while
"Busy, meddling memory, musters up
The past endearments of their softer hours."
When the tongue that once charmed and instructed us, lies silent in the tomb; when the eyes that once sparkled with cheerful vivacity, are closed in darkness; when the hands which were employed in acts of kind benevolence, cease their activity; and when our friends are laid beneath the clods of the valley; their past excellencies and worth crowd upon our attention, and we feel a mournful pleasure in contemplating the painfully-pleasing theme. These remarks will apply to the subject of this Memoir.
Mrs. Mary Shepherd was the daughter of Edward and Mary Riggs, of Gatcomb, in the Isle of Wight. Both her parents were members of the Baptist church then existing in Newport. She was born in the year 1744, and, through the tender concern of her father for her spiritual welfare, was introduced at an early age into a godly family at Portsmouth. This providence brought her under the ministry of Messrs. Lacy and Meadows, ministers of the Baptist church in Portsea, now under the pastoral care of the Rev. D. Miall. About this time she had a remarkable dream, in which she thought she saw the Lord Jesus
Christ; who seemed to say to her, as he did to Peter, "Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now, but thou shalt follow me hereafter." This dream, together with the preaching of the gospel, wrought powerfully on her mind, and became the power of God to her salvation. From this time she was eminently distinguished for her piety; and, on the 27th of August, 1769, she was baptized by Mr. Lacy, and united to the church at Portsea, where she continued an ornament to her profession, until January 31, 1811, when she was dismissed, with five others, who lived in the same neighbourhood, to form a new church at Forton, near Gosport.* The interest she felt in the newly-raised church, increased the holy flame which had been so long kindled in her heart, and which discovered itself in an affectionate concern, and an unquenchable zeal, for the welfare of Zion. Of this church
It will be gratifying to the friends of the Redeemer to learn, that this church has, since its formation, been blessed with an unusual degree of pros perity. It is situated in a village, (where the gospel was not preached,) about a mile from Gosport. The gospel was first introduced by preaching in a very small
room. After this a store-room was fitted up for worship; and in 1811 a church was formed, consisting of twelve persons. Since that time, a new place of worship has been erected, and the church has increased, from its commencement in 1811, to July, 1818, to 136 members. There are also a large congregation, and a considerable Sunday-school.
she was an exemplary member, till Saturday, August 15, 1818, when she suddenly closed her eyes in death, and took possession of her heavenly inheritance.
In her religious experience, she had a deep sense of her depravity and unworthiness: this, however, appeared more visible in the humility of her mind before God, than in any outward confessions before men. Her mind was well informed on the great doctrines of grace, and the way of salvation revealed in the gospel to a guilty world; and she was enabled to exercise an entire confidence and hope in the Rock of her salvation.
She sometimes felt, in common with others, darkness of mind, and internal conflicts with the enemy of her peace; but, supported by divine grace, she said, in the most trying seasons, with the wife of Manoah, "The Lord would not have showed us all these things, if he had intended to destroy us." She did not fear her mightiest foes, but exclaimed, in the exercise of faith, "I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day!"
One important feature in this aged Christian was, a great attachment to the public worship of God, and to the ordinances of his house; she was always glad when they said to her, "Let us go up to the house of the Lord." And though at one part of her life she lived at Fareham, a town nine miles distant, she was generally found in her place as a member of the church at Portsea, from whence she generally walked home in the evening. Nor was her zeal diminished by the lapse of half a century; but, like the path of the just, it increased in brightness; and, be the weather what it might, notwithstanding for the last nine years she had a mile to walk, she was not to be prevented from appearing in the assembly of the saints, either on Sundays or on week-day evenings. And if she heard any persons making excuses for their non-attendance, she would say, "If you knew the value of such privileges, you would not think it a hardship to endure the
inclemency of the weather in the way to the house of God." She, however, became very feeble the last few years of her life, and said, a little before her death, that it was the love of Christ which constrained her, or she should not drag her feeble body such a distance.
She attended the three services of the last Sabbath of her life, and also communed at the Lord's table, where she seemed unusually happy; and, as if on the verge of heaven, she could then adopt the language of the poet,
"Well, we shall quickly pass the night,
Thus she appeared to be only waiting for the messenger of mercy from HIM who has the keys of hell and of death, to
"Unbind her chains, break up her cell, And give her with her God to dwell."
A great concern for the salvation of her children formed another characteristic of this distinguished Christian, and will not be easily forgotten by those who were the objects of her concern, her prayers, her admonitions, and her example. It was her desire that Christ might be formed in their hearts, the hope of glory. Nor was her attention confined to those who more particularly shared in the affection of her heart: she always recommended religion as the "chief concern" to the attention of young people in general; and, from her own experience, she would point out the advantages of it, saying, "The ways of wisdom are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace."
The scripture was her constant study and delight its doctrines formed the foundation of her hope; she enjoyed the sweetness of its promises; and she maintained a practical regard to all its precepts, confessing at the same time that she was an unprofitable servant. Hence the Bible was her chief companion for more than fifty years, and, with Coles on "the Sovereignty of God," Booth's "Reign of Grace," and her hymn book, formed the whole of her