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more especially with religious men of all denominations, his extensive correspondence, his long standing and large experience in the Christian ministry, added to the native shrewdness of his character, and the power of expressing himself happily and forcibly, would have given him pre-eminent advantages.

I am far from thinking, however, that Mr. Fuller was unqualified to expound the Apocalypse. The grandeur and the boldness of the imagery took hold of his imagination. The acknowledged difficulties of that book were not to him repulsive: they were an invitation. He was accustomed to guide his vessel through boisterous seas, and amidst dangerous rocks. A holy unction rested upon his spirit, and the high-toned morality which he inculcated, he also exemplified. (See p. 4, at the bottom.) The sobriety of his

He that has been long in the world, has known some amiable men, in whom there was nothing to command veneration; and some men of the highest respectability, who would not let you love them. But Mr. Fuller was most affectionately regarded by those who felt towards him every sentiment of profound respect. His popularity was no disgrace to him. It was not courted by unworthy compliance, nor gained by unhallowed means. He was a reserved, retired man, who did not open his mouth but when he bad something to say. It is pleas-judgment deserves also to be noing to reflect on the spontaneous homage that was paid to him by all ranks. Men of education and learning, men of distinction in wealth, rank, and office, the poor and the illiterate, Christians in the establishment, and out of it, of all denominations, hung delighted upon his lips. It was not like the Philistines gazing while Sam-gil, son made sport, but it was an exemplification of Solomon's proverb: "The lips of the righteous feed many," Prov. x. 21.

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When his Expository Discourses on the Apocalypse" were announced, some were ready to say, "We should have preferred his Exposition of the Proverbs." And I must confess, I should have valued exceedingly a volume from his pen on that part of the sacred volume. His frequent travelling, his perpetual intercourse with men of all ranks, and

VOL. X.

ticed for an unbridled fancy is one of the worst things that can belong to an expositor. His deep and intimate acquaintance with the historians of the Old Testa ment, furnished many very happy allusions and illustrations; and, as the classical scholar would have referred to Homer, and Vir

and Horace, so he, with the same facility, cites Isaiah, Jeremiah, or Ezekiel.

In many places he reminds me of the adventurous Mungo Park, in Africa, daring to trace the course of the Niger. And he, too, may be said, like the celebrated traveller, to have died upon the Niger! If my infor mation be correct, Mr. Fuller died when he had got to the end of the 18th chapter in his publication. But his writings still live, and the uniform edition of them now printing by his son, under

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and was assisted in the ministry
by John Ballinger and Benjamin
were occasiona
Barnes, who
preachers. Mr. Perks died Sep-
tember 9, 1750, aged sixty-six.

After the death of Mr. Perks the Baptists at Cheltenham were, for some years, supplied by the joint labours of Mr. Flower and Mr. Reynolds, who preached alternately every other Sabbath, until 1758. Mr. Reynolds removed from Bourton-on-theWater to London, where he died in 1790; and Mr. Flower soon after declined coming to Cheltenham: he lived at Cirencester. For some years after this time, the people at Cheltenham had neither a regular minister, nor any constant supplies.

About the year 1690, some of the members removed from Tewkesbury to Cheltenham, and On the 20th of June, 1753, the met for public worship in a malt-members at Cheltenham, twentyhouse. The Rev. Eliezer Her-one in number, were, by the full ring, who was then pastor of the consent of their brethren at church at Tewkesbury, came oc- Tewkesbury, formed into a sepacasionally to preach at Chelten-rate church; but many of them ham. In the year 1689, Mr. Herring, and Edward Canter, one of the deacons, went to the General Assembly held in London. Mr. Herring departed this life, April 27, 1694, and was succeeded in the pastoral office by the Rev. Joseph Price, who came from Leominster, and was ordained in 1695.

The malt-house being found too small in 1698, ground was purchased in 1700 for the erection of a new meeting-house, which was built soon after, and recorded at the General Quarter-Sessions at Gloucester, in the month of February, 1703. Mr. Price died at Cheltenham, September 13, 1721, aged sixty years.

In the year 1722, the Rev. Thomas Perks succeeded Mr. Price in the pastoral office at Tewkesbury and Cheltenham,

continued, for some time, to attend at Tewkesbury as often as they could, especially on the Sabbath-days, when the Lord's Supper was administered, as they had no minister of their own.

November 9, 1765, the Rev. S. Dunscombe came to Cheltenham, from the Academy at Bristol, and continued to preach as a probationer till May, 1768, when he was called to the pastoral office. On the 27th of September following, he was ordained: the Rev. T. Hillier, of Tewkesbury; B. Morgan, of Kingstanley; H. and C. Evans, of Bristol; and T. Skinner, of Alceston, engaged on the occasion.

In the year 1785, the meetinghouse was repaired, and much improved; being new pewed, ceiled, and galleried in front, with the addition of a new vestry and baptistery. The burying

ground was also enlarged at the same time: the whole expense incurred on the occasion was £220. Mr. Dunscombe laboured at Cheltenham for nearly thirtytwo years, with diligence and faithfulness, and with various tokens of success. He was conscientious, but liberal in his views. His benevolence was carried to the utmost extent of his means; he continued active in the world, and in the church, till within a very short time of his death. A paralytic stroke terminated his earthly pilgrimage, on Lord's-day, June 28, 1797, in the sixtieth year of his age.*

During three months after Mr. Dunscombe's death, the church was regularly supplied by the neighbouring ministers, but chiefly by the very friendly assistance of Mr. B. Bedford, of Birlingham, near Pershore, who either came himself, or procured others by exchanging with them; and as he took nothing for his labours, the friends at Cheltenham owed him many obligations.

September 30, 1797, the Rev. H. H. Williams, late pastor of the Baptist church at Ebenezer, in Leeds, Yorkshire, came to Cheltenham, and supplied during the Winter; and, in April following, received an unanimous invitation to the pastoral office, which he accepted. He resigned it the 4th of June, 1809. During a part of that summer, the church was supplied by the Rev. B. Coxhead, from London; during the remaining part, and the autumn, it was supplied by various ministers, and sometimes by Mr. Williams, their late pastor, who resided still at Cheltenham, and who was always willing to render the people all the assistance that he possibly could.

His amiable widow is still surviving, in her 86th year.

In the month of February, 1810, Mr. Gibbs, from the academy in Bristol, came to Cheltenham on probation, and was ordained pastor over the church the 12th of September following. Mr. Gibbs left Cheltenham in May, 1812.

For some time after, the church was supplied by various ministers; afterwards by Mr. Payne, from London, (now of Ipswich); he supplied the month of July, and afterwards from November till April, 1813.

After that period, the students from Bristol came in succession for a considerable time; and one of them, Mr. Jones, from Abergavenny, now of Sheffield, laboured at different times for a number of months.

Mr. Williams supplied during nearly half the year of 1815, until the 13th of October, when Mr. Walton, of Horsforth, near Leeds, recommended by Dr. Steadman, came from Lynn Regis, where he had been supplying the Baptist church for some time. Mr. Walton was ordained at Cheltenham, the 26th of June, 1816, and continues there still, August 5, 1818.

The Baptist interest at Cheltenham has always been small, though it has existed considerably more than a century. Its present place of worship is by no means favourable for a respectable congregation, either as to dimensions or appearance. It would be very desirable if any measures could be adopted for the revival of the church, especially as Cheltenham is become one of the most fashionable watering-places in the kingdom, and its inhabitants, in consequence thereof, most rapidly increasing. "O Lord, revive thy work in the midst of the years!"

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Juvenile Department,

HISTORICAL ESSAYS.

No. X.

THE CRUSADES. PREPARATORY to our review of the religious abuses in the reign of Richard I. it may not prove uninteresting to present our juvenile readers with a brief sketch of the origin and progress of the crusades, in one of which that monarch made so conspicuous a figure; as well as to avoid the frequent repetition of the subject in other reigns: but as preparations for the third crusade, that expedition itself, and the events arising out of it, form almost the whole history of that prince's administration, we shall consider it distinctly in our next paper.

It is remarkable, that in almost every age there have been some fashionable errors to engage the attention. It should seem that Satan, "the prince of the air, who worketh in the children of disobedience," always contrives some popular delusion to feed human depravity, which, from his knowledge of our nature, is nicely adapted to the period of its prevalence. Few objects were perhaps better calculated to effect this, than these wild enterprises; for they united all the numerous vices of military life with the delusion and hypocrisy of the most extravagant superstition.

The crusades, or croisades, from the French word croix, a cross, signified wars carried on against infidels under the banner of the cross: hence the adventurers were decorated with a cross on their right shoulders. They commenced in the year 1096, and originated in a superstitious veneration for those places that were distinguished by the principal events of the Redeemer's life; and for those objects that were pronounced, from their connexion with those events,

to be sacred relicts; hence, a succes-
sion of pilgrims, assembling from
every Christian country, were seen
paying their devotions at the holy
sepulchre and so little was the
simplicity of the gospel dispensation
understood, that a toilsome journey
to Jerusalem was more than equi-
valent to a life of regularity and
usefulness at home.

The propensity which, directed
by enthusiasm, led to these ex-
cesses, is far less surprising than the
excesses themselves. The curiosity
we feel to visit the sites of some
great events, or the birth-place of
some illustrious character; our
eagerness to handle some ancient
venerable ruin, if not restrained by
relic, or snatch a fragment of some
reason, and corrected by piety,
might very easily hurry us into the
extravagance of enthusiasm, and the
iniquity of superstition: indeed,
which of us can say, he should be
the subject of no immoderate sensa-
tions, if he could behold the sepul-
chre in which the Saviour lay, or the
cross on which he suffered? but it
deserves remark, that the great Dis-
poser of events has checked this pro-
pensity, by suffering time to destroy
the materials, and even the enemies
of religion to possess the places,
which its professed friends are prone

to idolize.

The Turks took the city of Jerusalem from the Saracens in 1065, and began to treat the devotional visitors with far less respect and ceremony, and it soon became hazardous to undertake the exemplary pilgrimage. This was the more irritating, from the opinion which then prevailed, that the 1000 years mentioned in the 20th chapter of the Revelations were fulfilled, and that Christ was about to make his appearance in Palestine to judge the world, which considerations creasing the merit, and even the

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necessity of these pilgrimages, ren- | to excite, that, as with one voice, dered them much more frequent.

they exclaimed, in supposed ominous language, "It is the will of God." This serious sentence, uttered by the multitude on so memorable an occasion, was regarded with more attention than even the oracular decisions of the ancients. It became ever after their motto, as well as their signal of assemblage and battle on succceding occasions. How often, in perusing the pages of history, and even in the observation of modern times, have we to lament over the mistaken and misguided ex-zeal of popular assemblies! How cautiously, should they be attended, especially by the young, lest the momentary impulse of some unhallowed passion should so terminate, as to lay the foundation of lasting remorse!

Pope Gregory VII. therefore formed the design of uniting the powers of Europe in the attempt of wresting the favourite country from the grasp of the Mahometans; but his encroachments on the privileges of princes, had rendered them too suspicious of his designs, to become the agents in his plans. But a native of Amiens, Peter, commonly called the Hermit, having made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, returned so deeply affected with the dangers to which the poor travellers were posed, and with the oppression under which the Eastern Christians laboured, and entertained the bold, and apparently wild idea, of leading sufficiently powerful armies to subdue the infidel nations. He submitted his plan to Pope Martin II. who, though aware of the advantage that must accrue to Rome from its execution, was too prudent to zard disappointment without greater plausibility of success. He therefore summoned an immense multitude at Placentia, which he denominated a Council; consisting of 4,000 ecclesiastics, and 30,000 seculars. As no hall could contain them, they met in a plain; and so impressive were the harangues of the Pope and Peter in behalf of the persecuted pilgrims and oppressed Christians of the East, that the devoted crowd declared for the meritorious undertaking.

The state of England favoured the romantic undertaking. Ignorance and superstition completely subha-jected the public mind to the domination of clerical power, which procured present misery, and awarded eternal ruin to the disobedient.—The military spirit, too, was generally diffused; and the practice of the nobles, in making war with each other, in redress of their private wrongs, greatly contributed to its preservation. A man's safety depended more on his prowess and his alliances, than on the protection of the laws: valour was the great virtue of the day. -Such a state of society, therefore, was highly favourable to the enthusiastic project; and such was its popularity, that the Princess Anna Comnena observes, in her history, "all Europe, torn from its foundation, seemed ready to precipitate itself in one united body on Asia." Nobles, artisans, peasants, and priests, alike engaged in the undertaking, as the high road to heaven; and cowardice or impiety was affixed to the characters of the reluctant. In the exercise of hope, the nobles, awarding to themselves the opulent establishments of the East, sold their present possessions, that they might be unencumbered, and suitably equipped. The aged and infirm co-operated in the undertaking by presents; and even females, forgetful of the nature and

Encouraged by his success in Italy, and actuated by the deepest policy, Martin thought it necessary to engage the more warlike nations of Europe, and therefore dispatched Peter to visit the most important cities, and to endeavour to interest the most powerful sovereigns in the enterprise. The fame of the great and glorious design being now generally diffused, a second Council was held at Clermont, in Auvergne, which was attended by the greatest prelates and nobles of the day. Such a dignified assemblage gave new zeal to the Pope and the Hermit, who renewing their pathetic addresses, so wrought on the passions of the auditory, whose enthusiasm the very concourse was calculated

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