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mented in Adrian's bull as a prince | following Christmas, and serve three years against the infidels, if the pope desired it; that he would not enforce the observance of those customs which were derogatory to the clerical privileges that he had introduced; nor would he obstruct appeals to Rome in ecclesiastical matters, but merely require security from such of the clergy as left the kingdom for that purpose, that they would attempt nothing against his rights. The king, in return, re

that had ever manifested solicitude
for the enlargement of the church
on earth, and for the increase of the
saints in heaven: his projected in-
vasion was, therefore, ascribed to
the same pious designs, and he was
exhorted to invade the country in
order to extirpate the wickedness
of its inhabitants, and cause them
to pay annually, from every house,
a penny to the holy see. But how
little this prince was influenced by
such motives appeared from his tar-ceived
diness in accomplishing his purpose;
for it was not till 1172, after an in-
vitation from an Irish chief, who
was a sufferer in a civil commotion,
that he gave leave to some of his
subjects to commence the hostile
visit, following himself at a conve-
nient season.

He was, however, soon obliged to return, for the two legates appointed to investigate the murder of Becket, had arrived in Normandy, and, tired of waiting for the king, they threatened serious consequences if he did not at once repair to them. On his arrival, they proposed to him the most extravagant terms, as a sort of atonement, to which he indignantly objected, and, knowing that time had now weakened the impressions of horror which at first occupied the minds of his subjects, he talked of proceeding again to Ireland, in defiance of their menaces. As policy was equally the motive of these delegates, finding that so long delay had rendered the spiritual weapons less formidable, they soon lowered their demands, and Henry, according to the conditions at length agreed on, swore before the reliques of the saints, that far from wishing the death of the celebrated prelate, he was greatly grieved at receiving the intelligence of it, but, as the ebullitions of passion might have been the occasion of it, he would pardon all Becket's exiled adherents, allow their return, and restore to them their livings; he would reinstate the see of Canterbury in its former privileges; he would pay the templars for the maintenance of 200 knights for a year in the holy land; that he would himself take the cross on the

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absolution from the legates, and the confirmation of Adrian's bull authorizing and recommending the invasion of Ireland.

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Henry having thus extricated himself from a situation so delicate and perilous, was regarded as one of the greatest monarchs of his day; but, as if to remind him and those who beheld his greatness, of the unwelcome truth, that man is born to trouble as the sparks fly upward," he had now to experience trials of a different, but not of a less painful nature. A parent has a much stronger claim to the gratitude of his children than they are often willing to admit, and as this prince had proved himself a fond and indulgent father, he seemed to have stronger claims to their dutiful returns; instead of which, he had not only to feel "how sharper than a serpent's tooth it is to have a thankless child," but to see his sons rebelling against him. Young Henry, at the instigation of his father-in-law, the king of France, demanded the dutchy of Normandy, while Geoffrey and Richard, by the advice of their mother, claimed present possession of the territories appointed them at their father's death. The afflicted father, contrary to his real interest, that he might adopt the most lenient measures, applied to the pope to interpose his authority, and reduce to obedience his undutiful children, and their cruel advisers, who, pleased with so meritorious a cause of interference, issued his bulls accordingly; but the king had the mortification to witness the gross hypocrisy of the priests, who were quite indifferent to enforcing punishments where their own interest was so little con

cerned; and he was obliged, after all, to have recourse to arms. His enemies, considering his continental dominions most vulnerable, commenced their hostilities on the frontiers of Normandy, but, repairing to the points of attack, he soon dispersed his foes. In the mean time, the turbulent barons, tired of his strict discipline, promoted disorder at home; to which the king | of Scotland contributed by making inroads in the north with 20,000 men. Henry, therefore, found his presence necessary in England, and that he might avail himself of every circumstance that could contribute to his success, he determined to turn their superstition to account, by gratifying it. After landing at Southampton, he repaired immediately to Becket's shrine. He dismounted on coming within sight of Canterbury church, and proceeded to it barefoot, he prostrated himself before the tomb, which he continued to watch for a day and night; nor did this degradation suffice, he actually unclothed himself and presented his naked shoulders to the discipline of a chapter of monks, who successively flicted stripes with a scourge which he had previously given to each of them. The following day he received absolution, which, as it had been before granted, one should have expected it would have been needless to repeat, especially as they deemed the sovereign pontiff infallible. Intelligence was speedily received that the invading Scots were completely defeated, which, as it was said to have happened on the day of his absolution, could not be regarded otherwise than as a most conspicuous sign of the favour the king had procured with the saint and with heaven: nor was he at all displeased with the compliment, but often seemed to pride himself in the supposed friendship of the deceased.

man guilty of murder was merely
degraded; and the murderer of a
priest, only incurred excommuni-
cation and censure, and for so mon-
strous a crime he could atone by
penance: hence, notwithstanding all
the anathemas of the pope, and the
humiliation of the king, the actual
murderers of Becket remained un-
molested; and it was not till they
found themselves shunned by their
neighbours as excommunicated per-
sons, that they thought of a visit to
Rome to submit themselves to the
pope and to perform the penance
he might impose on them: having
observed these ceremonies, they re-
turned to their country, and enjoy-
ed the good-will of all who sur-
rounded them.

The commotions of Henry's reign,
arising from the undutiful behaviour
of his children and the jealousy and
envy of foreign princes, were the
causes of the infelicity of his latter
years, prevented him from entering
warmly into a crusade, to which he
was much inclined, and indeed ac-
celerated his death; for the con-
tinued rebellious conduct of Richard,
after the death of young Henry, so
in-greatly affected the king, that it
threw him into a fever of which he
died, on the 6th of July, 1189.

Most strange and inconsistent were the laws that now regulated the conduct of the clergy and the laity towards each other, such indeed as would be disgraceful to any state that professed the least regard to christianity. A clergy

The review of ecclesiastical ty ranny, the worst, because the most awful kind of tyranny, should lead us to dwell thankfully on our distinguished privileges, and to exert our warmest zeal for the instruction of those benighted countries, that still groan under the yoke of papal superstition, which, however controlled by power, or modified by circumstances, is the same yoke still, and especially should it lead us to employ our every talent for the improvement of that neglected country Ireland, which has such strong claims to our regards, Is it true that our forefathers introduced this enslaving superstition there, and has its baneful effects continued to delude our brethren, its inhabitants, until now? Justice then demands that we now do our utmost to give them those advantages that we have long possessed, Happily, societies formed for this glorious purpose now invite even youthful co-operation. H. S. A.

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Obituary.

REV. JAMES WILLIAMS.

It was his felicity to meet with a partner in life, exemplary for piety and affection, who still lives to mourn his loss, together with six children, which providence had left him out of a family of ten, who testify of him, that he possessed, in an eminent degree, the heart of an amiable and affectionate husband, father, and friend. We may here notice, that the Rev. W. Bradley, whose obituary appeared in the Magazine for March last, was baptized by him, and he also officiated at his ordination at Coleford.

Horsely,inGloucestershire, preached to the people. It pleased the Lord of the harvest to bless his labours On the 22d of January, 1818, died at home, and also in many dark the Rev. James Williams, for nearly corners in the surrounding country, twenty years pastor of the Baptist where he endeavoured to introduce Church at Kingstanley, in Glouces- the "gospel of the kingdom," name tershire. He was born in the yearly, the Lays, on the banks of Wye, 1759, at Moulton, in Glamorgan- Goodridge, Walford, Wilton, Bayley, shire. He was brought up by his the steel works, and numerous other parents in the fear of God; and their places. instructions, in connection with the means of grace, with which he was blessed from his infancy, terminated under the divine influence of the Holy Spirit, in his real conversion to God. In the 18th year of his age, he gave himself, like the primitive believers, to the Lord, and to his church, by a public profession, and was baptized by the Rev. David Jones, of Pontypool, in the river Lay, near Perstone-bridge. Feeling his mind powerfully inclining him to the ministry of the word, he evidently wished to consecrate himself to the work of the Lord, and with this view, with previous deliberation, and the advice of a number of his religious friends, whose opinion he consulted, he preached his first sermon at Lantridid, to a pretty numerous congregation of poor people, from Matt. xxiv. 14, "And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a testimony unto all nations; and then shall the end come."

In 1781 he was received into the Academy at Bristol, where he pursued his academical studies with avidity and exemplary steadiness, under the late Dr. Evans and J. Newton, till May 1785, at which time he removed to Ross, in Herefordshire, and having accepted the unanimous call of the church at Ryford, he was ordained on the 14th of September, in the same year. The Rev. Dr. Evans gave the charge, and his most intimate friend, the Rev. Benjamin Francis, late of

He continued at Ryford till the close of 1800, when he removed to Kingstanley; and although it was a great trial to him to leave his friends at Ryford, yet he had no wish nearer his heart than the advancement of the Redeemer's kingdom, and therefore counted all things but dross that he might follow the leadings of his Divine hand. It was his regular custom for some time previous to the removal of his family, to walk from Ross to Stanley, a distance of twenty-three miles, on the Saturday, and return on the Monday.

The church at Kingstanley con→ sisted of only four members when Mr. W. took the charge thereof, since which period about one hundred have been added.

Although he laboured under great difficulties here, still the hand of the Lord was with him, and he received strength equal to his day. He laboured much in the surrounding villages, preaching alternately on

sabbath and week-day evenings, at and shall receive the kingdom pre Slimbridge, Cowley, Avening, Pitch-pared for them from before the combe, Hampton, Stonehouse, foundation of the world".

Nympsfield, &c. &c. He studied much, and always thought it his duty to ponder in private before he appeared in the pulpit, and to seek aid of Him, whose messenger he was. He had the happiness to baptize three of his own children during his ministry at Kingstanley.

He lost two by death in their infancy. His eldest son, who was designed for a Missionary to India, and a daughter, died happy in the Lord. Although these providences were very trying, and very keenly felt, yet they were but light compared to what he latterly was called to pass through amongst some of his own people: but "he now rests from his labours;" and the days of his mourning are ended.

As he seemed to be worse, Mrs. W. was desirous of calling in some person to sit up with him, not however apprehending any immediate danger. He went to prayer with his family, and retired to bed soon after, but seemed to be still worse. He asked for some of his medicine, and after he had taken it, said, "I am better now." He soon after said, "'tis death! 'tis death! do not distress yourselves, it is all well. I think I cannot live through another spasm of pain;" in a short time after he breathed his last, in the 59th year of his age.

"The time was come for him to rest

Beneath the peaceful clod;
And happier still the time more blest
For him to dwell with God."

The mournful event was improved on the following sabbath by the Rev. Mr. Hawkins, of Eastcombs, from Rev. xiv. 13, "Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord," &c.

MR. THOMAS BOSWORTH.

On the 17th of February last, died Mr. Thomas Bosworth, aged 25 years, who was appointed, by the British and Foreign School Society, to establish the British System of Education at Port au Prince, in consequence of the invitation of the president, Petion.

He had not been hindered from preaching but three sabbaths by illness, since his ordination. The sabbath before he died, he complained of being poorly, and after he had left home, on his way to the Meeting-house, he was taken so ill with violent spasms about his heart, that he was necessitated to return home, he could but just reach the middle of the room, when he fell down quite exhausted, exclaiming at the same time, "I think my work is done." In the afternoon he seemed better, and was desirous of preaching, but Mrs. W. did not deem it prudent-medical aid was resorted to, and he did not seem much worse till the Wednesday evening he died. He had attended his He arrived there in July last, and school the same day, and continued directions were given to prepare a in his study till about ten o'clock school for him on a large scale, with in the evening.-He appeared to every reasonable hope of success. have been writing a sermon, which In the mean time, through the kindhe had some time before preachedness of the Methodist Missionaries, from 2 Tim. iv. 6, 7, and 8th verses, "For I am now ready to be offered, I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith: Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness," &c. &c. He laid down his pen for the last time at the conclusion of the following passage: "Then shall the souls and bodies of the righteous be raised in the likeness of the glorious body of the Son of God,

he opened the first school on this system at Port au Prince, in the Meeting-house used by that Society. After having once recovered from fever, he was again seized with intermittent fever just as he was ap pearing to prosper in the object of his Mission. How inscrutable are the ways of Providence! On the side of Christophe, the plan succeeds and prospers so that five schools were established, when the last ac

counts were forwarded, and ten more were in preparation: while, on Petion's side, the first Teacher is carried off just at the commencement of his labours.

Mr. Bosworth belonged to the Baptist Denomination, and was a truly pious man, and animated with sincere and modest zeal to promote the moral and religious improvement of mankind. He was well known in Boston, Lincolnshire; from his exertions during several years in that town, where he was master of the British Free School. His attention to the children was such, that a great number of them accompanied him upwards of a mile from the place, to take their last leave of a Teacher, whom they regarded with parental affection, and they parted with tears on both sides. The Sunday Schools in that neighbourhood were peculiarly the object of his care, and if we are not misinformed, several of them owe their origin and success, in a great measure, to his zealous and active exertions. The Committee of the School under his care, well knew the value of such a man; and it is but justice to them to notice, that they would not have been prevailed upon to relinquish such a Teacher, on any other ground, than to extend the usefulness of a person, who, in the opinion of all who knew him, was eminently qualified.

He lived under the influence of Christian principles, and his latter end was peace. After labouring under severe affliction 27 days, he finished his course; and although his residence at Port au Prince was for a few months only, yet so justly were his talents estimated, that several Englishmen, a crowd of natives, consisting of his scholars and their parents, with a great number of the Methodist congregation, followed him to the grave. The ceremony was performed in French by one of the Methodist Missionaries, who say "The natives have honoured his memory, and done credit to their own feelings. He has fallen in a good cause, amidst his generous efforts to ameliorate the situation of his wretched fellow-creatures."

VOL. X.

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The British system has extended so greatly on the side of king Henry, that it bids fair in a few years to be generally adopted. The king has given this plan so decided a preference, that the first Teacher on the National or Madras plan, who went there, was directed to study the British System, under Mr. Gulliver, before he was employed. - We should not have thought it necessary to notice this circumstance, had not some of the daily papers, and the Christian Observer, after them, represented the Schools under Christophe to be national. The truth is, that Christophe calls them National Lancastrian, and has adopted the lessons and form of teaching used by the British and Foreign School Society. But what is of far more consequence, he has adopted the fundamental principle of that Society, viz. "That no religious creed, or catechism, shall be insisted upon, as the condition of admitting chil dren into the schools."

J. M.

MRS. MARY EASON.

On Saturday, Dec. 20, 1817, died, in the 23d year of her age, Mary, the wife of Mr. George Eason, Glover, of Yeovil, and daughter of Mr. William Tooks, Bradford, Dorset. Although she had been accustomed to hear the gospel from her childhood, yet, like too many others, she paid but little attention to the great concerns of her soul, until about six years prior to her death, when it pleased the Lord to awaken in her mind a serious enquiry about them. First, by an alarming dream, and afterwards by a sermon at the Half-way-house Meeting; in consequence of which, she felt great terrors of conscience for some time, but to her inexpressible joy, the Lord was pleased to set her soul at liberty, under a sermon delivered by the same minister, from 1 John, iii. 2; and she was enabled to rejoice in a sense of pardon, through the blood of the Lamb. After this evident change of heart, her conduct was very exemplary, and her

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