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knew his lord's will and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes; but he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes." In proportion to the degree in which you understand the will of God, your disobedience to that will becomes the more aggravated, and if you die impenitent, your punishment will be the more severe. "If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them."

luted, and we are altogether as
an unclean thing. The children
of grace are born not of blood,
nor of the will of the flesh, nor of
the will of man, but of God.
The advantages of your birth and
education, lay you under strong
obligations, to holiness; and
should you break through them
and walk in an evil way, to you,
above others, it will be bitterness
in the end. Consider, sooner or
later sin must pierce your hearts
with penitential sorrow, or with
everlasting despair.
"Rejoice
O young man in thy youth, and
let thy heart cheer thee in the
days of thy youth, and walk in
the ways of thine heart, and in
the sight of thine eyes; but
know thou, that for all these
things, God will bring thee into
judgment."

An opinion prevailed among the Jews, that none of their posterity could be lost: they thought their relation to the father of the faithful would prevent their final perdition. John the Baptist cautioned them against this false opinion: "Think not to say Perhaps you allow, that reliwithin yourselves, we have Abra-gion is important-that it ought ham to our father; for I say unto to be attended to-and mean at you, that God is able of these some future period to become ¿tones to raise up children unto religious; but for the present Abraham." Something like this you cannot think about it: but may have been experienced by is not life uncertain? and have you. Did you never inwardly not thousands been ruined who say, "My father and my mother once flattered themselves with fear the Lord-they often pray such promises?" Procrastination for their children. God hears is the thief of time." The word the prayers of his people, and will of God promises nothing for toregard us for their sakes." We morrow; but says, To-day if assure you that such notions are ye will hear his voice, harden not wrong; religion is personal; as your hearts." To neglect the mere descent from the father of concerns of your souls, is to the Jewish nation could not en-abuse the patience and forbeartitle his posterity to the peculiar ance of God-to sin against the promises God made to him; so convictions of your own conneither can your being the off-sciences-and to increase your spring of pious parents give you any claim to the salvation of the gospel. Whatever privileges you have derived from your first birth, you must be born again. The very beginning of religion is the renewal of our natures; we are so depraved by sin, that all our powers and passions are pol

natnral aversion to divine things. If your inward corruptions are not opposed, they gather strength; every day you neglect to seek the Lord, you are removed to a greater distance from him, and may in the end be brought to entertain those slight notions of sin, and of your natural state by

it, which have been the principal | if indeed any thing could, cast a cause of the infidelity and ruin cloud over the brightness of our of multitudes. glory.

You are the children of our cares and anxieties, the objects of our daily and earnest prayers; next to the salvation of our own souls, we are solicitous for that of yours: we long to see you fear the Lord before the world take possession of your minds; besides, observation teaches us, that if the morning of life pass away, and you are not converted, it is probable you will become hardened in sin, and at last go down to the grave with a lie in your right hand. The thought of this is painful to our minds. How could we bear to see you placed on the left hand of the Judge at the great day of accounts, and to hear him pronounce upon you that awful sentence, "Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels." The idea of so tremendous a scene fills us with pain, and awakens in our minds, on your account, the tenderest emotions. Does not the mention of it affect your souls also, and fill you with ardent desires to escape so dreadful a condition? Can you think of being driven from God, and dragged by devils into the place where there is nothing but weeping, and wailing, and gnashing of teeth; to suffer from the worm that never dies, and the fire that is never quenched, and not cry to the Lord for grace to prepare you to dwell with himself, and with all the blessed in that happy world, in which he lives and reigns? Surely to meet you there would add to our felicity in those glorious regions, and cause us to strike our golden harps with new joy to his praise. While to be disappointed of this pleasure would,

VOL. X.

O our dear children! suffer us to remind you of the infinite importance of eternal things, and entreat you to seek the Lord while he may be found, and call upon him while he is near. It is with pleasure we direct you to Jesus Christ; he is able to save to the uttermost all that come unto God by him: his blood cleanses from all sinand whosoever believeth in him shall not perish, but have everlasting life.

To fear the Lord in your youth, would prevent your contracting bad habits, the cure of which, when of long standing, is like cutting off a right hand or plucking out a right eye. No schemes of pleasure, nor plans of prosperity can succeed, without the divine blessing: your future prospects may seem well guarded from every disaster, but in one day, even in one hour, the whole may be blasted by some unexpected occurrence, and all your warmest fondest hopes and wishes laid in the dust. Your best interests, as well as your surest happiness, consist in the fear of God, for nothing can greatly injure those who fear him; a sense of his favour, and a hope of dwelling for ever in his presence, are sources of consolation under all the trials of life.

As we love you, and ardently desire the salvation of your souls, we guard you against irreligious "Evil communicompanions. cations corrupt good manners." Many have been gradually, and, at first, imperceptibly led into sins, which have most awfully terminated their career. of those unhappy wretches who have become victims to public justice, have declared with their

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last breath, that wicked company was the first occasion of their ruin. "My son, hear the instruction of thy father, and forsake not the law of thy mother; for they shall be an ornament of grace unto thy head, and chains about thy neck. My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not."

ANECDOTE.

In some copies of Fox's Martyr, ology is a wood cut, entitled “The holden at Rome, in which appeared description of the Pope's councel a monstrous owle, to the utter defacing of the Pope and all his clergie." The story is thus related by Fox, vol. i. p. 675.

"When Pope John and his counShould these lines be read by cide on cil, in 1410, were assembled to desome articles exhibited any who have already broken against Wickliff, behold an ugly through parental restraints, and and dreadful owle, or as the complunged into debasing vices, let mon proverb is, the sign of some them remember, that if they wish mischance to follow, flew to and to return to the paths of virtue, fro with her evil-favoured voice, even their case is not without and standing upon the middle beam of the church, cast her staring eyes hope. The promises of God and the blood of Christ unite in company began to marvel, for be upon the Pope sitting. The whole encouraging them to return from hold, said they, (whispering in one their wanderings, and seek the another's ear) the Spirit appeareth Lord. When the prodigal son in the shape of an owl. And as said, "I will arise and go to my and advising the Pope, scarcely they stood beholding one another, father," his father received him with gladness: so when a sinner from laughter. John himself, upon could they keep their countenances forsakes his evil ways, he meets whom the owl stedfastly looked, with unexpected tokens of di- blushing at the matter, began to vine goodness-his sins are free-sweat, and to fret, and fume with ly forgiven-and his polluted himself, and not finding by what soul is cleansed in the fountain other means he might solve the opened for sin and uncleanness. matter, being so confused, dissolved Come, ye prodigals, return to After that, there was another sesthe council, broke up, and departed. God! In the ways of sin you sion, at which the owle again, after will find nothing but vexation, the manner aforesaid, although, as disappointment, and, at the end, I believe, not called, was present, everlasting misery: "The wages looking stedfastly at the Bishop, of sin is death." Come, then, whom he beholding to be come we beseech you, retrace your erragain, was more ashamed than he ing steps; flee for salvation to could no longer bear the sight of was before; (as justly) saying, he the glorious Redeemer. He her, and commanded that she should waits to be gracious. God the be driven away with bats and Father will rejoice over you to shoutings: but she, being afraid do you good the Holy Spirit neither with their noise, or any will shed abroad his love in your with the stroke of their sticks, thing else, would not away, until hearts: angels and saints will which were thrown at her, she fell welcome you as a partaker of down dead befor them all." their felicity; and from being a forlorn creature without hope, you shall be raised to the nity of the sons of God.

D.

In the copy of Fox's Martyrology which belonged to Mr. Bunyan, is dig-written in his own hand writing under the picture as follows:

G.

Doth the owle to them appear,
Which put them all into a fear?
Will not the man and triple crown
Cast the owle unto the ground?

Juvenile Department,

PHILOSOPHICAL

REFLECTIONS.

No. XVII.

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WATER, till a comparatively late date, was considered as a simple substance, and one of the four great elements. From earth, water, air, and fire, all other substances were supposed to be compounded, in the countles varieties that adorn and enrich the universe. This opinion carried with it a seducing simplicity, and could only be exploded by actual demonstration. In the progress of science, however, it has become evident, that water is itself a compound of oxygen and hydrogen, in the proportions, by weight, of 88 of the former and 12 of the latter, in every 100 parts of the fluid.

Oxygen is not only a constituent part of water, but the basis of vital air. It is essential to life and heat, and greatly contributes to the most important changes that perpetually take place among minerals, vegetables, and animals.

Hydrogen is the basis of what was called inflammable air, and in its æriform state is incomparably light.— It unites with oxygen only in one proportion, and water is the produce of such union: It may be proper to add, that though water is composed of one part of hydrogen and 71⁄2 of oxygen, by weight, as already observed, it contains 2 parts of the former to

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1 of the latter, by measure; so light is hydrogen.

"The decomposition of water, and its subsequent reformation," says Mr. Parkes, in his interesting Catechism,,

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may be shown by the following easy experiment: Add gradually one ounce of sulphuric acid to four ounces of water in a large phial, containing a few iron filings. The temperature of the mixture will be so much raised by the union of the water with the acid, as to enable the iron to decompose a part of the water. If a hole' be neatly made through a cork which fits the mouth of the phial, and a piece of tobacco-pipe with a very small orifice be fitted into it, and the whole cemented into the phial with a mixture of resin and bees' wax, the hydrogen gas, as it is separated from the water, will pass in a continued stream through the pipe, and may be set on fire by the flame of a candle brought in contact with it. The gas will continue to burn with a blue lambent flame, as long as the decomposition goes on. This shows that the gas is really hydrogen, and that it arises from the decomposition of the water. That water may be reformed by the com bustion of this gas, may be shown by holding a glass bell over the flame of the gas: as the bydrogen burns, it unites with the oxygen of the atmosphere, and the union of the two gases produces water, which will soon be seen to deposit itself like dew on the inside of the glass. It is advisable to fold a cloth round the bottle to prevent any injury from the fragments of glass, in case of an explosión."

In what an interesting light do the studies of philosophy place the works of nature! By the improving lessons of that most useful of the sciences, chemistry, we behold this earth as one of the grand laboratories of the great

again displayed in the slow process of its congelation, the sad effects of too hasty transitions are avoided, and the escaping caloric happily mi tigates the severity, and retards the progress of frost. Nor should it be overlooked, that while other substances become more dense in proportion as they part with their caloric, the law is reversed in the case of water, owing to the air-bubbles

Hence ice, instead of sinking, swims on the surface of water; had it been otherwise, one mass of ice after ano ther, would have sunk in our lakes and rivers, till, in a severe winter, no liquidity had remained; nor could the heat of the hottest summer have thawed such channels of ice, from which must have resulted effects more direful than even imagination can conceive; but the great Architect saw all things from the beginning.

Creator, in which he is constantly carrying on his vast operations!How desirable it is that the youth who is captivated with the charms of rural objects, should not merely gaze at the useful plant and beauteous flower, unconscious of the operations to which they silently conduce. It could be wished that, as he plants the fragrant shrub, or plucks the blooming flower, he should know, that he aids or inter-produced in the act of freezing.— rupts effects the most salutary and wonderful, for all vegetables decompose water by a secret and peculiar process, when assisted by the rays of the sun. The hydrogen of such decomposition is absorbed by the plants themselves, in forming their oils and resin, and that portion of oxygen which is not retained to form the sugar and acid of these vegetables, unites with part of the caloric of the solar rays, and flies off in the state of oxygen gas; thus recruiting the stock of oxygen of which the atmosphere is continually deprived, by respiration. Bearing in mind the countless myriads of leaves that cover the innumerable trees that adorn our globe: how important and how extensive this process:'Surely," says the interesting writer already named, nothing short of consummate wisdom could have conceived any thing half so beautiful in design, or extensively and superlatively useful in effect !"

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Not only vegetables, but also fish, and cold-blooded amphibious animals, are supposed to possess the same power, and the violent rains that frequently accompany thunder storms, have been attributed to the sudden combustion of oxygen and hydrogen gases, with the latter of which the atmosphere is supplied from every kind of animal and vegetable decay, as well as from mines, volcanoes, &c. Who, but a God, infinitely wise and merciful, would have so admirably disposed of the very refuse of nature!

Water is found in four states: in those of ice, liquidity, steam, and in composition with other bodies.

Water in its ordinary state of liquidity is 825 times heavier than atmospheric air, A pint is found to weigh rather more than a pound, a cubic foot about 624lbs. avoirdupois. Its chief physical properties are insipidity, transparency, want of smell and colour. Rain water approaches nearest to a state of purity, and gentle rain is found more pure than that which falls in storms. The water that washes the surface of the earth, or flows within it, is more or less encumbered with other matter, as that of the ocean and mineral waters.

In the state of vapour, it is combined with an increased portion of caloric, becomes of a gaseous form, and acquires an expansive force even beyond that of gunpowder, as appears from those volcanic eruptions, in which, there is reason to believe, the sea has communicated with the subterraneous fires. In this state it also receives a capability of supporting immense weights, abundantly manifested by the application of the steam engine. This expansive force accounts for the peculiar appearance of water in the act of boiling. The vapour ing first formed at the bottom of the vessel, rises, and, in escaping, causes the ebullition, which being so com

Of these, ice is the most simple, having then parted with a large por-mon, tion of its caloric to the surrounding atmosphere. Divine goodness is

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seldom excites our curiosity. Beyond this degree, water cannot be heated in an open vessel, every at

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