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thropologists point as exhibiting the fauna of France and of Italy. Among handiwork of Miocene man, two ques- twenty-one species of fossil mammals, tions naturally suggested themselves to found by Dr. Forsyth Major to have the sceptical inquirer. In the first place, lived in Tuscany during the Pliocene are they really contemporaneous with the period, only one — the hippopotamusdeposits in which they were found ? is still living. “It is to my mind," And then, if they be contemporaneous, writes Professor Dawkins, “ to the last do they exhibit unequivocal evidence of degree improbable that man, the most artificial treatment ? But if both these highly specialized of the animal king. questions be affirmatively answered, dom, should have been present in such Professor Dawkins is not even then a fauna as this, composed of so many exready to accept the flints and bones as tinct species. witnesses to the existence of man in And thus ends speculation as to the Miocene Europe. " It they be arti- probable existence of " Tertiary Man." ficial,” says this observer, “then I would For, with the close of the Pliocene stage suggest that they were made by one of most geologists bring the Tertiary period the higher apes, then living in France, to a conclusion, all later-formed strata rather than by man.” And in anticipa
And in anticipa- being regarded as Post - tertiary or tion of the objections which would nat- Quaternary. Such a classification is, urally be urged against this suggestion, however, objected to by Mr. Dawkins, on the ground that such stone-chipping since a study of the mammalia shows and bone-cutting as that in question is that although a great break does cergenerally considered to lie beyond the tainly occur between the Pliocene and range of pithecoid intelligence, he does the Pleistocene period, yet the propornot hesitate to argue that “even if the tion of Pliocene survivals is so large that existing apes do not now make stone- it is unreasonable to draw at this stage implements or cut bones, it does not as strong a line as that which separates follow that the extinct apes were equally the Tertiary from the Secondary formaignorant, because some extinct animals tions. He therefore argues in favor of are known to have been more highly or- the upward continuity of the Tertiary ganized than any of the living members series, and would embrace in the Terof their class.”
tiary period all the events which have Although man may have had no place happened from the termination of the in Miocene Europe, is it equally prob- Secondary or Mesozoic age down to the able that he was absent from the fauna present day. The expressions Quaterof the succeeding Pliocene period? The nary and Post-tertiary thus vanish from Pliocene group of strata, which immedi- this system of classification. ately overlies the Miocene, contains Although there may be no violent
fossil shells, of which the break in the life-history of the Tertiary larger number belong to recent species. period, using that term in its widest It is in these beds that living species of sense, there is nevertheless a great differplacental mammals first make their ap- ence between the fauna of the Pliocene pearance, and consequently it might be and that of the overlying Pleistocene supposed that the search for Pliocene formation. In the Pleistocene deposits man in these deposits would be a hope- the living species of placental mammals
But it must be borne in are abundant, and greatly predominate mind that, so far as our knowledge at over the extinct species ; while in the present extends, the number of living Pliocene deposits, as already shown, the species of terrestrial mammals in deposits extinct species are dominant, and the of Pliocene age is extremely small. The living forms are extremely scarce. It Pliocene beds of East Anglia-known as is in the Pleistocene fauna that man the Coralline, Red, and Norwich Crags makes his earliest indubitable appear
-have yielded so fragmentary a collec- ance in Western Europe. In the Midtion of mammalian renains, and these Pleistocene deposits in the Valley of the so mixed with Miocene fossils, that, in- Thames, Aint flakes have on two or three stead of basing any conclusions upon occasions been discovered, and these the study of such relics, it is desirable flakes are regarded by Professor Dawkins to turn to the better-preserved Pliocene as the very oldest relics of man's handi
work that have yet been obtained under The "find" comprised a large number conditions which place their authenticity of flint flakes, with cores from which the above suspicion. In the lower brick- flakes had been struck ; some fragments earths of Crayford in Kent, a worked of an unfinished stone-axe, and several flint was detected a few years ago by the stones which had apparently been emRev. Osmond Fisher ; and a second im- ployed as hammers for dressing the plement was afterward found in similar flints. In intimate association with the deposits at Erith by Mr. Cheadle and flakes were found bones of the mamMr. B. B. Woodward.
moth, of the woolly rhinoceros, and of These rude implements must have been the horse-these bones presenting the employed by the primeval hunters who appearance of having been broken by inhabited the valley of the Thames at a man, perhaps for food. As the edges time when the climate was, at certain of the flints are still sharp and unused, seasons, extremely rigorous. Thę and as the flakes lie in close contact severity of the cold is proved by the with the finest chippings, it is plausibly presence of such northern animals as inferred that the work of Aint-dressing the marmot and the musk-sheep. Yet must have been carried on at this locality these northern forms were strangely as in palæolithic times, and that, in short, sociated with numerous animals which the discoverer has had the good fortune are now found only in temperate and to light upon the site of an old manueven in warm climates. There were factory where chalk-flints were fashioned vast number of horses, stags, bison, and into weapons by the early palæolithic uri ; while the great Irish elk was still men who dwelt in the valley of the lingering in the valley. The extinct Thames. mammalia which then dwelt in the valley of the lower Thames included two spe- Many years ago the important silkcies of elephant and three of rhinoceros : producing industry of the valley of the these were
the mammoth (Elephas Rhone was threatened with ruin. A primigenius) and the short - tusked ele- mysterious disease seized upon the silk. phant (E. antiquus); the woolly rhinoce- worms, and resisted all the efforts at its ros (Rhinoceros tichorhinus), the big- cure, until at length M. Pasteur, who nosed rhinoceros (R. megarhinus), and was even then engaged on those studies the small-nosed species (R. leptorhinus). upon fungi and fermentation which have It is remarkable, as Mr. Dawkins has since rendered him so famous, demonpointed out, that the megarhine rhinoce- strated that the pest was caused by a ros has not been found in association living parasite, and devised means of with human remains in any other locality. stamping it out effectually. The Mid - Pleistocene fauna of the Few modern researches have been Thames valley also included the hippo- more suggestive or
more fruitful in potamus, the lion, and the wild cat, the practical results than these of Pasteur. brown bear and the grizzly bear, the Our knowledge of the vast amount of spotted hyæna and the wolf. Such, in mischief to health and industry caused general terms, was the group of animals by the lower fungi, and particularly by that shared possession of the valley of Bacteria, has been rapidly increasing, the Thames with the earliest human in- while happily the power of successfully habitants of whom science has yet ob-destroying these has
has increased in tained any indisputable record.
scarcely less rapid proportion : witness Since Professor Dawkins published the improvements in wine-making, the his work on “ Early Man," an interest- still greater advance in the art of brewing discovery of stone implements, in ing, and, best of all, that revolution in the brick-earths of Crayford, has been surgery effected by the introduction of announced by Mr. Flaxman Spurrell.* antiseptic methods.
Of late years the vine-growing districts On the Discovery of the Place where of France have been steadily invaded by Palæolithic Implements were made at Cray- a serious pest of a widely different kind, ford.” Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Geological Society, No. 390. Also : On the Site of a Palæolithic Implement Manufactory at logical Section of the British Association at Crayford, Kent." Paper read before the Geo- Swansea.
the Phylloxera vastatrix, an insect be- tention in France, and experiments are longing to the same family as the com- being made of which we shall doubtless mon green Aphis of the rose, and en- know the result in the course of next dowed with the same power of rapid season. In the mean time it is impossible asexual multiplication. In spite of all not to await with interest and hope this remedial measures, the insect is still application of a new method.* spreading, and thus constitutes a serious Two years ago a description of the redanger to the wine supply of Europe. searches which completed our knowlSoon after the establishment of the edge of the morphology of Bacillus Phylloxera Commission of the Academy anthracis, the bacterium of the splenic of Sciences, M. Pasteur threw out a very fever of sheep and cattle (anthrax), was ingenious suggestion, clearly derived given in these pages. We have now to from his early experience of the silk- summarize our recently gained knowl. worm disease to destroy the invader edge as to the means of dealing with this by inoculating it with a parasitic fun- formidable scourge, which is widely disgus ; thus reversing the principle of all seminated throughout Europe, in some the previous applications of our knowl- districts—as, for instance, the departedge of these organisms by treating them ment of Eure-et-Loire-inflicting damage as allies instead of enemies. Unfortu- to the extent of millions of francs annately no experiments were made, and nually. And here again we are mainly the subject was forgotten until last year, indebted to Pasteur † and the germ when Professor Hagen, of Harvard, theory. published an account of his experiments He shows that the disease is produced on the destruction of obnoxious insects by feeding sheep on fodder known to by the application of the yeast fungus. contain germs of anthrax, the more He concluded that the yeast cells en- readily if barley or thistles, of which the tered the body of the insect, there giv- sharp points make tiny lesions on the ing rise to fatal disease, and accordingly walls of the alimentary canal, and thus recommended the application of yeast open a way for the entrance of the spores to the Phylloxera, Colorado beetle, etc. into the blood, be present. It was
Such results as these, on the one hand formerly believed that the Bacilli and confirming the old belief in the efficacy their germs were killed by the putrefacof yeast as a means of destroying green-' tion which rapidly follows the death of house pests, and on the other at vari- the poisoned animals, and this is so far ance with all experience as to its mode true. Some blood, however, is sure to of life, could not but stimulate inquiry. be mixed with the earth in which the The subject was soon undertaken by a animal is buried, and thus a certain distinguished Russian biologist, Elias number of germs find themselves in conMetschnikoff, who has shown * that the ditions which insure their survival even disease-producing fungus of Hagen was for
years.. But how are they enabled not the yeast itself, but was merely as- again to reach the surface ? How do sociated with it as an impurity. He they escape the fate which seems natural has succeeded in cultivating several spe- to particles of such extreme minuteness cies of fungi parasitic upon insects, no- to be carried deeper and deeper into the tably one which he terms green mus- ground by the rain ? This would indeed cardine” (Isaria destructor) and in trac- take place but for the earthworm, which ing their entire life-history. By culti- is constantly bringing up to the surface vating the green muscardine apart from new myriads of germs of the parasite. insects upon a suitable nutritive fluid, The worm-casts from places where dishe has been able to obtain a consider- eased animals had been buried even two able quantity of spores, and thus feels years before, were invariably found to justified in recommending the cultiva. contain an abundance of spores capable tion of such fungi on a large scale, and of activity, and it is easy to understand the dissemination of their germs in how these casts, broken up by rain and places infested by insects. The subject drought, yield to the wind, and spread is at present engaging considerable at
* See also Nature, 1880, p. 447.
+ See numerous papers in the Comptes Ren* Zool. Anseiger, 1880, p. 44.,
dus, July to September, 1880.
over the surface of the adjacent ground; course of his successful efforts to secure thus scattering abundant germs which fowls from an allied disease (choléra des soon give rise to fresh outbreaks of dis- poules) by the inoculation, finds that he
M. Pasteur is hence led to specu- has at the same time insured them late on the possible influence of the against anthrax — a result which has earthworm in the æetiology of disease ; wide theoretical bearings. on the dangers which may lie hidden in Since the researches of Wyville Thomthe earth of cemeteries, and on the utility son and Carpenter on the fauna of the of cremation ; and then goes on strongly deep sea, much attention has been paid to recommend the interment of animals to the subject not only by British, but which have died of anthrax in poor sandy also by American and Scandinavian or calcareous soils, unfrequented by naturalists; and a well-equipped French earthworms and never used as pasture. commission, including MM. Henri and By attention to this simple precaution Alphonse Milne-Edwards, Folin, Marihe is confident that the malady would on, and several other eminent French disappear in a few years ; for inquiries zoologists, accompanied by two of our into the relation of the prevalence of most experienced dredgers, Messrs. anthrax in any given district to the qual- Gwyn Jeffreys and Merle Norman, has ity of the soil show that the disease is recently been exploring that deep and unknown on the poorer lands, even while almost unknown region of the Bay of abounding on rich clayey land in the Biscay which lies off the northern coast immediate neighborhood.
of Spain, between Cape Breton and In a somewhat later communication Cape Penas. A steamer of 1000 tons he gives a complete demonstration of the burden, the Travailleur, well equipped justice of these views. In a small vil
In a small vil- with dredging and sounding apparatus, lage of the Jura, where a solitary out- was provided by the Minister of Marine, break took place two years ago, the and the cruise lasted during the greater places in which the victims were buried part of July. The weather being favorare still easily recognizable by the in- able, as many as twenty-four dredgings creased rankness of the vegetation. At were made during the last fortnight, at these spots he found germs in every depths varying from 300 to 2700 metres.
. worm-cast he examined, as well as on At the greater depths, the bottom was the surface of the ground, although, a covered with a thick bed of greenishfew yards off, none could be discovered. gray mud which rapidly choked the Two small enclosures of equal size were dredges. The best results were therethen made, the one containing the spots fore obtained by trailing bundles of net in which the diseased animals had been and hempen tangle. The collection, buried, the other at a few yards' dis- which has been divided among the varitance, and an equal number of sheep ous specialists composing the expedition, were placed in each. In the laiter en- is of great importance, including not closure the sheep remained healthy; only the majority of the deep-sea forms while, in the former, the disease broke already described by British and Scanout in a week.
dinavian naturalists, but also many The method of vaccination is also be- new species. ing applied, and with considerable suc- Fishes are rare, but crustaceans and cess. Mr. Chauveau has succeeded in molluscs are abundant. The crustacea, reinforcing the resisting power of the which are wholly different from those Algerian sheep, which is naturally very found on the adjacent coasts, are of considerable, and in proving that the great interest, including a number of lambs borne by previously inoculated curious crabs, some blind, others with ewes are completely safe. M. Tous- large phosphorescent eyes. The docsaint, on the other hand, selecting sheep trine of uniformity of the deep-sea fauna of the very breed most liable to anthrax, over vast areas is confirmed by the and inoculating them with plasma taken study of the mollusca, the known spefrom animals which had died of the dis- cies having been for the most part disease, appears to have rendered them covered off the coasts of Shetland, proof against it, at least after the second Greenland, and Norway. Some, too, inoculation; while Pasteur, in
in the are Mediterranean, while others had
previously been obtained only as fossils however, twelve species of fishes, of in Sicily, and in the Pliocene deposits which four are new. The majority beof Northern Italy. The collection of long to the genus Chromis, with which cælenterate animals is extremely rich, the lake is swarming, and which has the and most other groups are tolerably well curious habit of hatching its eggs and represented.
sheltering its young within the cavity of The 103 soundings taken between the mouth. There are also ten species Cape. Breton and Cape Penas give a of molluscs, of which three are of thorclear account of the configuration of oughly marine type, thus confirming the the sea-bottom, which seems the contin- hypothesis of the freshening of the lake uation of the slope of the Pyrenees. At derived from geological considerations. a short distance from the coast there are depths of nearly 3000 metres ; and steep While all these searchings after new slopes, and almost vertical precipices, forms of life at great depths or in diswhich very often interfered with dredg- tant seas have been in progress, an aniing operations, are frequently. met with, mal no less remarkable than any thus especially to the north of Santander. found has been discovered without goFurther west, however, between Tina ing so far afield, indeed in the most unMayor ard Cape Pénas, a large plateau expected of places -- the very heart of has been discovered at a depth of 170 London. At the beginning of summer, metres. It has been named the Mr. Sowerby, of the Regent's Park “ Plateau du Travailleur."*
Botanic Garden, was surprised to find The Sea of Galilee, which now lies the Victoria regia tank swarming with a 212 metres below the level of the Med- beautiful little jellyfish. He supplied iterranean, and of which the waters are specimens to Professors Allman* and slightly brackish, appears to have been Lankaster, t who have succeeded in makundergoing a gradual process of fresh- ing out the structure and affinities of ening since the comparatively recent the medusoid, which they term Limnoperiod when it began to discharge its codium Sowerbii, and place among the waters into the Dead Sea. In the hope Trachymeduse, which develope directly of discovering a fauna and flora show- from the egg instead of budding off from ing signs of adaptation to these altered a fixed zoophyte.
a fixed zoophyte. Its main interest lies conditions, M. Lortett has carefully in the fact that it is the only known dredged the lake, which he finds to have fresh - water medusoid, the two other a depth of 250 metres, with a bottom of fresh - water Coelenterates, Hydra and fine volcanic mud mixed with diatoms Cordylophora, being fixed forms, not and foraminifera. Save for the diatoms, producing swimming bells. It is supposed there is an entire and unaccountable to have been introduced from the West absence of vegetable life. He finds, Indies.- The Nineteenth Century.
THROUGH SIBERIA BY WAY OF THE AMUR AND THE USSURI.
BY THE REV. HENRY LANSDELL.
It was my good fortune last summer Pacific at the Sea of Okhotsk. I avoidto make a tour of the world through ed the Barabinsky Steppe by travelling on Siberia. I traversed this enormous the Irtish and Obi from Tobolsk to country, moreover, by a new way. Two Tomsk, and then from Irkutsk I crossed English travellers, Captain Cochrane Lake Baikal and descended the Amur, and Mr. Hill, have recorded their first to its mouth at Nikolaefsk, and journeys across Northern Asia, but they then, returning, ascended the Ussuri to crossed the Barabinsky Steppe, and from the Vladivostock. Irkutsk followed the course of the Lena, The object, therefore, of this paper and, turning eastward, reached the
* Fourn. Linn. Soc., July, 1880. * Comptes Rendus, August 9 and 16, 1880. + Nature, June 24, 1880, and Quart. Journ, | Ibid., Sept. 13, 1880.
Micro. Sci., July, 1880.