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methods of success. To all such. Mr. Moore's Carlyle, in his high moral manner, began to treatise would have been invaluable ; and it improve the occasion by expatialing upon the will greatly aid those who may now (or in lessons to be learned from the birds. At last future) be contemplating a similar attempt. It poor stammering Lamb broke in, “P-P-Pcontains precise and practical information on perhaps you're a P-P-P-poulterer ?" location, soils, planting, budding, cultivation,

We learn from Nature that the French Minmanures, packing, preserving, and the like ;

ister of Public Instruction intends to do a great and it is noticeably free from mere padding or

service to science by publishing monthly a Purposeless writing.

résumé of the scientific work being done in

France, under the title of Revue des Sciences. FOREIGN LITERARY NOTES. The review will be under the direction of the

venerable M. H. Milne-Edwards, and will conThe firm of Le Monnier, of Florence, has

sist exclusively of analyses and summaries. just commenced the publication of Andrea It will embrace the work of individuals and of Maffei's Italian translation of Schiller's dramas.

societies all over the country, and each numTo the list of royal, or rather princely, ber will contain about one hundred pages. authors must now be added the name of Elizabeth, the Princess of Roumania, who has trans

NewNHAM has now taken its rightful name lated a set of Roumanian poems into German,

of“ College,” and its girl undergraduates fill and has published them through a Leipzig firm

both its North and South Halls, for it has had under the pseudonym of “Carmen Silva.”

to be doubled since it began. An amusing anIn accordance with one of the last wishes daughter has made herself almost a necessity

ecdote is told of the way in which the Premier's expressed by Thomas Carlyle, a tree has been

in every part of the college life. How she fills planted at Haddington on the site of the house

her place in the highest section of it is known in which John Knox was born, and within view

to all ; but a few months ago the gas in a lecof the churchyard where Mrs. Carlyle lies

ture-room went out, and at once rose the buried. The expense, including that of an en

familiar cry.

* Where's Miss Gladstone?" closure and a suitable inscription, will be de

She was the one to set everything right. frayed by a niece of Carlyle.

Following upon the unfavorable disclosures The researches of Mr. Walter Rye in the concerning the management of the Biblioteca

Record office, in reference to the identity of Vittorio Emmanuele at Rome, the Italian Gov. the name of Chaucer's grandfather, discloses ernment has appointed a commission, consist- the fact that John Chaucer-no doubt John, the ing of six senators, six deputies, and several poet's father-was the son of Robert Chaucer, experts, to inquire into the public libraries and and not of Richard Chaucer, who married museums throughout the kingdom.

Robert's widow. Also that this Robert Chau. It has been stated that, by the reception of

cer had a house in Ipswich, so that, with ChauM. Rousse, who succeeds Jules Favre, the forty Colchester, of which he was a burgess in 24

cers at Norwich, and Gerard le Chaucer at chairs at the Académie Française are now all filled for the first time for thirty years.

Edw. I., A.D. 1296, the poet's family probably

This is true ; but at the same time it may be men

belonged to the Eastern counties, and not to

Kent. tioned that M. Emile Ollivier, who was elected so long ago as April, 1870, has never yet been In order to make English people better acformally admitted, for reasons which are well quainted with the poetry of Mr. Walt Whitman, known.

it is proposed to reprint the essay prefixed by The total number of students at the German

Mr. Whitman to the first edition of " Leaves universities during the winter term of 1880–81 of Grass” (1855), which is considered a suitable amounts to 21,164. Berlin takes the lead with

statement of his aims and ideas from the poet's 4107 ; Leipzig has 3326 ; Munich, 1890 ; Bres

own pen.

Additional interest attaches to it lau, 1281 ; Halle, 1211; Tübingen, 1074 :

from the fact that, except in Mr. Rossetti's Göttingen, 959 ; Würzburg, 921 ; Bonn, 887 ;

“ Selections" (now out of print), the essay has Königsberg, 788 ; Strassburg, 745 ; Marburg,

not been republished. It is not contained in 604 ; Greifswald, 599; Heidelberg, 543 ;

the author's edition of “complete" works now Erlangen, 473 ; Freiburg, 443 ; Jena, 438 ; in circulation. --Athena um. Giessen, 391 ; Kiel, 284; Rostock, 200.

MR. TENNYSON has given careful and full In explanation of Carlyle's ill-natured re- readings of his chief dialectal poems to the marks in his Reminiscences about Charles Nestor of phoneticians, Mr. Alexander J. Ellis, Lamb, the following story is told. The two the present President of the Philological Sowere once members of a party who were taken ciety. Mr. Ellis has carefully corrected his to see a pen of exceptionally fine game-fowls. previously prepared phonetic copies of Mr.

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Tennyson's texts by the Laureate's own pro

SCIENCE AND ART. nunciation, so that his very tones and accent A NEW REPEATING RIFLE.-The Prussians, will be reproducible to all time from Mr. Ellis's who were the first to demonstrate in actual copies, as music is from notes. These copies warfare the superiority of breech-loading firewill be printed in the fifth part of Mr. Ellis's

arms over those loaded from the muzzle, are great work on Early English Pronunciation for again to the fore with a repeating rifle, which the Philological, Early English Text, and New is likely to be adopted by the German army. Shakspeare Societies, which will contain the

In recent trials of its efficiency, when columns English dialects, and will be published next

of the enemy were represented by targets six year.

hundred metres distant, no less than ninetyThe Philological Society having resolved to nine per cent of the shots fired reached their allow the reformed spelling of which it has ap- destination. With the marksmen dispersed in proved to be used in its publications by any skirmishing order, and with the targets sepaof its members, Mr. Henry Sweet, one of the rated so as to represent individual soldiers, society's vice-presidents, who edits the Monthly eighty-five per cent of the bullets took effect. Abstract of its Proceedings, has adopted the re- Further trials showed that the mechanism was formed spelling, and cut out the useless vow- not liable to derangement by contact with els, etc., which the society has condemned. earth or other accidents. We trust that it may Members are accordingly informed that “the be a long time before this new weapon is papers red wer'' so and so ; that " Mr. Sweet brought to bear upon any but dummy soldiers. thoht it probabl that . his erlier views,"

RABIES IN DOGS.-M. Pasteur, an eminent etc. ; that they hav onse been ;' that the dis. tinction “coud not be anything but a grafic ing series of experiments at the Sainte Eugénie

Parisian doctor, has been making an interestone," and so on, while the forms “uzed,

Hospital of Hydrophobia, which tend to show reazons, theze, servs, sumone, becum," often

that rabies in dogs partakes of the nature of That the changes proposed are in the

fever or zymotic disease. Rabbits inoculated main justified by etymology and the history of

with the saliva of a boy who had died of hydro. the language, no one will deny, while the use of z for the flat sound of s is surely a gain. phobia died in thirty six hours ; other rabbits

inoculated with the blood or saliva of those The unfamiliarity of the new spelling to the

first inoculated died also, and even eye soon stops. We hope that no mere feeling rapidly. M. Pasteur examined the blood of of conservatism or prejudice will prevent a


these inoculated rabbits with the microscope, fair discussion of the new scheme.

and found therein a small organism, not un.We hear that over a hundred thousand like the “micrope" of chicken cholera, but copies have been sold of the six-shilling edition producing different effects. It was also singuof Mr. Tennyson's Works in one volume. lar that poultry when inoculated with this We wish we could persuade Mr. Browning to saliva or blood were not affected by it, nor were issue his works in a like one-volume edition, guinea-pigs.! Again, dogs inoculated with and to add to some of his poems one of those the boy's saliva died in a few days, but withlittle notes which he sends to correspondents out symptoms of rabies. In fact their rapid now and then on the circumstances or object death seems to show that the virus with of his works. One such on his “Lost Leader" which they were thus inoculated had developed and Wordsworth was published a year or two into a quite distinct organism from the germ ago. Another, dated January 23d last, has which produces rabies ; for in cases of the latjust appeared in The Literary World of Bos- ter the disease incubates for weeks (often

“ How they brought the Good News months) before disclosing itself, as if the from Ghent to Aix.” Mr. Browning writes : germ did not take effect until it had produced

There is no sort of historical foundation for a large amount of similar organisms to itself the poem about 'Good News to Ghent' to infuse the blood. [? Aix]. I wrote it under the bulwark of a The COLDEST KNOWN SPOT.-Up to the vessel, off the African coast, after I had been present time Yakutsk, in north-east Siberia, at sea long enough to appreciate even the has often been cited as the place on our earth fancy of a gallop on the back of a certain good where the winter is coldest, while the minima horse ‘York,' then in my stable at home. It observed during Arctic expeditions are bewas written in pencil on the fly-leaf of Bar- lieved to be the lowest known. A correspondtolio’s ‘Simbolj' I remember.” We would ent of Nature disputes this, and ciaims that to fain see Mr. Browning with twenty or thirty Werkhojansk, in north-east Siberia, in longithousand more readers among the thoughtful tude 134° east from Greenwich, and latitude men of England than he has now, and a cheap 67° north, belongs that honor. The lowest edition of his works would give him these at winter recorded at Yakutsk is 77.3 Fahr. below least. - Academy.

zero, and at Werkhojansk, 81 below zero.


ton on

THE NEAREST Star. — In an interesting of anatomy, the general anthropologist will article on Southern stars reprinted in Science, rather turn to the next paper, contributed by Mr. Pope, of New Zealand, describes Alpha Professor Giglioli, and entitled Gli Akka Centauri, the known nearest fixed star to the viventi in Italia.'

It inay be remembered earth. This magnificent double star, he says, that three Akkas, or so-called African pygmies, is the finest object of the kind in the heavens. are at present living in Italy—the two boys Besides being a binary star of a very short who were brought to Europe by Miani being period, every one knows that Alpha Centauri under the protection of Count Miniscalchi ai is our next neighbor among the stars, and that Verona, while the girl is less fortunately placed it was the first to give up the secret of its par- at Trieste. Thibaut, one of Miani's boys, now allax under direct Transit Circle observations. measures 1.42 mètre (55.9 inches) in height, The color of this star is straw-yellow, or some- and it is believed that he has reached his maxtimes golden-yellow, according to the state of imum stature; he is probably about nineteen the atmosphere. When there is haze of course years of age. Chairallah, on the other hand, the smaller star is somewhat more affected by is still growing, and at present measures 1.41 it than the larger. This tends to give it a mètre (55.5 inches); it is supposed that he is slight brownish tint when the sky is not clear. about fifteen years of age. The form of the Alpha Centauri is a star of the second class. skull, judging from external inspection, apIts spectrum is very like that of the sun. Even pears to have increased in dolichocephalism the principal dark lines are fine, and they ap- since the boys were last examined. They have parently occupy the same relative positions as preserved the characteristic three-lobed form do the well-known lettered lines in the solar of nose. Their prognathism is very prospectrum.

nounced ; the mouth is large ; the lips thick ; There can be little doubt, in fact, that the the teeth stout, well separated, and exceedingly physical constitution of this great star is, in white. Tufts of black woolly hair have apmost respects, the same as that of the sun. It peared upon the cheeks, the chin, and the is probable, however, that Alpha Centauri is upper lip of Thibaut. Chairallah, on the conless developed than the sun ; for, as Mr. Proc- trary, shows no trace of hair upon the face ; tor has pointed out, its light is brighter than his visage, however, has become much lengthits mass would lead us to expect it to be, judg- ened with age. They can speak, read, and ing from the light of our sun, as compared write Italian, but have forgotten both their with his mass. While the mass of the star is native Akka and the Arabic which they learned to the mass of the sun as 2 : 1, the light of the when young. The girl at Trieste, who is a star is to the light of the sun as 3:1. Now, if domestic servant with Signora Gessi, has not it be true, as physicists have good grounds for had the advantages of education, and can believing, that the sun is, and has been, very neither read nor write, but she can speak slowly but surely losing his heat, just as our Italian and a little German-languages which earth has most certainly lost an enormous she hears daily in the house. It is presumed amount of hers, there must have been a time that she is about fifteen years of age ; her pres. when the sun and his system were less de- ent height is 1.34 mètre (52.7 inches). All the veloped, but far hotter and brighter than they three Akkas have good health, and are described are now-when they formed, probably, a white as being generally well behaved, but exceedstar--that is to say, there was, quite possibly, ingly childish in their tastes. As they are the a time when the light from our sun bore the only representatives of their race in Europe, same relation to his mass as the light from Professor Giglioli's paper is very welcome to Alpha Centauri bears now to its mass. We anthropologists. may also believe that matters are less advanced in the planets (if there are any) of this

HYDROPHOBIA.-M. Pasteur, of the Sainte neighboring system than they are with us.

Eugènie Hospital, Paris, has recently been

carrying on some curious and interesting exTHE AFRICAN PYGMIES IN ITALY. - The periments bearing upon the causes of the terlast number of Professor Mantegazza's Ar- rible malady hydrophobia. He inoculated chivio per l' Antropologia is mainly devoted to several rabbits with the saliva of a patient who two papers, but these, with the Proceedings of had died of the disease, with the result that the Italian Anthropological Society, occupy they became paralyzed in a few hours, and nearly 200 pages. The number opens with an eventually died of asphyxia. But they showed elaborate memoir by Dr. Regalia, of Florence, no traces of rabies. They thus appeared to in which he describes several cases of abnormal be affected with some unknown form of the vertebræ in the human subject, and offers disease, although M. Pasteur is not inclined, some ingenious suggestions as to the interpre- without further inquiry, to assert positively tation of the phenomena. While this technical that it is distinct from hydrophobia. The most monograph will commend itself to the student noteworthy result of his experiments lies in the electricity for keeping uniform time. Pneumachine in question is intended for Palermo,


discovery of peculiar microscopic organisms in gas. They average eight feet in diameter, and the blood of the inoculated animals. If it be are made of wrought-iron strong enough to proved that hydrophobia is accompanied by a resist the pressure of the gas from within, and similar appearance, there will be some ground the buffetings of the waves without. Each buoy for hoping that science may find a way to grap- will hold sufficient gas to feed a lanıp for ten ple with it.

weeks. The authorities at the Trinity House DETECTIVE CAMERA.-A clever little con

have tested the system with success, and under trivance, called the Detective Camera, was

their auspices it is to be much extended. The gas lately brought before the London Photographic

-distilled from the refuse of shale-oil --will be Club. Its purpose is to enable a person to

made on shore, and carried out to the various take photographic “ shots" at any desired sub- buoys by means of a tender. The charging ject, without anybody but himself being cogni- operation occupies but a few minutes for each zant of the operation. In outward appearance

beacon ; and the cost of each light is twopenceresembles a square case, and can be disguised halfpenny per day of twenty-four hours. as a portmanteau, a shoeblack's box, or even

A GIGANTIC JAPANESE CUTTLEFISH.-M. a book. The operator places it upon the Hilgendorf describes (Sitzungsber. Gesellsch. ground, or holds it under his arm, the pressure Naturf. Freunde zu Berlin, 1880) a gigantic of a pneumatic ball opening or closing the hid-cuttlefish, which was captured in the Japanese den lens at the required moment. Several sea in 1873, and exhibited in Yedo for money amusing street scenes have been thus secured,

as a curiosity. It did not attain the size of the which bear evidence that the models had no

specimens obtained some years ago off the idea that their images were being so uncere- coast of Newfoundland, some of which were moniously stolen.

estimated to exceed 50 feet in total length, inPhysioloGY OF RECREATION.- In a lecture cluding the long tentacular arıns, while indisby Dr. Romanes, of London, before the Na- putable measurements of one specimen give tional Health Society, the physiology of re

the length of the body as 94 feet, and that of creation was briefly described as consisting

the long arms at 30 feet, making nearly 40 feet merely in a rebuilding up, reforming or recre

in all. The Japanese cuttlefish was, however, ation of organs and tissues that have become

a sufficiently formidable animal ; the length of partly disintegrated by the exhausting effects

its body (the head estimated) was about 74 feet, of work. It thus appears that the one essential

and that of the longest arm preserved, 65 feet. principle of all recreation must be variety-that The long tentacles had been cut off, but M. is, the substitution of one set of activities for Hilgendorf estimates that when they were peranother, and consequently the successive fect, the total length of the animal must have affording of rest to bodily structures as they

been at least 20 feet. He was at first inclined become successively exhausted ; and so the

to refer this cuttlefish to the genus Ommas. undergraduate finds recreation in rowing, be trephes, but, on further consideration, makes it cause it gives his brain time to recover its ex- the type of a new genus, and names it Megahausted energies, while the historian and the

teuthis Martensii. The generic name is already man of science find mutual relief to their re

preoccupied by Mr. Savill Kent's Megaloteuthis, spective faculties in each other's labors. proposed for one of the Newfoundland speci.

mens, and it is a question whether the characARTIFICIAL SNOW.-A machine for making ters indicated by M. Hilgendorf are sufficient artificial snow has lately been perfected in Eng- to separate the Japanese species generically land. The question may possibly be asked, from Architeuthis, Steenstr. Nevertheless the Of what use can such a contrivance be, when record of the occurrence of a gigantic squid in the supply of the natural commodity is now- the Japanese seas is of interest. adays so far above what we care about? We

PNEUMATIC CLOCKS.-We find in a French are apt to forget that in many countries snow

journal an account of the new principle of is a luxury. In the bazaars of Cabul, for in

time-keeping, which some think will supplant stance, it is sold as such ; and mixed with ordinary clockwork, and supersede the use of sherbet, it forms a favorite drink. The

matic clocks prevent all causes of irregularity, where frost is rarely experienced.

of which the principal has been hitherto the imILLUMINATED BUOYS.—Pintsch's system of possibility of finding a force equable and conillumination by oil-gas, which has now been stantly the same. In these clocks there is a adopted by many of the railway companies for single movement and a unique force, which lighting their carriages, has recently been ap- causes the large hands of the immense public plied to a very novel but useful purpose, dial, as well as the delicate needles of the prinamely, the illumination of buoys. These vate salon, to proceed uniformly. Though floating beacons contain their own supply of there may be hundreds of dials, and some


thousands of private timepieces, the pneumatic 0.0002 to 0.0003 mm. Vapors of nitric acid, force, augmented at times in a fixed propor- sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, sulphur, etc., tion, will never be otherwise than uniform, and produced under the microscope with a glowing the movement one. The invention, however, platinum wire, showed like moving particles. is not new. The public might have seen the With water vapor, the author saw only a weak pneumatic clocks working at the Exhibition of mobile shimmer, 1878, and during the last three years they have

The STINGING NETTLE.-We may find a been used in Austria with the greatest success.

fair starting point for our researches into the A company has been formed in Paris, and in

movements and internal activities of living beseveral of the arrondissements is already at

ings in a simple study of the actions which the work successfully. The principle simply is to

microscope reveals to us as occurring within compress air by powerful air-pumps, and store it

the tissues of well-known plants. For inin immense reservoirs of sheet-iron, and thence

stance, there is no structure which makes a distribute by pipes. Every minute there will

more pronounced appeal to us in the way of be distributed from the supply-reservoir into

painful practical botany than the stinging hair the pipes fitted up for the public clocks, as

of a nettle. A nettle hair is an appendage of well as the timepieces of apartments, a volume

the nettle leaf, but, unlike the ordinary hairs of compressed air of a cubic metre and a half,

which we see coating the surface of the many capable of exercising a pressure sufficient to

leaves, it possesses at its base a kind of gland make advance for a minute the hands of all' the

or secreting structure, which manufactures the clocks. This operation, repeated ever so many

irritating fluid that is practically the nettle's times, and even for years, will always be alike.

poison. The point of this hair is extremely The hands of the clocks will always advance at

delicate. The slightest touch breaks the point, the same time, and without there being any

and the poison fuid with which the hair is remounting, regulating, or cleaning. A sim

charged at once flows into the skin, and prople pipe, grafted on the principal branches of

duces there the characteristic pain and afterair distribution, will set all the clocks of your

effects. Thus a nettle stings as a serpent house, if you wish it, in immediate contact with

stings ; both possess an apparatus consisting the central reservoir. Without removal, with

of a poison-gland and a fang-the latter being out the expense of fitting up, in return for a

the “hair'' in the nettle, and a hollow tooth in few centimes of payment per day, you will

the snake. But the living nettle hair has a have at home, during some years, the exact

more curious aspect and history than those inand invariable time. A day will soon come cluded in the recital of its offensive powers. when it will be sufficient to turn a tap in order

When placed under a sufficiently high power that every citizen, on the first or sixth story,

of the microscope, the nettle hair, which, like may have at his house the town-time. The

the nettle itself, might be regarded as an inert company will furnish the domestic timepieces

structure exhibiting no sign of life or activity, as they furnish the dials of the public streets,

is seen to be a perfect centre of curious and inthat is to say, gratuitously. Thus the public

teresting movements. The contents of the will have for a few francs not only their gas hollow nettle hair-or, more strictly speaking, and water, but also the hour of the day by

its lining-are seen to exist in a state of con. means of a tap. The plan is ingenious. It

tinual motion. There are waves of contraction will not be easy to secure either this uniformity

which roll like the billows of the ocean along of pressure or freedom from accidents, which

the whole length of the hair ; and there are are of little consequence in one house, but would

minor streams of granules which hurry here be mischievous if overtaking a whole parish.

and there with varying speed through the SMOKE UNDER THE MICROSCOPE. Herr

substance of its interior. Main currents may Bodaszewsky, of Lemberg, has lately observed

be traced around the margin of the structure, various kinds of smoke with a microscope

and that there are many minor currents hidmagnifying 100 times. The smoke having

den from the highest powers of our best microbeen brought into a preparation glass for micro- scopes no one may doubt. Thus the nettle scopic study of liquids, and illuminated with

hair is a very centre of active movements and sun or electric light concentrated with a lens,

of an incessant circulation of its particles and one sees the particles dancing about, or cling

fluid, such as we could not dream existed within ing momentarily to the glass ; they are spher

the apparently stable and inert plant-form.ical, appear bright gray on a dark ground, by

Science for All. reflected light, and, owing to irradiation, much THE CAUSES of Myopia.—There may be, larger than when illuminated by a mirror from and doubtless is, some modicum of truth in the below (i.e., by transmitted light), when they opinion recently given by an ophthalmic surappear as extremely small dark specks. The geon respecting the boys at Wellington College, diameter is supposed to be approximately that the public schools are manufacturing a

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