nold to the Pope* (who, instantly kill- the Leonine city, where the basilica of ing him, ended for that time Protestant the Vatican, changed into a fortress, and reforms in Italy)-destroyed Spoleto; held by the Pope's guard, resisted his and returned by Verona, having assault until, by the emperor's order, fire scorched his path through Italy like a was set to the Church of St. Mary of Pity. level thunderbolt along the ground. The Leonine city was taken ; the

Three years afterward Adrian died ; Pope retired to the Coliseum, whence, and, chiefly by the love and will of the uttering once again his fixed defiance of Roman people, Roland of Siena was the emperor, but fearing treachery, he raised to the papal throne, under the fied in disguise down the Tiber to the name of Alexander III. The conclave sea, and sought asylum at Benevento. of cardinals chose another Pope, Victor The German army encamped round III. ; Frederic on his second invasion of Rome in August of 1166, with the sign Italy (1158) summoned both elected before their eyes of the ruins of the heads of the Church to receive judgment church of Our Lady of Pity. The of their claims before him.

marsh-fever struck them-killed the emThe Cardinals' Pope, Victor, obeyed. peror's cousin, Frederic of Rothenburg, The people's, Alexander, refused, an- the Duke of Bavaria, the Archbishop of swering that the successor of St. Peter Cologne, the Bishops of Liège, Spire, submitted himself to the judgment Ratisbonne, and Verden, and two thouneither of emperors nor councils. sand knights; the common dead were The spirit of modern prelacy may uncounted.

uncounted. The emperor gathered the perhaps have rendered it impossible for wreck of his army together, retreated on an English churchman to conceive this Lombardy, quartered his soldiery at answer as other than that of insolence Pavia, and escaped in secret over the and hypocrisy. But a faithful pope, and Mont Cenis with thirty knights. worthy of his throne, could answer no No places of strength remained to him otherwise. Frederic of course at once south of the Alps but Pavia and Montconfirmed the claims of his rival ; the ferrat ; and to hold these in check, and German bishops and Italian cardinals in command the plains of Piedmont, the council at Pavia joined their powers to Lombard League built the fortress city, the emperor's, and Alexander, driven which, from the Pope, who had mainfrom Rome, wandered-unsubdued in tained through all adversity the authorsoul—from city to city, taking refuge at ity of his throne, and the cause of the last in France.

Italian people, they named “AlessanMeantime, in 159, Frederic took dria.and destroyed Crema, having first Against this bulwark the emperor, bound its hostages to his machines of still indomitable, dashed with his utmost

In 1161 Milan submitted to his regathered strength after eight years of mercy, and he decreed that her name pause, and in the temper in which men should perish. Only a few pillars of a set their souls on a single stake. All had Roman temple, and the church of St. been lost in his last war except his Ambrose, remain to us of the ancient honor~in this he lost his honor also. city. Warned by her destruction, Ve- Whatever may be the just estimate of the rona, Vicenza, Padua, Treviso, and Ven- other elements of his character, he is ice joined in the vow--called of the unquestionably, among the knights of Lombard League-to reduce the em- his time, notable in impiety. In the peror's power within its just limits. battle of Cassano he broke through the And, in 1164, Alexander, under the pro- Milanese vanguard to their caroccio, and tection of Louis VII. of France and struck down with his own hand its goldHenry II. of England, returned to en crucifix; two years afterward its Rome, and was received at Ostia by its cross and standard were bowed before senate, clergy, and people.

him-and in vain. * He fearlessly claims Three years afterward Frederic again swept down on the Campagna ; attacked

*“All the multitude threw themselves on their knees, praying mercy in the name of the

crosses they bore; the Count of Blandrata took * Adrian the Fourth. Eugenius died in the a cross from the enemies with whom he had previous year.

served, and fell at the foot of the throne, pray



for himself right of decision between cles of Milan Cathedral in the south. contending popes, and camps against the The emperor, as was his wont, himself rightful one on the ashes of the Church led his charging chivalry. The Milanese of the Virgin.


it came-prayed aloud to Foiled in his first assault on Alessan- God, St. Peter, and St. Ambrose-then dria, detained before it through the inun- advanced round their caroccio on foot. dations of the winter, and threatened by The emperor's charge broke through the army of the League in the spring, he their ranks nearly up to their standard announced a truce to the besieged, that then the Cohort of Death rode against they might keep Good Friday. Then him. violating alike the day's sanctity and his And all his battle changed before own oath, he attacked the trusting city them into flight. For the first time in through a secretly completed mine. And, stricken field the imperial standard fell, for a second time, the verdict of God and was taken. The Milanese folwent forth against him. Every man who lowed the broken host until their swords had obtained entrance within the city were weary ; and the emperor, struck was slain or cast from its ramparts ; the fighting from his horse, was left, lost Alessandrines threw all their gates open- among the dead. The empress, whose fell, with the broken fugitives, on the in- mercy to Milan he had forbidden, alvesting troops, scattered them in disorder, ready wore mourning for him in Pavia, and burned their towers of attack. The when her husband came, solitary and emperor gathered their remains into suppliant, to its gate. Pavia on Easter Sunday-spared in his The lesson at last sufficed, and Bardefeat by the army of the League. barossa sent his heretic bishops to ask

And yet, once more, he brought his forgiveness of the Pope, and peace from cause to combat-trial. Temporizing at the Lombards. Lodi with the Pope's legate, he as- Pardon and peace were granted-withsembled, under the Archbishop of Mag- out conditions. Cæsar's successor" deburg and Cologne, and the chief prel- had been the blight of Italy for a quarates and princes of Germany, a seventh ter of a century; he had ravaged her army ; brought it down to Como across harvests, burned her cities, decimated the Splügen, put himself there at its head, her children with famine, her young men and in the early spring of 1176, the with the sword ; and, seven times over, fifteenth year since he had decreed the in renewed invasion, sought to establish effacing of the name of Milan, was met dominion over her, from the Alps to the at Legnano by the spectre of Milan. rock of Scylla.

Risen from her grave, she led the She asked of him no restitution ; Lombard League in this final battle. coveted no province-demanded no forThree hundred of her nobles guarded tress, of his land. Neither coward nor her caroccio ; nine hundred of her robber, she disdained alike guard and knights bound themselves—under the gain upon her frontiers ; she counted no name of the Cohort of Death-to win compensation for her sorrow, and set for her, or to die.

no price upon the souls of her dead. The field of battle is in the midst of She stood in the porch of her brightest the plain, now covered with maize and temple-between the blue plains of her mulberry trees, from which the traveller earth and sea, and, in the person of her entering Italy by the Lago Maggiore, spiritual father, gave her enemy parsees first the unbroken snows of the don. Rosa behind him, and the white pinna- “Black demons hovering o'er his

mitred head," think you, gentle son

netteer of the daffodil-marsh ? And ing for mercy to them. All the court and the

have Barbarossa's race been taught of witnessing army were in tears—the emperor alone showed no sign of emotion. Distrusting better angels how to bear themselves to a his wife's sensibility, he had forbidden her conquered emperor-or England, or by presence at the ceremony ; the Milanese, un- braver and more generous impulses, how able to approach her, threw toward her windows the crosses they carried, to plead for

to protect his exiled son ? them."-Sismondi (French edition), vol. i. p.

The fall of Venice, since that day, 378.

was measured by Byron in a single line :


“ An Emperor tramples where an emperor and Petit Trianon does not, I assume, knelt.”

and dares not, go so far as to condemn But what words shall measure the darker the naughtiness itself ? And that he did humiliation of the German pillaging his confess it, is precisely the reason for helpless enemy, and England leaving reading him by his own motto “ Trust her ally under the savage's spear ? Byron." You always may ; and the com

With the clues now given, and an hour mon smooth-countenanced man of the or two's additional reading of any stand- world is guiltier in the precise measure ard historian he pleases, the reader may of your higher esteem for him. judge on secure grounds whether the 11. That he wrote about pretty things truce of Venice and peace of Constance which ought never to be heard of. were of the devil's making; whereof In the presence of the exact propriewhatever he may ultimately feel or affirm, ties of modern Fiction, Art, and Drama, this at least he will please note for posi. I am shy of touching on the question of tive, that Mr. Wordsworth, having no what should be mentioned, and seenshadow of doubt of the complete wisdom and should not.

All that I care to say of every idea that comes into his own here is that Byron tells you of realities, head, writes down in dogmatic sonnet his and that their being pretty ones is, to first impression of black instrumentality my mind-at the first (literally) blush, in the business ; so that his innocent of the matter, rather in his favor. If, readers, taking him for their sole master, however, you have imagined that he far from caring to inquire into the thing means you to think Dudu as pretty as more deeply, may remain even urcon- Myrrha, or even Haidee, whether in scious that it is disputable, and forever full dress or none, as pretty as Marina, incapable of conceiving either a Catho- it is your fault, not his. lic's feeling, or a careful historian's

III. That he blasphemed God and hesitation, touching the centrally mo- the King. mentous crisis of power in all the Middle Before replying to this count I must ask Ages ! Whereas Byron, knowing the the reader's patience in a piece of very history thoroughly, and judging of serious work--the ascertainment of the Catholicism with an honest and open real and full meaning of the word blasheart, ventures to assert nothing that phemy. It signifies simply "harmful admits of debate, either concerning hu- speaking" – Male-diction - or shortly man motives or angelic presences ; but Blame ;'' and may be committed as binds into one line of massive melody much against a child or a dog, if you the unerringly counted sum of Venetian desire to hurt them, as against the Deity. majesty and shame.

And it is, in its original use, accurately In a future paper I propose examin opposed to another Greek word, “Euing his method of dealing with the de- phemy,” which means a reverent and bate, itself on a higher issue ; and will therefore close the present one by tramp- is no relation between minds of this order and ling a few of the biiers and thorns of those of common rogues. Neither Tartuffe

nor Joseph Surface are hypocrites—they are popular offence out of our way.

simply impostors ; but many of the most The common counts against Byron are earnest preachers in all existing churches are in the main three.

hypocrites in the highest ; and the Tartuffe1. That he confessed-in some sort Squiredom and Joseph Surface-Masterhood of even proclaimed defiantly (which is a

our virtuous England, which build churches

and pay priests keep their peasants and proud man's natural manner of confes- hands peaceable, so that rents and per cents sion)*--the naughtiness of his life.

may be spent, unnoticed, in the debaucheries The hypocrisy † even of Pall Mall of the metropolis, are darker forms of impos

ture than either heaven or earth have yet been * The most noble and tender confession is compassed by ; and what they are to end in, in Allegra's epitaph, “I shall go to her, but heaven and earth only know. Compare again, she shall not return to me.”

“Island,” ii. 4, “the prayers of Abel linked + Hypocrisy is too good a word for either to deeds of Cain,” and “ Juan," viii. 25, 26. Pall Mall or Trianon, being justly applied (as Perhaps some even of the attentive readers always in the New Testament) only to men of Byron may not have observed the choice of whose false religion has become earnest, and the three names-Myrrha (bitter incense), a part of their being ; so that they compass Marina (sea lady), Angiolina (little angel)-in heaven and earth to make a proselyte. There relation to the plots of the three plays.

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loving manner of benediction-fallen en- The Latin grammar out of which my tirely into disuse in modern sentiment mother taught me was the urth edition and language.

of Alexander Adam's—(Edinb. : Bell Now the compass and character of es- and Bradfute, 1823)-namely, that Alexsential Malediction, so-called in Latin, ander Adam, Rector of Edinburgh or Blasphemy, so-called in Greek, may, High School, into whose upper class I think, be best explained to the general Scott passed in October, 1782, and who reader by an instance in a very little -previous masters having found noththing, first translating the short pieces ing noticeable in the heavy-looking ladof Plato which best show the meaning did find sterling qualities in him, and of the word in codes of Greek morality. “would constantly refer to him for

“ These are the things then”' (the true dates, and particulars of battles, and order of the. Sun, Moon, and Planets), other remarkable events alluded to in “oh, iny friends, of which I desire that Horace, or whatever other authors the all our citizens and youths should learn boys were reading ; and called him the at least so much concerning the Gods of historian of his class." (L. i. 126). Heaven as not to blaspheme concerning That Alexander Adam, also, who, himthem, but to eupheme reverently, both self a loving historian, remembered the in sacrificing, and in every prayer they fate of every boy at his school during pray."'--Laws, VII. Steph. 821. the fifty years he had headed it, and

And through the whole of life, be whose last words--" It grows dark, the yond all other need for it, there is need boys may dismiss”-gave to Scott's heart of Euphemy from a man to his parents, the vision and the audit of the death of for there is no heavier punishment than Elspeth of the Craigburn-foot. that of light and winged words" (to Strangely, in opening the old volume them) ? " for Nemesis, the angel of Di- at this moment (I would not give it for vine Recompense, has been throned an illuminated missal) I find, in its artiBishop over all men who sin in such cle on Prosody, some things extremely manner."'-IV. Steph. 717.

useful to me, which I have been hunting The word which I have translated for in vain through Zumpt and Mat“ recompense" is more strictly that thiæ. In all rational respects I believe

heavenly Justice''—the proper Light it to be the best Latin Grammar that has of the world, from which nothing can be yet been written. hidden, and by which all who will may When my mother had carried me walk securely ; whence the mystic answer through it as far as the syntax, it was of Ulysses to his son, as Athena, herself thought desirable that I should be put invisible, walks with hem, filling the under a master ; and the master chosen chamber of the house with light, “ This was a deeply and deservedly honored is the justice of the Gods who possess clergyman, the Rev. Thomas Dale, Olympus. See the context in reference mentioned in Mr. Holbeach's article, to which Plato quotes the line. ---Laws, “ The New Fiction" (Contemporary ReX. Steph. 904. The little story that I view for February of this year), together have to tell is significant chiefly in con- with Mr. Melville, who was our pastor nection with the second passage of Plato after Mr. Dale went to St. Pancras. above quoted.

On the first day when I went to take I have elsewhere mentioned that I my seat in Mr. Dale's school-room I carwas a homebred boy, and that as my ried my old grammar to him, in a mother diligently and scrupulously taught modest pride, expecting some encourageme my Bible and Latin Grammar, so ment and honor for the accuracy with my father fondly and devotedly taught which I could repeat, on demand, some me my Scott, my Pope, and my Byron.* hundred and sixty closely-printed pages

* I shall have lost my wits very finally when of it. I forget the first time that I pleased my father

But 'Mr. Dale threw it back to me with a couplet of English verse (after many a with a fierce bang upon his desk, saying year of trials); and the radiant joy on his face (with accent and look of seven-timesas he declared, reading it aloud to my mother heated scorn), That's a Scotch thing." with emphasis half choked by tears, that "it was as fine as anything that Pope or Byron

Now my father being Scotch, and an ever wrote !"

Edinburgh High School boy, and my


mother having labored in that book with blasphemy and euphemy, signifies me since I could read, and all my hap- broadly the bearing of false witness piest holiday time having been spent on against one's neighbor in the one case, the North Inch of Perth, these four and of true witness for him in the other ; words, with the action accompanying so that while the peculiar province of them, contained as much insult, pain, the blasphemer is to throw firelight on and loosening of my respect for my the evil in good persons, the province of parents, love of my father's country, and the euphuist (I must use the word inachonor for its worthies, as it was possible curately for want of a better) is to throw to compress into four syllables and an sunlight on the good in bad ones ; such, ill-mannered gesture. Which were there for instance, as Bertram, Meg Merrilies, fore pure, doubled-edged and point-en- Rob Roy, Robin Hood, and the general venomed blasphemy. For to make a run of Corsairs, Giaours, Turks, Jews, boy despise his mother's care is the Infidels, and Heretics ; nay, even sisters straightest way to make him also de- of Rahab, and daughters of Moab and spise his Redeemer's voice; and to Ammon; and at last the whole spiritual make him scorn his father and his race of him to whom it was said, “ If father's house, the straightest way to thou doest well, shalt thou not be acmake him deny his God, and his God's cepted ?" heaven.

And being thus brought back to our I speak, observe, in this instance, only actual subject, I purpose, after a few of the actual words and their effect ; not more summary notes on the lustre of of the feeling in the speaker's mind, the electrotype language of modern paswhich was almost playful, though his sion, to examine what facts or probabilwords, tainted with extremity of pride, ities lie at the root both of Goethe's and were such light ones as men shall give Byron's imagination of that contest beaccount of at the Day of Judgment. The tween the powers of good and evil, of real sin of blasphemy is not in the saying which the Scriptural account appears to

even in the thinking ; but in the Mr. Huxley so inconsistent with the recwishing which is father to thought and ognized laws of political economy; and word ; and the nature of it is simply in has been, by the cowardice of our old wishing evil to anything ; for as the translators, so maimed of its vitality quality of Mercy is not strained, so neith- that the frank Greek assertion of St. er that of Blasphemy, the one distill- Michael's not daring to blaspheme the ing from the clouds of heaven, the other devil * is tenfold more mischievously from the steam of the Pit. He that is deadened and caricatured by their periunjust in little is unjust in much, he phrasis of " durst not bring against him that is malignant to the least is to the à railing accusation" than by Byron's greatest, he who hates the earth which is apparently—and only apparently-less God's footstool, hates yet more heaven reverent description of the manner of which is God's throne, and him that sit- angelic encounter for an inferior ruler teth thereon. Finally, therefore, blas

of the people. phemy is wishing ill to any thing; and

“Between His Darkness and His Brightness its outcome is in Vanni Fucci's ex- There passed a mutual glance of great politetreme "ill manners"--wishing ill to God.

On the contrary, Euphemy is wishing Paris, September 20, 1880. well to everything, and its outcome is

The Nineteenth Century. in Burns's extreme “good manners, wishing well to

* Of our tingle-tangle-titmouse disputes in

Parliament like Robbins in a bush, but not a “Ah! wad ye tak a thought, and men”! Robin in all the house knowing his great A, That is the supreme of Euphemy.

hear again Plato : “But they, forever so little

a quarrel, uttering much voice, blaspheming, Fix, then, first in your minds that the speak evil one of another-and it is not be. sin of malediction, whether Shimei's in- coming that in a city of well-ordered persons, dividual, or John Bull's national, is in such things should be-no; nothing of them

nohow nowhere—and let this be the one law the vulgar malignity, not in the vulgar

for all--let nobody speak mischief of anybody diction, and then note further that the

(Mndéva kaknyopeitw undels).'-Laws, Book ii. s. "phemy” or “ fame” of the two words, 935; and compare Book iv, 117.


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