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SLEEP AND SLEEPLESSNESS. -Dr. J. M.

MISCELLANY. Granville, in an interesting work on this

The Elder Duck.-In a country so poor as subject, says with reference to the difficulty Iceland the down of the eider duck is an appresome persons find in getting to sleep:

ciable source of wealth, and the bird has been “ Habit greatly helps the performance of the initial act, and the cultivation of a habit practically domesticated. Close to every little

handel-stud, or' trading station, if there is a of going to sleep in a particular way, at a par- convenient island, there is sure to be a colony ticular time, will do more to procure regular of eider ducks, and the birds are to be seen by and healthy sleep than any other artifice. The hundreds swimming and fluttering about their formation of the habit is, in fact, the creation island home, or squatted upon its shores in or development of a special centre, or combina

conscious security from the foxes which infest tion, in the nervous system, which will hence

the main-land. From the largest of these forward produce sleep as a natural rhythmical

'duckeries" as much as three hundred pounds process. If this were more generally recog- is cleared annually, the down being worth nized, persons who suffer from sleeplessness

about a sovereign per pound on an average. of the sort which consists in simply being The ducks make their nests among the rough 'unable to go to sleep,' would set themselves

hummocks characteristic of all grass-land in Ice. resolutely to form such a habit. It is necessary that the training should be explicit, and land, laying their large olive-green eggs upon

neat little beds of down, “ so soft and brown." include attention to details. It is not very im- They are perfectly tame, allowing themselves portant what a person does with the intention of going to sleep, but he should do precisely to be listed off their eggs and replaced with

only a few querulous notes of remonstrance. the same thing, in the same way, at the same

When the nest has been repeatedly robbed of time and under as nearly as possible the same conditions, night after night for a considerable replacing it, the drake comes to the rescue, and

the down, and the poor duck finds difficulty in period, say three or four weeks at least."

recognizes his paternal responsibility by furTHE CHRONOLOGY OF BRONZE IMPLEMENTS,

nishing a supply of down from his own breast. -A valuable paper by Professor G. de Mor- How ARTIFICIAL PEARLS ARE MADE.tillet, “On the Classification and Chronology Many persons have no doubt been frequently of Bronze Celts,” has been published in a re- struck with the great beauty of artificial or imcent number of M. Cartailhac's Matériaux itation pearls. Those who make it their busipour l'Histoire de l'Homme. The most interest- ness to produce such articies of ornamentation ing part of the paper is that in which he deals have attained to a high degree of perfection in with the successive development of forms. theirart ; so much so that in 1862, at the London His studies lead him to the conclusion that in Exhibition, a Frenchman who was an adept at France, in Switzerland, and in Belgium the their manufacture, exhibited a row of large real oldest type of bronze celt is that with straight and imitation pearls alternately ; and without flanges at the sides. This was followed by one close inspection, we are assured it would have with a transverse stop-ridge, which was suc- been impossible even for a judge to have ceeded by the true winged celt, and this in turn selected the real from the unreal. Some transby the socketed form. Of still later age, and lations from French and German works on passing probably into the iron-using period, this manufacture have recently been communiwere those celts which he terms haches votives cated to Land and Water, and from these it ap-a type destitute of a sharp cutting edge, and pears that the art of making imitation pearls is never intended for real service, but simply for ascribed to one Jacquin, a chaplet and rosary religious purposes. M. Mortillet's boldest con- manufacturer at Passy, who lived about 1680. jecture is that the latest type of all may be the Noticing that the water after cleaning some simple flat celt destitute of flange or rib, wing white-fish (Leuciscus alburnus), a species of or socket, and formed usually of pure copper dace, was of a silvery appearance, he gradually rather than of an alloy like bronze. Most ar- collected the sediment, and with this substance chæologists have, on the contrary, regarded -10 which he gave the name of essence d'orient this type of celt as the very earliest of all, in- -and with a thin glue made of parchment, he asmuch as it presents the utmost simplicity lined the glass beads of which he framed his alike in shape and in composition. It is, there- rosaries, and afterward filled them with wax. fore, interesting to hear from so experienced The method of making the round bead is by an observer as Professor Mortillet that the con- heating one end-which has first been closed ditions under which these simple celts gen- -of a glass tube, which then, when blown into erally occur lead him to suppose that they are two or three times, expands into a globular altogether of later date than the bronze age, form. The workman then separates the bead, and were probably never intended to be used places the end which has been heated on a either as weapons or as tools.

wire, and heats the other end. This process is

called bordering or edging. The best pearls be said to have necks) and borne away to the are made in the same way, the holes of the bird's previous perch, where the unfortunate tubes being gradually reduced by heat to the reptile was banged against the bough until the size of those of the real pearls, the workman body separated from the head and fell to the taking each bead un inserted wire, and, by ground. The jackass then dropped the head, continually turning them round in the flame of and seizing the body sailed away in triumph the lamp used, they become so true as to be with his prize. Whether the bird had seen the strung as evenly as the Oriental pearls. The snake go under the log and was watching for process of coloring the pearl is commenced by it to come forth again, or whether it knew by lining the interior of the ball with a delicate instinct that the reptile was there, is a queslayer of perfectly limpid and colorless parch- tion that may be left for naturalists to determent glue ; and before it is quite dry the mine ; but we are credibly informed that as essence of orient is introduced by means of a soon as the log was shifted, and before Mr. slender glass blowpipe. It is then allowed to Westendorff or his companion had any idea of dry ; the pearl is filled with wax, and, if in- a snake being in their neighborhood, the jacktended for a necklace, is pierced through the ass was down and had made good his seizure. wax with a red-hot needle. The essence of -Albury Banner (New South Wales). orient, as it is called, is the chief ingredient in the manufacture of the pearl. It is a very val- A CHINESE THANK-OFFERING.-It is considuable substance, and is obtained from the fish ered a benevolent act, and one highly pleasabove named by rubbing them rather roughly ing to Heaven, to give a public theatrical perin a basin of pure water, so as to remove the formance; and wealthy men, who wish to rescales ; the whole is then strained through a turn public thanks for any special piece of goodlinen cloth, and left for several days to settle, fortune, or who cater for popularity, often exwhen the water is drawn off. The sediment pend considerable sums in this way. A rich forms the essence referred to. It requires from Chinaman, in whose neighborhood we once seventeen to eighteen thousand fish to obtain lived, invited us to be present at a performance about a pound of this substance ! Besides the of this kind. He had been very successful in French imitation pearls, as those above de- his commercial speculations, and had recently scribed are called, there are the Roman pearls, obtained by purchase the rank of a high-class which are made of wax, covered with a kind mandarin, with the privilege of wearing an of pearly lustre. But these do not look so opaque blue button on the top of his official well as the French pearls ; while, in a heated hat. At one end of a large open space near room, they are apt to soften and stick to the the entertainer's house a stage had been erectskin. A very extensive trade is now done in ed; and at the opposite side, behind the the manufacture and sale of French artificial place for the audience, a large temporary box pearls.-Chambers's Journal.

was constructed for the accummodation of the

host and his friends. On the appointed day How BIRDS EAT SNAKES. - It has long we proceeded to the place, and were received been a matter of popular belief that the great by our Chinese acquaintance and shown to kingfisher was an enemy of the snake, perpetu- chairs from which we could conveniently surally warring upon the tribe in general, and vey our strange surroundings. In the middle never happier than when dining on serpent au of the box stood a large table or altar, which naturel. It is not often, however, that even groaned under the weight of the good things persons habitually residing in the bush have provided as thanksgiving offerings to Heaven. so good an opportunity as that afforded a few The innumerable varieties of Chinese dishes days since to Mr. Christian Westendorff, of were here fully represented : roast ducks decoJindera, for observing the laughing jackass rated with gilt-paper, sweetmeats of all kinds, when in the act of bagging the game referred cakes plentifully bespangled with raisins and to. Mr. Westendorff was engaged with another currants, imitation little pigs formed of pork, man in clearing some land, and in the course fruits in great variety, pigs' feet garnished with of the day's operations it became necessary to bruised potatoes, and a quantity of dishes whose shift a large log. For this purpose levers were composition and names we had no opportunity applied to each end, and after some straining of discovering, were spread out in promiscuous the log was rolled from its resting place. The and rich profusion. Two large pink candles, very moment it commenced to move, a laugh- decorated with gold, silver, and green leaves, ing jackass, which had hitherto been taking a stood one on each side of the table, and in the deep but unobtrusive interest in the proceed. centre a bronze basin containing burning inings, made a swoop down from the limb of an cense was placed. The principal compartment adjacent tree, and seized a large snake which in which we sat was flanked on either side by had been lying under the log. The snake was Iwo small boxes in front of which were screens gripped by the back of the neck (if snakes can which, while concealing the inmates from the

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vulgar gaze, permitted from within a view of then withdrawn dried, and beaten over cloths, the stage and the movements thereon ; these to detach the myriads of eggs. These are boxes were reserved for the ladies belonging cleansed and sifted, and put into sacks and to the households of our host and his native sold like flour, to form cakes, which are excel. friends. In the mean time tea was ordered for lent eating, but have a fishy and slightly acid us ;

and a servant placed a small table in front flavor. The custom seems to have been long of us, on which he arranged Chinese cups, practised, for it is mentioned so far back as and poured into them some genuine Chinese 1625 by a missionary, Thomas Gage, who, tea, as consumed by the natives themselves. travelling in Mexico, states that these cakes For some time we sat and watched the actors were being sold in the markets.- Journal of and listened to their shrill voices; and we Applied Science. could not help reflecting on the immense gap which separated a performance like what we ArtificiaL LIGHT.- Various opinions have then witnessed from the gorgeous and care- long prevailed as to the relative effect of artifully-planned scenes of a home theatre. The ficial and sun light upon the human eyesight, slage had no wings" to it; and the only en- the majority of persons agreeing, however, in trances were two doors at the back, through this, that whether gas or any other illuminating which the actors entered when their turn agent be employed, the smaller the fame and came round, and retired when they had per. the less intense the light, the better for the formed their allotted part"; the imaginations preservation of good eyesight. The latest of the audience were not assisted by scenery writer upon the subject propounds, however, or stage accessories of any kind ; indeed, the a theory quite at variance with this generallyentire back of the stage was occupied by the received notion, his watchword being evidently orchestra, and by attendants and hangers-on, that well-worn phrase of Goethe's “ Light, more who went about their occupations as if nothing light.” In a paper on “Ocular Hygiene," a else were taking place on the boards. The French savant, M. Javal, asserts that under whole thing appeared childish and stupid to ordinary circumstances we can hardly get too us ; but, considering the length of each princi- much artificial light. He says that a chandelier pal actor's part, set as it was to music-if the carrying a million of waxlights would not give hideous din and jargon can be dignified by an amount of light equal to sunlight. Even in that name-a vast amount of care and trouble a room lit up in an unusually brilliant manner must have been bestowed on the preparation; the pupils of the eye are much more dilated at all events; judging from the attention and than in full daylight, and this dilation explains the delight of the audience, this Chinese opēra the fatigue of the eyes produced by artificial bouffe might be pronounced a success.— Tins. light. Therefore there is never too much-in ley's Magazine.

fact, never enough-artificial light, and preju

dices, without any just foundation, are preva. EGGS OF Insects as FOOD.-“ Ants' eggs,"

lent on this point. M. Javal recommends to the larvæ and nymphæ of these insects, are

persons suffering from certain optical defects, not only good food for poultry, but they are

who cannot work in the evening, two large considered a choice relish by many people lamps, which would obviate the fatigue of spread on bread and butter, and are excellent reading. Artificial light, also, excepting the curried. They are eaten in Siam, forming, electric and magnesium lights, contains fewer with edible birds'-nests, an esteemed article of chemical rays than · daylight. All artificial food, but as they are costly are only obtainable spectra are very dull on the most refracted by the rich. Ants' brood are subject to an im

side ; the chemical rays, the violets and the port duty in some of the countries of Europe, blues, there show a very low intensity.-House especially in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Decorator and School of Design. In those countries they are steeped in boiling water, and a kind of vinegar or formic acid is

THE DECLARATION. obtained. Among the other objects of insect What makes my heart so wildly throb? products useful to man are the eggs obtained I'm glad, riot sorry-yet I sob : in Mexico from three species of hemipterous

What ails me that I cannot rest?

He told me what I partly guessed. insects belonging to the group of aquatic beetles. These eggs are made into a sort of Why will the tears o'erflow my eyes? bread or cake called hautle, consumed by the

It must have been the glad surprise :

Surprise to find I rightly guessed, people, and which form an article of commerce

Delight to hear he loved me best. in the markets. In the fresh waters of the la

A sudden joy affects like grief: goons, bundles of reeds or rushes are laid, on

But with joy's tumult comes relief which the insects (Corixa femorata and merce

To seel all sears are set at rest, naria, Geoffroy, and Notonecta Americana) de

As when he drew me to his breast. posit their eggs. The bundles of rushes are

Mary COWDEN CLARKE,

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THOSE who from however great a dis- ing, weariness had entered into his soul. tance have shared in the long vigil held Great weakness was no doubt one of its in that “ little house at Chelsea,” of chief causes ; but also the loneliness of which so much has been heard and said the heart, the solitude of one whose in recent days, must have felt it some- companion had gone from his side, and thing like a personal relief and solemn who, though surrounded by tender satisfaction when the last bonds were friends and loving service, had no one loosened, and the old man, so weary of the primary relationships left to him, and worn with living, was delivered nothing of his very own still remaining from his earthly troubles. “They will out of the wrecks of life. His course not understand that it's death I want,” was over years ago-nothing left for him he said one of the last times I saw him. to do, no reason for living except the He said the same thing to all his visi- fact that he was left there, and could do tors. As he sat, gaunt and tremulous,

no other.

It is scarcely too much to say in the middle of the quiet, graceful lit- that the whole nation, in which nevertle room, with still a faint perfume about theless there are so many to whom he it of his wife and her ways, still so like was but a name, attended him, with unhimself, talking in the cadenced and covered head and unfeigned reverence, rhythmic tones of his native dialect, to the little churchyard in Annandale which suited so well the natural form of where he is gathered to his fathers. No his diction, with now and then an ab- one now living perhaps, apart from the rupt outburst of that broken laugh which warmer passion of politics, on the is so often only another form of weep- ground of mere literary fame, would call New SERIES.—Vol. XXXIII., No. 6

46

forth so universal a recognition-cer- dence supplied by his own hand, and it tainly no one whose voice had been will be very difficult to convince the silent and his visible presence departed world that we who think differently of for so long before the actual ending of him knew better than himself. Neverhis pilgrimage.

theless, there will no doubt be many It is possible that any disturbance so eager to undertake this forlorn hope, soon of the religious calin and subduing and vindicate the character he has asinfluence of that last scene would have persed. seemed harsh and unseasonable ; but It is scarcely possible that there should there is more than any mere sentimental not be an outcry of derision at. such an objection to the immediate awakening idea. Who, the reader will say, could of contending voices over the Master's know him so well as himself ?-which is grave, in the feeling with which we re- unanswerable, yet a fallacy, so far as I gard the book which has been so hur- can judge. No one has ever set a hisriedly placed in our hands-the last ut- torical figure so vividly before us, with terance of the last prophet and sage, dauntless acceptance of its difficulties, what should have been the legacy of and bold and strong presentment of an ripest wisdom, and calm at least, if not individual, be he the real Cromwell or benignant philosophy. That Carlyle Frederick or not, yet an actual and livwas not one who regarded contemporary ing Somebody not unworthy (if not per: progress with satisfaction, or had any haps too worthy) of the name. But in optimist views about the improvement this latest work of all, where he has to of the world, we were all well aware. deal not with historical figures but with But never had his great spirit stooped those nearest and most dear to himself, to individual contention, to anything I venture to think, with respect, that that could be called unkindness; and Carlyle has failed, not only in the drawwe had no reason to expect that any ing of himself (made in one sad and honest and friendly contemporary on fevered mood) but also of those in whom opening this posthumous record should he was most deeply interested and ought receive a sting. But now the book, so to have known best. Nothing can long mysteriously talked of, and to prove more curiously the inadequacy of which we have looked as, when it should personal impressions and highly-wrought come, one of the most touching and im- feeling to reach that truth of portraitpressive of utterances, has burst upon ure which the hand of an unconcerned the world like a missile, an angry spectator will sometimes lightly attain. meteor, rather than with the still shining The only figure in this strange and unas of a star in the firmament which we happy book which has real life in it, and had looked for. The effect would stands detached all round from the scarcely have been more astonishing if, troubled background, is that of the man after having laid down that noble and who was least to the writer of all the mournful figure to his everlasting rest, group, most unlike him, the vivacious, he had risen again to pour forth an out- clear-headed, successful, and brilliant burst of angry words upon us. Had we Jeffrey, a man in respect to whom there been less near the solemn conclusion, was no passionate feeling in his mind, perhaps the shock and surprise would neither love, nor compunction, nor inhave been less painful ; and it is possi- dignant sympathy, nor tender self-identible, as some one says, that “ a hundred fication. The sketch of James Carlyle, years hence people will read it with the which for some time has been talked same interest." But this has little to about in literary circles, with bated do with the immediate question, which breath, and which critics in general, is that this record of so much of his confused and doubtful of their own life reveals to us a far less impressive opinion, have turned to as the one thing and dignified personality than that exquisite in these reminiscences, is after which-in the reverential myths and all not a portrait but a panegyric-a legends of the gods of which Carlyle in strange outpouring of love and grief, in his old age has been so long the subject which the writer seems half to chant his -his generation has attributed to him. own funeral oration with that of his It is hard to contend against the evi- father, and enters into every particular

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