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consists in living from hand to mouth, human interest of any kind—but that and refusing to look either behind or they were men, men of like passions before--those who put names and for- with ourselves, capable of the same mulæ in the place of facts—those who faults and the same virtues--men, too, of see in the world only courts and diplo- kindred speech, of kindred blood-kinsmatists, and who shut their eyes to the men simply further reinoved in time and existence of nations—are exactly the place than some other kinsmen, but men whose wisest forebodings have the whose deeds, and sayings, and writings strongest gift of remaining unfulfilled. are as full of practical teaching for us
And now it may be asked, if we wish as are the deeds and sayings and writings to give our studies this practical turn, if of the men who trod our own soil. Bewe wish our examination of the past to fore the great discoveries of modern supply us with a real teaching of expe- science-before that greatest of all its rience for the present and the future, discoveries which has revealed to us the over what range of time are our re- unity of Aryan speech, Aryan religion, searches to be spread? I answer, over and Aryan political life-the worn-out the whole range of the history of man as superstitions about ancient" and a political being. In other words, we “modern” ought to pass by like the can acknowledge no limit which would spectres of darkness. Does any of you shut out any period of the history of specially give his mind to so-called Aryan man on European soil. Let Bir- ancient” studies, to the study of old mingham set the example which is so Greece or of old Italy? Does any man deeply needed in older seats of histori. reproach such an one with wasting his cal study. Let there be one spot where time on studies which are unpractical, history shall be studied, but where the because they are “ ancient ?” Let him delusive words " ancient” and “mod. answer, in the spirit of Arnold, that his ern” shall never be heard.
studies are pre-eminently practical, benot far from Rugby; some echoes of cause they are pre-eminently modern. the voice of Arnold may have reached Does any man give his mind specially you. You may have picked up some to the tongues of old Greece and of old fragments of the teaching which that Italy? Does any man reproach him great master put forth with so clear a with devoting himself to the study of voice, but in which he has found so few tongues which are dead? Let him andisciples. To some he lives in his per- swer, in the same spirit, buč with a sonal memory ; to me he lives only in depth of life and knowledge on which his writings. But it was from those men in Arnold's day had hardly enterwritings that I first learned that history ed, that he gives his mind to those was one, that it could be rightly learned tongues, because they are of all tongues only by casting aside artificial and un- the most truly living. Grasp well the natural distinctions, and by grasping truth that the history of old Greece, of the great though simple truth, that the old Italy, is simply an earlier part of history of European man is one unbro- the same tale as the history of our own ken tale. That history is one unbroken island. Grasp well the truth that the series of cause and effect, no part of worthies of those older times, the men which can be rightly understood if any who strove for freedom at Athens, in other part is wholly shut out from the Achaia, and at Rome, were forerunners survey. Let there be one spot where and fellow-workers of the men who the vain forinulæ of “ancient” and have fought, and who are still fighting, “ modern history, of “dead” and the same battle among ourselves. The "living" languages, shall be forever Acta Sanctorum of political progress is unknown. Take in the simple fact that imperfect if we leave out its earliest the so-called “ ancients” were not be- chapters. We must remember Periklês ings of some other order--perhaps and Titmoleôn, Aratos and Philopoidemi-gods surrounded by superhuman mên, Caius Licinius and Tiberius Gracmystery, perhaps benighted savages who chus, alongside of our Godwines and knew not the art of getting up good col- our Simons, our Hampdens and our liery accidents, perhaps mere names Chathams, our Washingtons and our which seem lie beyond the range of Hamiltons, and their compeers of our own day whom I will not name. But glian, of Mercian, soil took the name of some one will say, What can great king- the gens of the Beormingas. Only, while doms, great confederations, under a the Claudian gens, as a gens, remained northern sky, learn from small city far more famous than the local division commonwealths under a southern sky? which bore the Claudian name, the Much every way ; if only this, that we home of the Beormingas has certainly may learn how many different shapes become far more famous than the Beorthat which is essentially the same may mingas themselves. take under varying circumstances of But some will say, Can a man learn time and place. No fact, no period, all history, from the first glimmerings of in history can exactly reproduce any political history in old Greece to the last earlier fact or period, if only because political question of our own day? I that fact or period has already gone be- trow not, if by learning is meant masterfore it. Between a great kingdom un- ing thoroughly in detail from original der a northern sky and a small com- sources. Life is too short for any such monwealth under a southern sky there universal mastery, even if a man gives are many and important differences. his whole life to studying history and But there may be none the less much nothing else. Still less can those do so essential likeness, and it is the business who have many other things to do beof historical science at once to note the sides studying history. But, on the differences, and to dig through to the other hand, when I speak of learning, likeness that underlies them. The range I do not mean the getting up a mere of our political vision becomes wider smattering of the whole story and knowwhen the application of the compara- ing no part thoroughly in detail. I say tive method sets before us the ekklesia this, Let each historical student choose of Athens, the comitia of Rome, as in- for minute study some period or pestitutions, not merely analogous, but ab- riods, according as his taste or his obsolutely the same thing, parts of the jects may lead him. Let those periods same common Aryan heritage, as the an- be late, let them be early ; let them be cient assemblies of our own land. We the very earliest or the very latest ; best carry on the tale as we see that it is out of all, perhaps, let there be one early of those assemblies that our modern and one late. Let him master such peparliaments, our modern courts of jus- riod or periods, thoroughly, minutely, tice, our modern public gatherings of from original sources. But let him, beevery kind, have grown. And we feel sides this special knowledge of a part, yet more the unbroken tie when we know well the general outline of the mark that they have all grown by con- whole. Let him learn enough of those stant and endless changes of detail, but parts of history which lie outside his with no break in the long succession, no own special subject to put periods and moment when, as in some other lands, events in their true relation to one one kind of assembly was consciously another. By learning some periods of set aside, and another kind of assembly history thoroughly, minutely, from consciously established in its place. Our original sources, he will gain a power very local nomenclature puts on a new which will stand him in good stead, even life, if, here in Birmingham, the home in those periods which he is driven to of the Beormingas, a spot of conquered learn more slightly from secondary British soil bearing the name of the sources. He will gain a kind of tact Teutonic gens which won it, we remem- which will enable him to judge which ber that we brought with us from our secondary sources may be trusted and old homes a system of political and which may not. family life essentially the same as that Let us for a moment apply these docof Athens and of Rome. We had our trines to the great question of the day, gentes, our curia, our tribes; and they the question of the fate of South-eastern have, like those of the elder nations, Europe, the question whether the New left their names on the soil which we Rome shall be European or Asiatic, made our own. As a portion of old whether the church of Justinian shall be Roman soil took the name of the great a temple of Christendom or of Islam. It gens of the Claudii, so a portion of An- is not my business here to decide for either side. Those are questions on to rule as an Asiatic in Europe, to rewhich it would be unbecoming in the main, five hundred years after his landPresident of your Historical Society to ing, as much a stranger as on the day do more than point out facts, and to when he first came in. But the Euroleave others to draw inferences. I say pean rivals could be inore or less thoronly that, in order to form an opinion' oughly changed into disciples; they either way, a man must have some gen- could accept the faith, they could imieral notion of the facts of the case, and tate the models, they could in sonie that the facts of the case go back a good cases adopt the language of the power many centuries. I do not set much which, even in attacking, they revstore by the opinion of the man who erenced. In the long and stirring tale asked whether there were any Christians of the battle which Constantinople in South-eastern Europe besides" a waged for Europe, we see the Roman few nomad tribes." I do not set much power become Greek; as it becomes store by the opinion of the man who more definitely Greek, we see the other wrote in a book that in the ninth cen. older nations of the peninsula, the Altury the Russians attacked Constantino- banians and Roumans, long merged with ple, but found the Turks too strong for the Greeks in the general mass of subthem. Nor do I greatly value his judg- jects of the Empire, stand forth again ment who held it for certain that every as distinct nations, playing their part British ship that sailed to India must among the nations from the eleventh pass under the walls of Constantinople. century to the nineteenth. Long before To understand these matters, we must this we have seen the Slavonic invaders go a little further than this. Nor will it of the Empire, half its conquerors, half do to go back to times two thousand its disciples, spread themselves over years ago, and then to leap from two the inland regions of the Balkan peninthousand years ago to our own time. sula, while the Greek keeps the coasts The nations of South-eastern Europe and the islands. Presently, in the other are, for good and for evil, what the long great peninsula of Asia, the Turk, intermediate time has made them. The wholly a conqueror, in no sense a disgreatest of all witnesses to the unity of ciple, spreads himself over the inland history is the long-abiding drama of the regions, while the Greek there too keeps Eastern power of Rome. I counselled the coasts and islands. At last, step by you just now not to neglect the study step, the Empire and its European of the early commonwealths of Greece ; neighbors come under the power of the but from the early commonwealths of Asiatic invader. The European invadGreece we must go on. The great work er came to conquer, to settle, but at of Greece, in the general history of the the same time to learn and to imitate. world, was to make the Eastern half of The Asiatic invader came simply to dethe Roman world practically Greek. stroy. He came, neither to merge himThe throne of the old Rome was moved self in the nationality of the conquered, to a Greek city, and the New Rome, nor to win over the conquered to his nathe city of Constantine, became the cen- tionality, but to abide for ages as a tre at once of Roman dominion and of stranger, holding the nations of the land Greek intellectual life. Bear in mind in bondage in their own land. At last how, for age after age, Constantinople a time comes when the enslaved nations stood as the bulwark of Europe and of feel a new strength, a new call to freeChristendom, bearing up on one side dom. This and that part of those naagainst the Persian, the Saracen, and tions, here and there, throw off the forthe Turk, on the other side against the eign yoke; they set up free and national Slave, the Avar, and the Bulgarian governments on their own soil, and they Her Asiatic rivals could only remain as seek to extend the freedom which they abiding enemies, to be driven back from themselves have won to their brethren her walls and her empire, till in the end who remain in bondage. Here are the one of them was to force in his way as facts, facts which cannot be grasped, exa conqueror from without. The Per- cept by taking a somewhat wider view sian and the Saracen strove in vain for of history than is implied in the wellthe prize ; the Ottoman won it at last, worn course of old Greece, old Rome,
modern England, modern France. But
But with nations striving for freedom rather I state the facts only this evening. I than with the foreign oppressor who leave others to draw the inferences. holds them under his yoke. They Some deem that it is for the general think that to give help to the cause of good of mankind, for the special inter- those struggling nations is in itself a est of this island, that the Mussulman worthy work; that it is a work specially Asiatic should reign over the Christian becoming a free people; that it is a European ; that nations struggling to be work, above all, becoming a free people free should be kept down as bondmen who, as they hold, have promised to do on their own soil. Many deem that it it. Here are two ways of looking at a is a specially honorable and patriotic great question, neither of which way is course, specially agreeable to the feel- of much value unless it is grounded on ings and duties of a free people, to help knowledge of the facts. It is not for to keep them in their bondage. Some me to say here which inference is the think otherwise. They think, as the right one. I can say only, study the old Greek thought, that freedom is a facts, and judge for yourselves.-Fortbrave thing; they are led to sympathize nightly Review.
LORD CAMPBELL'S MEMOIRS.
BY A, HAYWARD.
(Conclusion.) CAMPBELL was an unsuccessful candi- bell in the professional move was the date for Stafford at the General Election long-coveted silk gown, which, after an. of 1826. The death of one of the mem- other delay originating with Brougham, bers within the year made a fresh open- he received in June, 1827. His enjoy. ing, but instead of renewing the contest, ment of his new dignity will excite a he sent (he says) the electors a candi- smile, but the naïveté with which his date, Mr. Beaumont, that the world feelings are laid bare constitutes the might see what Stafford is, and not main attraction of the book : blame him for relinquishing it.
“I continue to enjoy my rank much more “On his entering the town by way of fore
than I expected. The very convenience of taste, he gave a £ i Bank of England note to
sitting where I now am is to be envied. Inevery voter who applied for it; and he soon
stead of being jostled and elbowed by stuff distributed as many bank-notes as there are gowns and sergeants from the Common Pleas, voters in the place. They put them in their hats,
here I sit in state-at this moment no one and openly paraded the streets with them by within a yard of me on either side. When I way of cockades. No credit would be given for present myself at the door of the court the voting-money for more than five minutes after usher says, Make way.' A lane is formed, the vote was given. Having voted, the voter
I sail in, strike my flag to the Chief Justice, had a card, which he carried to an adjoining and take part in the line of battle as a firstpublic-house, and which instantly produced him
rate.” eight guineas. When the election was over, Beaumont, in a public oration, told them that
The resignation of Lord Goderich he had obtained their suffrages by means per- principally affects him through the perhaps not altogether constitutional, but he hoped plexity in which it places Scarlett, who the money would do them good, and be of ser: resigns the Attorney-Generalship, but vice to their families—upon which they loudly cheered him.”
resumes it in the course of the following
year (June, 1823), on the resignation of The interval between the death of Sir Charles Wetherell. Lord Liverpool and the Premiership of In 1828 Campbell is named a member Canning was an agitating time for Camp- of the Commission for the Reform of bell. It was upon the cards, he thinks, Real Property, and he had the offer of a that he might have been Solicitor-Gen- Puisne Judgeship in 1829. He stands eral, i.e, in case the Great Seal had been for Stafford again in 1830, and is reconferred on his father-in-law. Scarlett turned : his political principles, or rather simply became Attorney-General, and the side he is to take, being far from the principal benefit derived by Camp- clear, notwithstanding his election at
Brooks's. His doubts are removed by 23d, that he had hurried up from the the passage in the King's Speech refer- Circuit to vote for the second reading : ring to Belgium, and the declaration of “You have heard the division-302 for, the Duke of Wellington against Reform. 301 against-so I carried the bill by go“ My part was taken, and I resolved to
But I did not get a hearing, form a close alliance with those who though I offered myself seven times." were to stand up for the liberties of On the dissolution he is re-elected for mankind." Yet he takes his seat on Stafford by means which he does not atwhat he terms neutral ground, the cross- tempt to justify. bench on the Ministerial side, and distrusts both parties.
' Bribery and treating might be proved
enough to unseat the whole House of Com" November 4.-As far as politics are con- mons; but there is not the remotest danger, cerned nothing can be more calamitous than for by immemorial usage such things are done my situation, or more melancholy than my here with impunity." prospects. The Duke of Wellington seems disposed to establish an ultra-Tory Govern
On the second reading of the bill he ment which I cannot support with honor, and “somewhat impudently took possesthe leaders of Opposition are hurrying the
sion of a vacant place on the Treasury country to confusion and ruin."
Bench, and after two vain attempts manHe thinks that he should have been
aged to catch the Speaker's eye.
“I appointed Solicitor-General on the for- spoke about an hour without breaking mation of the Whig Government but for
down or being coughed down. the underhand opposition of Brougham, . say no more, but this is something, and who disliked everybody connected with better than if I had not spoken at all." Scarlett, and it was as an independent
He was complimented by Jeffrey, member that he was present at the in- who accounted for the coldness with troduction of the Reform Bill, which
which the speech was received by the startles him.
disposition of the House. He had learn· March 2, 1831 (to his Brother).—You musted that nothing is much applauded unbe Radical indeed if Ministers have not satis- less personal attacks. They will listen not the remotest chance of such a bill being to reasoning, but they will not applaud carried by this or any House of Commons. it." Campbell of Islay desired to be You may anticipate the consequence.
introduced to him, and told him that he
was the first Campbell that ever spoke “The sensation produced in the House, as
in the House of Commons more than a you may suppose, was great beyond all example. The violence of the plan rather less. quarter of an hour. ened the alarm, for people felt that it could not be carried.'
“He and I are the only two of the clan in
this Parliament. It is a curious fact that all “ I am invited to-day to meet the Duke of Irishmen are eloquent and Scotchmen very Wellington at Scarlett's. I am not sorry that rarely. I partly ascribe it to our not speaking I have a good excuse to be absent. There is the English language in our infancy and boyno leader with whom I can associate myself, hood, and something to the genius of the and I care not how soon I am hors de combat. country lying in a different line. At the same time he dreads the conse
His style of speaking was not calcuquences of throwing out the bill, and lated for political conflict in excited feels inclined, as a choice of evils, to times, but he commanded a fair share of support and even to speak in favor of it. attention when he introduced the bills
“ March 3.- I was absent from the House founded on the Reports of the Real two hours last night to meet the duke at din- Property Commission, and he gradually
He was very good-humored and unaffected, and laughed like any ordinary man
came to be considered a useful ally or at the dismay of the borough patrons.
supporter in the solid argumentative part “I returned to the House as soon as the of a debate, especially when legal knowlladies had withdrawn, among whom was the edge was in request. He is made Solicipretty and pensioned Mrs. Arbuthnot.”
tor-General on Denman's elevation to On the 5th he reports that the meas- the Chief Justiceship (November, 1832), ure takes very much with the country; and returned for Dudley in the new Paron the roth, that Ministers certainly liament. He was now quite at ease have the country with them ; on the about the Reform Bill, having been (he