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thing morally wrong with you, and your revival—John Henry Newman. Com"natural man'' was provoked into resist- pared with him, they all were but as ance. To speak habitually with author- ciphers, and he the indicating number. ity does not necessarily indicate an ab- The times I speak of are far distant ; sence of humility, but does not encour- the actors and the stormy passions which age the growth of that quality. If there bubbled round them are long dead and had been no “ movement, as it was forgotten among

excitements. called, if Keble had remained a quiet Newman, too, for many years had dropcountry clergyman, unconscious that he ped silent, and disappeared from the was a great man, and uncalled on to world's eyes. He came out again in a guide the opinions of his age, he would conflict with a dear friend of mine, who, have commanded perhaps more enduring on my account partly (at least, in readmiration. The knot of followers whở viewing a book which Ì had written), specially attached themselves to him, provoked a contest with him, and impar show traces of his inufience in a dispo- congressus Achilli seemed to have been sition not only to think the views which foiled. Charles Kingsley is gone from they hold sound in themselves, but to English readers know now what he regard those who think differently as was, and from me or from any one he their intellectual inferiors. Keble was needs no further panegyric. In that one incapable of vanity in the vulgar sense. instance he conducted his case unskilBut there was a subtle self-sufficiency in fully. He was wrong in his estimate of him which has come out more distinctly the character of his antagonist, whose in his school.

integrity was as unblemished as his own. I remember an instance of Keble's But the last word has still to be spoken narrowness extremely characteristic of on the essential question which was at him. A member of a family with which issue between them. The immediate he had been intimate had adopted Lib. result was the publication of the famous eral opinions in theology. Keble prob. “Apologia," a defence personally of ably did not know what those opinions Newman's own life and actions, and were, but regarded this person as an next of the Catholic cause. The writer apostate who had sinned against light of it is again a power in modern society, He came to call one day when the erring a prince of the Church ; surrounded, if brother happened to be at home ; and he appears in public, with adoring learning that he was in the house, he crowds, fine ladies going on their knees refused to enter, and remained sitting before him, in London salons. Himself in the porch. St. John is reported to of most modest nature, he never sought have fled out of a bath at Ephesus on greatness, but greatness found him in hearing that the heretic Cerinthus was spite of himself. To him, if to any one under the roof. Keble, I presume, re- man, the world owes the intellectual remembered the story, and acted like the covery of Romanism. Fifty years ago apostle.

it was in England a dying creed, lingerThe inability to appreciate the form ing in retirement in the halls and chapels of arguments which he did not like, of a few half-forgotten families. A shy saved him from Rome, but did not save Oxford student has come out on its behim from Roman doctrine. It would, half into the field of controversy, armed perhaps, have been better if he had left with the keenest weapons of modern the Church of England, instead of re- learning and philosophy; and wins maining there to shelter behind his high illustrious converts, and has kindled authority a revolution in its teaching. hopes that England herself, the England The mass has crept back among us, with of Elizabeth and Cromwell, will kneel which we thought we had done forever, for absolution again before the Father and the honorable name of Protestant, of Christendom. Mr. Buckle questioned once our proudest distinction, has been whether any great work has ever been made over to the Church of Scotland done in this world by an individual man. and the Dissenters.

Newman, by the solitary force of his Far different from Keble, from my own mind, has produced this extrabrother, from Dr. Pusey, from all the ordinary change. What he has done we rest, was the true chief of the Catholic all see ; what will come of it our children will see. Of the magnitude of the tellectual reaction of Europe, which was phenomenon itself no reasonable person alarmed by an era of revolutions, and is can doubt. Two writers have affected looking for safety in the forsaken beliefs powerfully the present generation of of the ages which it had been tempted Englishmen. Newman is one, Thomas to despise. Carlyle is the other. But Carlyle has The “Apologia" is the most beautibeen at issue with all the tendencies of ful of autobiographies, but it tells us his age. Like a John the Baptist, he only how the writer appeared to himhas stood alone preaching repentance in self. We who were his contemporaries a world which is to him a wilderness : can alone say how he appeared to us in Newman has been the voice of the in- the old days at Oxford. -Good IVords.

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ABOUT a year ago a well-known crick- tilation, and to increased knowledge of eter and schoolmaster exposed several medicine, the average length of human of the evils attending the excessive pur- life has risen. But not only would it suit of athletics at our public schools. rise still more, but other blessings, as His article contained many valuable important as mere length of life, would cautions and suggestions. But it is result from the wide diffusion of those surely impossible to get to the root of active personal habits which impart these evils, and to point out their rem- quicker circulation to the blood, bloom edy, without entering upon a much to the cheek, buoyancy to the step, and wider question, viz., what is the proper elasticity to the mind. place of athletics in life, and especially Fortunately for England there is a in education,

traditional feeling in favor of athletic Boys and men who do not live by exercises. Its youth has still that sure hard manual labor require a large sign of vitality, that it instinctively deamount of exercise in pure air in order lights in the active use of limb and to keep them in the highest possible muscle in the open air. This instinctive state of health and vigor. This exercise feeling, if duly trained and guided, is an ought to be of a kind both to ensure the essential eleinent of national greatness, perfect development of every muscle and and the athletic movement is the outorgan of the body, and also to call into come of this feeling. But it has not active play the mental faculties, and to been duly trained and guided. On the exhilarate the animal spirits. Gener- one hand it has been repressed, though ally speaking, under the conditions of fortunately not crushed. Juvenile merit civilization as it exists in modern has, by an overdone system of examinaEurope, most men and many boys get tions, been made, so far as substantial nothing of the kind. The tendency of recognition of it is concerned, synonythe population to congregate in large mous with excellence in paper work. towns, the multiplication of artificial School hours have often been unduly means of transit, the increased strain lengthened, and many tutors' establishand competition of modern life, the ca- ments have been conducted under cirlamitous change, by which business hours cumstances which make proper exercise have begun and ended later, till crowds impossible. On the other hand, athletof sallow clerks are now released from ics have been regarded too much as an offices after the expiry of daylight for amusement, too little as a means of train. many months in the year, are all causes ing mind and body for the battle of life ; antagonistic to this prime necessity of a the proficiency of the few has been connation which is to be long vigorous. It sidered more than the advantage of the is true that, owing to improved drainage mass of the boy community, and the and purer water, to better food and ven- fashion and extravagance of the day have extended their pestilential patron- and minimum amount of daily exercise, age to our athletes in various objection- both in the gymnasium and in the open able forms.

air, the dress worn, especially during Whose fault are these opposite, but, exercise, the times of exercise and of I think, closely connected evils ?

“lock-up' both in summer and winter, They seem to me to be due to its not and the nature of the games encouraged being generally recognised, by either should be matters not of tradition or parents or schoolmasters, that physical custom, but of careful and loyal subordieducation is a thing which ought to be nation to health requirements; and that as scientifically studied, and as carefully the resulting regulations should not be managed, as intellectual education. If forced down boys' throats as arbitrary some of our most highly gifted youths rules, but taught to them as deductions are growing up with narrow chests, from the most important of all sciences sallow cheeks, and general lack of vital —the science of health. energy, and if, among others, competi- Now I have a strong suspicion that tion in games, like competition in every where the evils of athletics are very prothing else, is running to fever heat, it is minent, these things are not being done. surely the duty of all concerned, not to The physical training received by a large apply empirical or casual palliatives, but number of boys at school is no doubt to investigate the subject from its first not so good as it should be, but still principles.

very good. But this is due, and is felt Mr. Herbert Spencer, in his admir- by the boys to be due, to the system of able essay on "Physical Education, games enforced both by the public has shown how absurd it is to make a opinion and by the boy authorities of the science of the physical perfection of school. In fact boys feel that they are horses, and to let the physical training of getting more good from what masters boys and girls manage itself ; and he has call their “ play,” than from what they exhorted parents and school-masters to call their work"-words often used collect observations on the subject, and in: most unfortunate antithesis ! And to draw careful conclusions from them. again, their physical training and wellMr. Maclaren in his book on “ Training being are often treated as quite a secand Gymnastics" has given us a number ondary matter, both by lesson hours, of valuable facts and reasonings ; but roll calls, and meal times being arranged how many people who have the charge so as unnecessarily to break up games, of boys (I shall say nothing here about and by the cruel and ignorant practice girls) have pursued the subject with any of depriving boys of necessary exercise kind of steady aim, or done more than by impositions and detentions. occasionally regret cases of breakdown And, especially since games have befrom overwork,” or of “games being come more organised and competitive, carried too far?"

health is in a rough kind of way, and There are few, I think, who will not, simply as a means of success in games, in the abstract, admit the postulate that considered in the rules laid down by boy all the arrangements of school life ought captains of eights, fifteens, and (if they to be in accordance with known physio- knew their business) of elevens also ; logical laws, and, further, that boys whereas it ought to be avowedly and ought to be constantly taught these primarily considered by the masters. . laws, and the duty of being guided by I do not believe with Mr. Lyttleton them, and should be made to understand that the nature of the school work done. their connection with the arrangements by boys has much to do with anything of their daily life, and with their own false in the position of outdoor sports. future well-being and happiness. By Boys may say that they like chemistry this I mean that the diet, the hours of or French, when their idea of the former meals, the temperature and ventilation is a succession of explosions, and of the of rooms, the intervals between meals latter playing tricks on a foreigner ; but and work on the one hand, and hard they dislike genuine hard work at one exercise on the other, the length of language as much as at another, and at hours in school, both for the whole day a science as much as at a language. and for each school time, the inaximum But I agree with him in thinking that

all sorts of pursuits--playing on various limited extent, is a good thing. The instruments, choral singing, drawing, practice of schools on this point seems collecting objects of natural history, to vary greatly. It is impossible either carpentry, gardening, etc., should be that all can be right, or that the point is encouraged, so long as they do not in- immaterial. That work so timed, is for terfere with a sound intellectual and most boys, of permanent intellectual physical culture. Resources are valu- good, is at least doubtful ; that it does able for all life, and especially for the physiological harm to many seems pretty leisured life when worldly success has certain ; but that it is eminently odious been won. And the greater variety of is, I think, unquestionable. the pursuits in which a school excels, But the most ill-timed of all school the less danger is there of an over-esti- work appears to me to be that done in mate of purely athletic excellence. the afternoon after an early dinner. It

Prevalent errors, however, upon which is a very good thing to have an hour, at - Mr. Lyttleton did not touch, with regard the outside, of the afternoon, occupied to the spirit and surroundings of school with drawing, singing, English reading work, seem to me to be productive of and recitation, science lectures, lessons much evil. School work is often exces- on musical instruments, etc., which sive in amount. What that amount cannot be better timed, and which serve ought to be at different ages is doubtless purposes of preventing active games a question very difficult to answer, be- from beginning too soon after a hearty cause it has neither been made the sub- meal. But if it is true, and I hear that ject of inductive inquiry, which is al- it is true, that at some schools, on some most impossible, nor of careful discus- days of the week, three out of the four sion at head-masters' meetings. It was, hours immediately succeeding dinner are however, conclusively shown in one of taken up with lessons which involve Mr. Edwin Chadwick's reports, that at serious brainwork, it is little wonder elementary schools the results obtained that work is unpopular. That arrangefrom half-timers bore a favorable com- ments should exist at any school which parison with those obtained from full- must have the effect of forcing the blood timers; and there are many considera- to the brain, when it ought to be doing tions pointing in the same direction, its work in the process of digestion, is viz., that more work in proportion is of itself enough to prove that the elegained from those who work short hours mentary laws of physiology, in their apthan from those who work long hours. plication to daily life, are not yet realCertainly at the period of rapid growth, ised by schoolmasters or by the public. that is, roughly speaking, from fourteen Public opinion is sufficiently alive to the to seventeen, long hours of brain work dangers of infection, or bad drains, or are unnatural and injurious. I think badly regulated diet, and yet in this that any physiologist would agree with after-dinner work we have a cause, me in saying, that to assign more than slowly, but surely and permanently, seven hours to any school day, of any weakening both the digestion and the kind of compulsory, sedentary work, is brain power of every boy who tries to an error on the side of excess, and will do his duty in school, and yet on this bring its own punishment with it. Now subject no note of warning is heard. if the vital energy is being taken up in But let us consider the effect of such an an undue degree by brain processes, the arrangement of hours, in the cricket brain is either unduly stimulated, and season, from the point of view from suffers in later life, or, more commonly, which this paper is written. On half brain work is associated with pain, and holidays boys escape from the drowsibecomes, perhaps, permanently odious. ness of hot school-rooms, from the Nature resents all attempts to violate struggle, against which nature rebels, her laws. It is precisely the same in between the work of digestion and suffiathletics. Cricket and football are dis- cient work of the brain to escape punliked by most boys if they are overdone. ishment, from the unnecessary burden Again, school work is often ill-timed. I of dark cloth clothes, which seems to be cannot believe that, for most boys, work considered necessary for all boys, as before breakfast, except in summer to a well as for all men, who are engaged in

of the year.

labors of the brain-into the glorious seventeen and nineteen should not work liberty of flannels, the free breath of as late at 11 P.M., and occasionally perheaven, and the instinctive joyousness haps as many as eight hours daily. caused by the harmonious action of all Circumstances ought, however, to the vital functions. Can it then be modify school hours at different times wondered at that they should associate pain with their work, pleasure with In summer boys do not need as much their exercise ? It may be said that sleep as in winter, and school may well this blunder of attempting to carry on begin earlier, possibly even before brain work during digestion is not a breakfast, for a time not exceeding an new one, while the inordinate develop- hour. Again, during exceptionally hot ment of athletics is new. Perhaps weather, part of the evening work may so, but my contention is, that the ath- well be thrown into the later afternoon, letic movement is an instinctive protest and part thrown later than usual, so that by the youth of a high-spirited nation the main play may take place, not during against physiological blunders, and that, the heat of the day, but in the delicious when, owing to the increased facilities hours before sunset. of intercourse and the tendencies of the If on these and many other points of day toward competition and publicity, detail the hours and conditions of school great personal prominence in athletics work were so arranged as to be in harhas become possible, they are sometimes mony with the wants and feelings of made an antagonistic power to book growing boys, I am sure, from experiwork, by arrangements which make the ence, that the dislike to book work, latter odious, painful, and unnatural. the depreciation of those who excel in The fact is sometimes lost sight of that it, and the undue exaltation of athletic boys always did hate, and will hate, ex- prowess, would be greatly diminished. cessive or ill-timed brain work. All I am aware that many objections may be that can now be said is, not that they brought to such plans as I have sketched. hate such book work less, but that they One is, that arrangements which may be love and exalt games more.

physiologically best for boys, may not It may then be asked, When is the suit the convenience of masters. To school work to be done? I answer that, this I have but one answer. There is to assign to work three and a half hours no profession which enjoys such a long between breakfast and dinner, two and annual rest from all professional work a half in the evening, and an hour or as the scholastic. Thirteen or fourteen less of lighter school occupation in the weeks of complete holiday, divided into afternoon, is by no means an impossible three nearly equidistant periods, are a arrangement. Deduct five hours weekly boon for which the clergyman, the lawfor half holidays (whole holidays are a yer, the doctor, or the merchant may sheer waste of time), and we have thirty- sigh in vain. But during the intervenseven hours left, exclusive of divinity ing periods of thirteen weeks each, I lessons on Sundays. This I contend is hold that the schoolmaster is bound to quite enough for young boys, or for make his convenience, his dinner hour, growing boys. A sixth form may do his social engagements, and his ,relaxa. more. In fact, unless sixth-form boys tion, absolutely subservient to the welhave to be restrained from doing too fare of the schoolboy. He certainly much, especially when near examina- ought not to be overworked. That he tion, there is probably something wrong should be so is not for the interest of in the extent, times, or manner in which the schoolboy. The schoolmaster is work has been enforced upon them in often unduly jaded and worried, and their previous school life.

the freshness and elasticity which are Another point worth remarking on is the essentials of success, both in throwthis, that a hard and fast line about ing spirit into school work, and in exbedtime, often drives willing boys to ercising a wholesome influence over do work at a time when it should be character, are often sadly impaired by absolutely forbidden, viz., in the hours overdone examinations, and by educaafter dinner. There is no reason in the tional machinery in the shape of reports world why well-grown boys between and tabular forms of various kinds. To

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