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They filled our eyes, noses, mouths, any sort whatever-not only having and ears, and made the snow quite made the tour and the second ascent of black. Mr. Whymper, however, pre- Chimborazo, but also having made en pared his instruments, and was at work route on the 29th of June, the first asduring the whole time we were on the cent of Carihuairazo.-FRANCISCO JR. summit. He did not once sit down to CAMPANA, Guayaquil, July 19, 1880. rest from the time we left the tent in Declared and subscribed at Guayaquil, the morning until the time that we re- this zoth day of July, 1880, before me, turned to it in the evening. He took GEORGE CHAMBERS, H.B.M.'s Consul, the height of the mountain with his ba- Guayaquil.' rometers, and told us that the obser- The collections made on this journey vations he now made agreed very well are numerous and interesting. There is with those which he made upon the first a series of five hundred pieces in potascent of Chimborazo on January 4, tery, stone, and metal, illustrative of the 1880. At 2.30 P.M. we left the summit, arts of the ancient rulers of Peru-the and came down as fast as we could, Incas. Insects and plants have been only stopping a little from time to time collected at greater heights than any one to allow Mr. Whymper to collect rocks has before obtained them in the two at various places. We arrived again at Americas. Beetles were several times the tent at 5.10 P.M., and found it cov- found among the rocks on the very ered with the ashes from Cotopaxi, summits of the mountains, at heights which were still falling, and filled the greater than the summit of Mont Blanc. whole valleys with a thick cloud. On Butterflies were captured as high as the 4th of July we continued the tour of 16,000 feet, and flies even higher. Birds the mountain and arrived at night close were scarce at these great altitudes, and to Tortorillas ; and on the 6th we re- the condor, which is ranked among turned to Riobamba, having had a most the highest of flyers, was generally consuccessful journey, without accident of spicuous by its absence.-Leisure Hour.
BY JAMES ANTHONY FROUDE, M.A.
MY DEAR -:I have told you that that the Pope was the Man of Sin ; and the Tractarians' object, so far as they Davison, to whom I was sent for a understood themselves, was to raise up correction, had not removed the impresthe Church to resist the revolutionary sion. I knew the Fairy Queen pretty tendency which they conceived to have well, and had understood who and what set in with the Reform Bill ; that the was meant by the False Duessa. I read effect of their work was to break the Sharon Turner carefully, and also Gibback of the resisting power which the bon, and had thus unconsciously been Church already possessed and to feed swallowing antidotes to Catholic docthe fire which they hoped to extinguish. trine. Of evangelical books properly I go on to explain in detail what I mean. so-called I had seen nothing. Dissent
When I went into residence at Oxford in all its forms was a crime in our house. my brother was no longer alive. He My father was too solid a man to be had been abroad almost entirely for carried off his feet by the Oxford enthree or four years before his death ; thusiasm, but he was a High Churchman and although the atmosphere at home of the old school. The Church itself was full of the new opinions, and I he regarded as part of the constitution ; heard startling things from time to time and the Prayer-book as an Act of Paron Transubstantiation and such-like, he liament which only folly or disloyalty had little to do with my direct educa- could quarrel with. My brother's notion tion. I had read at my own discretion of the evangelical clergy in the Establishin my father's library. My own small ment must have been taken from some judgment had been satisfied by Newton unfortunate specimens. He used to speak of them as " fellows who turned of living might have been reduced to up the whites of their eyes, and said half what it was if the college authorities Lawd." We had no copy of the “ Pil- would have supplied the students on the grim's Progress" in the house. I never co-operative system. But they would read it till after I had grown up, and I take no trouble, and their own charges am sorry that I did not make earlier were on the same extravagant scale. acquaintance with it. Speculations The wretched novice was an object of about the Church and the Sacraments general plunder till he had learned how went into my head, but never much into to take care of himself. I remember my heart ; and I fancy, perhaps idly, calculating that I could have lived at a that I might have escaped some trials boarding-house on contract, with every and some misfortunes if my spiritual luxury which I had in college, at a reimagination had been allowed food duction of fifty per cent. In all this which would have agreed with it. there was room and to spare for reform
In my first term at the university the ing energy, and it may be said that the controversial fires were beginning to administration of the university was the blaze, but not as yet hotly. The au- immediate business of the leading memthorities had not taken the alarm, but bers—a business, indeed a duty, much there was much talk and excitement, more immediate than the un-Protestantand neither the education nor the dis- izing of the Church of England. But cipline of the place was benefited by it. there was no leisure, there was not even The attention of the heads and tutors a visible desire to meddle with concerns was called off from their proper busi- so vulgar. Famous as the Tractarian ness. The serious undergraduates leaders were to become, their names are divided into parties, and the measure not connected with a single effort to imwith which they estimated one another's prove the teaching at Oxford or to mend abilities was not knowledge or industry, its manners. Behind the larger conflict but the opinions which they severally which they raised, that duty was left unheld. The neo-Catholic youths thought touched for many years; it was taken themselves especially clever and regard- up ultimately by the despised Liberals, ed Low Churchmen and Liberals as who have not done it well, but have at fools. It was unfortunate, for the state least accomplished something, and have of Oxford was crying out for reform of won the credit which was left imprua different kind. The scheme of teach- dently within their reach. ing for the higher class of men was es- The state of things which I found on sentially good ; perhaps as good as it coming up was, thus, not favorable to could be made, incomparably better the proper work of the place. In genthan the universal knowledge methods eral there was far too little intercourse which have taken its place. But the between the elder and the younger men. idle or dull man had no education at The difference of age was not really very all. His three or four years were spent great, but they seldom met, except in in forgetting what he had learned at lecture-rooms. If an undergraduate now school. The degree examination was and then breakfasted with his tutor, the got over by a memoria technica, and undergraduate was shy, and the tutor three months' cram with a private tutor. was obliged to maintain by distance and We did pretty much what we liked. dignity of manner the superiority which There was much dissipation, and the he might have forfeited if he allowed whole manner of life was needlessly ex- himself to be easy and natural. I mytravagant. We were turned loose at self, for my brother's sake, was in some eighteen, pleasures tempting us on all degree an exception. I saw something sides, the expense of indulgence being from the first of the men of whom the the only obstacle ; and the expense for world was talking. I might have seen the first year or two was kept out of more, but I did not make the most of sight by the eagerness of the tradesmen my opportunities. I wished to be a disto give us credit. No dean or tutor ciple. I thought I was a disciple. But ever volunteered to help our inexperi- somehow I could never feel in my heart ence. The prices which we paid for that what they were about was of the imeverything was preposterous. The cost portance of which it seemed to be, and I was little more than a curious and in- and gave its real character to the Oxterested spectator.
ford movement, were Keble, Pusey, and Nor, with two exceptions, were the John Henry Newman. Newman him chiefs of the movement personally im- self was the moving power ; the two pressive to me. Isaac Williams I had others were powers also, but of inferior krown as a boy. He was an early friend mental strength. Without the third of my brother's, and spent a vacation or they would have been known as men of two at my father's house before I went genius and learning. But their personal to school. His black brilliant eyes, his influence would have been limited to genuine laugh, the skill and heartiness and have ended with themselves. Of with which he threw himself into our Pusey I knew but little, and need not childish amusements, the inexhaustible do more than mention him. Of Keble stock of stories with which he held us I can only venture to say a few words. spell-bound for hours, had endeared him He had left residence at the time I to every one of us ; and at Oxford to speak of, but the “Christian 'Year" had dine now and then with four or five made him famous. He was often in others in Williams's rooms was still one Oxford as Professor of Poetry, an I of the greatest pleasures which I had. was allowed to see him. Cardinal NewHe was serious, but never painfully so ;
man has alluded in his “ Apologia" to and though his thoughts ran almost en- the reverence which was feit for Keble. tirely in theological channels, they rose He is now an acknowledged Saint of out of the soil of his own mind, pure the English Church, admired and reand sparkling as the water from a moun- spected even by those who disagree tain spring. He was a poet, too, and with his theology. A college has been now and then could rise into airy sweeps founded in commemoration of hin, of really high imagination. There is an which bears his name ; and the “Chrisimage in the " Baptistery" describing tian Year" itself has passed through the relations between the actions of men more than a hundred editions, and is a here in this world and the eternity which household word in every family of the lies before them, grander than the finest Anglican Episcopal communion, both of Keble's, or even of Wordsworth's : at home and in America.
It seems pre“ Ice-chained in its headlong tract
sumptuous to raise a doubt about the Have I seen a cataract,
fitness of a recognition so marked and All throughout a wintry noon,
so universal. But the question is not of Hanging in the silent moon;
Keble's piety or genuineness of charAll throughout a sunbright even,
acter. Both are established beyond the Like the sapphire gate of Heaven; Spray and wave, and drippings froze,
reach of cavil, and it would be absurd For a hundred feet and more
and ungracious to depreciate them. The Caught in air, there to remain
intellectual and literary quality of his Bound in winter's crystal chain.
work, however, is a fair subject of critiAll above still silent sleeps, While in the transparent deeps,
cism ; and I am heretical enough to Far below the current creeps.
believe that, although the “Christian Thus, methought men's actions here, Year" will always hold a high place in In their headlong full career,
religious poetry, it owes its extraordiWere pasing into adamant; Hopes and fears, love, hate, and want.
nary popularity to temporary and acciAnd the thoughts, like shining spray,
Books which are immeWhich above their pathway play,
diately successful, are those which catch Standing in the eye of day,
and reflect the passing tones of opinion In the changeless Heavenly noon, -all-absorbing while they last, but from Things done here beneath the moon."
their nature subject to change. The Fault may be found with the execu- mass of men know little of other times tion in this passage, but the conception or other ways of thinking than their is poetry of the very highest order. But own. Their minds are formed by the Williams was of quiet, unobtrusive conditions of the present hour. Their spirit. He had neither the confidence greatest man is he who for the moment nor the commanding nature which could expresses most completely their own have formed or led a party. The tri- sentiments, and represents human life umvirs who became a national force, to them from their own point of view.
The point of view shifts, conditions fashions in religion, as there are fashalter, fashions succeed fashions, and ions in other things. The Puritans opinions opinions; and having ourselves would have found in it the savor of the lost the clue, we read the writings which mystic Babylon. We cannot tell what delighted our great-grandfathers with English thought will be on these subwonder at their taste. Each generation jects in another century, but we may produces its own prophets, and great know if we are modest that it will not contemporary fame, except in a few ex- be identical with ours. Keble has made traordinary instances, is revenged by an himself a name in history which will not undeserved completeness of neglect. be forgotten, and he will be remembered
Very different in general is the recep- always as a person of singular piety, of tion of the works of true genius. A few inflexible integrity, and entire indifferpersons appreciate them from the first. ence to what is called fame or worldly To the many they seem flavorless and advantages. He possessed besides, in colorless, deficient in all the qualities an exceptional degree, the gift of exwhich for the moment are most admired. pressing himself in the musical form They pass unnoticed amid the meteors which is called poetical. It is a form by which they are surrounded and into which human thought naturally eclipsed. But the meteors pass and they throws itself when it becomes emotional. remain, and are seen gradually to be no It is the only form adequate to the exvanishing corascations, but new fixed pression of high intellectual passions. stars, sources of genuine light, shining However powerful the intellect, howserenely forever in the intellectual sky. ever generous the heart, this particular They link the ages one to another in a faculty can alone convey to others what common humanity. Virgil and Horace is passing in them, or give to spiritual lived nearly two thousand years ago, beauty a body which is beautiful also. and belonged to a society of which the The poetic faculty thus secures to those outward form and fashion have utterly who have it the admiration of every perished. But Virgil and Horace do person ; but it is to be remembered also not grow old, because while society that if the highest things can alone be changes men continue, and we recognize fitly spoken of in poetry, all poetry is in reading them that the same heart beat not necessarily of the highest things ; under the toga which we feel in our and if it can rise to the grandest subown breasts. In the Roman Empire, jects, it can lend its beauty also to the too, there were contemporary populari- most commonplace. The prima donna ties ; men who were worshipped as wields the spell of an enchantress, gods, whose lightest word was treasured though the words which she utters are as a precious jewel-on whose breath nonsense ; and poetry can make diamillions hung expectant, who had tem- monds out of glass, and gold out of ples built in their honor, who in their ordinary metal. Keble was a representday were a power in the world. These ative of the devout mind of England. are gone, while Horace remains-gone, Religion as he grew to manhood was dwindled into shadows. They were becoming self-conscious. It was passmen, perhaps, of real worth, though of ing out of its normal and healthy condiless than their admirers supposed, and tion as the authoritative teacher of they are now laughed at and moralized obedience to the commandments, into over in history as detected idols. As it active anxiety about the speculative was then, so it is now, and always will doctrines on which its graces were held be. More copies of Pickwick were sold to depend. Here, as in all other direcin five years than of Hamlet in two tions, the mental activity of the age was hundred. Yet Hamlet will last as long making itself felt. The Evangelical as the Iliad ; Pickwick, delightful as it movement was one symptom of it. The is to us, will be unreadable to our great revival of Sacramentalism was another, grandchildren. The most genial cari- and found a voice in Keble. But this cature ceases to interest when the thing is all. We look in vain to him for any caricatured has ceased to be.
insight into the complicated problems of I am not comparing the “Christian humanity, or for any sympathy with the Year'' to Pickwick, but there are passions which are the pulses of human
life. With the Prayer-book for his have given them their immediate influguide, he has provided us with a manual ence will equally forbid their immortalof religious sentiment corresponding to ity. the Christian theory as taught by the The limitations of Keble's poetry Church of England Prayer-book, beauti- were visible in a still higher degree in fully expressed in language which every himself. He was not far-seeing, his one can understand and remember. mind moved in the groove of a single High Churchmanship had been hitherto order of ideas. He could not place dry and formal ; Keble carried into it himself in the position of persons who the emotions of Evangelicalism, while disagreed with him, and thus he could he avoided angry collision with Evan- never see the strong points of their argugelical opinions. Thus all parties could ments. Particular ways of thinking he find much to admire in him, and little dismissed as wicked, although in his to suspect. English religious poetry summary condemnation he might be was generally weak-was not, indeed, striking some of the ablest and most poetry at all.
Here was something honest men in Europe. If he had not which in its kind was excellent; and been Keble he would have been called every one who was really religious, or (treason though it be to write the wished to be religious, or even outwardly words) narrow-minded. Circumstances and from habit professed himself and independent of himself could alone have believed himself to be a Christian, found raised him into a leader of a party. For Keble's verses chime in his heart like the more delicate functions of such an church bells.
office he was constitutionally unfit, and The “Christian Year," however, when appealed to for advice and assistcould be all this, and yet notwithstand- ance by disciples who were in difficulties ing it could be poetry of a particular his answers were beside the purpose. period, and not for all time. Human He could not give to others what he did nature remains the same ; but religion not himself possess. Plato, in the Diaalters. Christianity has taken many logue of the Io, describes an ingenious forms. In the early church it had the young Athenian searching desperately hues of a hundred heresies. It devel- for some one who would teach him to oped in the successive councils. It has be wise. Failing elsewhere he goes to been Roman, it has been Greek, it has the poets. Those he thought who could been Anglican, Lutheran, Calvinist, say such fine things in their verses would Arminian. It has adjusted itself to be able to tell him in prose what wisdom national characteristics ; it has grown consisted in. Their conversation unwith the growth of general knowledge. fortunately proved as profitless as that Keble himself in his latest edition is of the philosophers ; and the youth found keeping pace with the progress of concluded that the poetry came from the times, and announcing that the hand divine inspiration, and that when off the as well as the heart receives the mystic sacred tripod they were but common presence in the Eucharist. He began to men. Disappointment could not chill write for Church people as they were the admiration which the inquirer would sixty years ago. The Church of Eng. continue to feel for so venerable a land has travelled far since 1820. The teacher as Keble, but of practical light “ Highest" rector then alive would have that would be useful to him he often gone into convulsions if his curate had gathered as little as the Athenian. Even spoken to him about " celebrating' as a poet Keble was subjective only. He mass. The most advanced Biblical critic had no variety of note, and nothing would have closed the Speaker's com- which was not in harmony with his own mentary with dismay or indignation. theological school had intellectual interChanged opinions will bring change of est for him. feelings, and fresh poets to set the feel- To his immediate friends he was ings to music. The “Christian Year" genial, affectionate, and possibly instruchas reigned without a rival through two tive, but he had no faculty for winning generations, but “the rhymes” are not the unconverted. If he was not bigoted of the powerful sort which will “outlive he was intensely prejudiced. If you the Pyramids," and the qualities which did not agree with him, there was some