you to catch some alligators for me.' party, but subsequent experience caused

Want me to do what?' he said in as- a different opinion to be entertained." tonishment ; and when I showed him Upon leaving the tambo the ascent the passage in Stevenson he declared it was continuous and very steep, until the was a fiction-a pure invention. I outer range of the Andes was crossed at never heard of such a thing, mister ; about 10,365 feet, whence a descent was and I got no alligators at Bodegas.' made on S. José de Chimbo, and a sub

When next we heard of Mr. Whym: sequent ascent to Guaranda (8870). per he was going up country, with a * The route thus far followed was calltrain of mules, and accompanied by Mr. ed a 'road.' So far, however, as a few Perring, as interpreter, as well as by the miles to the west of the summit of the two Carrels. “We were not so unfor- outer range, it was only a track, or a tunate in the first team of beasts we series of tracks, made by men and hired," he said, “ as we were on some beasts. For a few miles on the western subsequent occasions, though on the side of the pass, and from the summit very first day, and almost in the very down to S. José de Chimbo, the route first hour, one horrible brute managed was over a good made road, which a very to dislodge its load and went careering little additional labor would convert into about over hillocks and among ruts with a road fit for wheeled vehicles. On the my photographic apparatus kicking rest of the route mud was generally one about between its hoofs in a way which foot, and was frequently two or more made me turn hot and cold, and expect feet, deep." that everything would be smashed to All travellers who have ever been in atoms.” On December 15th the party Ecuador have said much about the badleft Le Mona and went to the village of ness of the roads in that country. Mr. Munapamba, and on the latter part of Whymper writes : “ As a general rule, this day began to quit the low-lying land they are worse than none at all. There on the Pacific side of Ecuador. At never has been more than one considernight they were about 1250 feet above able stretch of made road in the counthe level of the sea.

try, and as this receives no mending On the next day they went from Muna- whatever, it is rapidly falling to pieces. pamba to Tambo Loma.

A tambo, What Ecuadorians are pleased to call Mr. Whymper says, is supposed to be roads would anywhere in Europe be an inn. This particular one

could caled tracks-and they are very bad not afford either food or forage, bed or tracks too. I have not myself seen mud bedding. It was not at this time con- on them more than four feet deep, but sidered a first-class establishment by the there are places where this depth is ex

ceeded, and one foreigner with whom I The other method is, by taking a fowl in conversed told me that he did not conone hand and a sharp strong knife in the other ; sider the road was bad unless the ani. the man swims till he is directly opposite to mals vanished right out of sight in the the alligator, and at the moment when it springs mud.” at the fowl the man dives under the water, leav

On December 18th they arrived at ing the fowl on the surface ; he then holds up the knife to the belly of the animal, and cuts it Guaranda, hired a house, and decided open, when the alligator immediately rolls over to make this place a base for attack on on its back, and is carried away by the stream. Chimborazo. On the 19th Mr. Whymper Much has been said about the surprising and the Carrels made a prospecting agility of some of the Spanish bull-fighters, and I have often beheld feats that have astonished journey from Guararda to the " Arenal” me; but this diversion at Babahoyo, for so (sandy plain) on the south of Chimborathe natives consider it, evinced more bravery He says : “The route from Guay

* and agility than I had ever before witnessed. - Historical and Descriptive Narrative of the south and afterward to the east of

aquil to Quito, vid Bodegas, passes to Twenty Years' Residence in South America. By W. B. Stevenson.

Chimborazo, going over, at its highest * During the 212 days which were passed in point, a locality which is called the the interior of the country, there were only Arenal grande (to distinguish it from four at which they found themselves under bowo feet above the level of the sea. Thirty-six in the country), the summit of which is,

the lesser arenales, which are numerous nights were passed at elevations over 14,000 feet.

roughly, 14,000 feet above the level of

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the sea.

This route has been in use back much fatigued. They had followsince the time of the Spanish conquest, ed the route taken on the 19th as far as and is still by far the best way of arriv- the summit of the Arenal grande, and ing at Quito from the coast. A second had then made directly toward the route has been opened in recent years, mountain. They had selected a campviâ Riobamba, Guamote, and the bridge ing-place at a height (so it appeared by of Chimbo (where a railway leads to an aneroid which had been lent to them) Yaguachi, upon a branch of the River of over 16,000 feet, and said that it Guayas).” In returning, Mr. Whym would be very fatiguing to get there, as per's party followed this route, and the soil was sandy, and so soft as to alfound it to be in all respects worse than low one to sink in knee deep. Preparathe old and well-established way between tions were completed on the 23d, but Guayaquil and Quito.

the muleteers would not be away from The object of this day's journey was Guaranda on Christmas Day, and our the close inspection of the route which departure was delayed until the 26th. had been previously determined upon " At last, on the 26th, we started to for an ascent of Chimborazo.

The re

make a serious attempt to ascend the connaisance was satisfactory, though the mountain. Our party was a large one, mountain was cloudy, and the party re- comprising the two Carrels, Mr. Perring, tured to Guaranda ; but while going two Indians as porters, three arrieros, back Mr. Whymper was severely affected and fourteen mules. By the afternoon by the diminished barometric pressure, we got to the summit of the Arenal and had to be supported for a large part grande, and encamped, at 5.30 P.M., a of the way. Whenever any of the party little below the summit of the arenal. were affected from this cause the symp- The minimum temperature at night was toms were intense headache, feverish- 21° Fahr. It was a superb night with a ness, and a feeling of weakness and pros- brilliant moon, and the great cliffs of tration, but on no single occasion did Chimborazo, crowned with their snowy bleeding occur, and in respect to the dome, 7000 feet above us, were indeother symptoms which have been spoken scribably magnificent. of by previous travellers, Mr. Whymper Though they had been very well says it is his opinion that there has been treated, the two Indians deserted durgross exaggeration, and that during all ing the night. Five mules also disaphis mountain experiences throughout the peared. This was not so extraordinary. world he has not known a dozen in- The arrieros treat their beasts with great stances of bleeding at the nose at great brutality, and neglect them shamefully, elevations, and that when such occur- and any intelligent quadruped naturally rences happened they took place with gets as far away as it can from its inhupersons who would probably hve been man masters. The carrying power besimilarly affected at the level of the sea. ing thus reduced, it was necessary to

"Up till December 21st we had not make two journeys from the first camp had anything like a general view of to the place selected by the Carrels. I Chimborazo, although at Guaranda we started off J. A. Carrel at 10 A.M. with ought to have been in full view of the three natives and eight mules.. Carrel mountain. On the 21st it was seen more remained above to cominence the prepaclearly than hitherto, though it was not ration of the camping place, and the free from clouds at any portion of the others returned to the lower station in day. For the first time it was clear the afternoon. The remainder of us enough to render it possible to trace a then started upward, and arrived at the route over the upper part of the moun- second camp at 4.45 P.M. We brought tain and to sketch it. I indicated the up four mule-loads of wood, and left direction to the Carrels that I wished to twelve packages of provisions, etc., in be followed, and started them off in the the depôt below. Then I sent back the afternoon to inspect the proposed line of whole of the mules and natives, and enascent, and if possible to select a camp- camped with the two Carrels and Mr. ing-place, remaining myself at Guaranda Perring. to complete preparations. The Carrels “ Shortly after our arrival all the did not return till the 23d, and came party except Perring had frightful head

19,000 feet.


aches, and felt much exhausted (although rels continued to move things up to the all had ridden up the entire distance from third camp, and as the stock of firing Guaranda), and we retired to bed early, was running low I went down with the feeling incapable of making the least ex- three Indians to the first camp to collect ertion. The height of the second camp more wood, and to inspect the boxes was 16,600 feet above the sea, and the which had been robbed. I dispatched minimum temperature in the night was the Indians upward with loads of wood, again eleven degrees below freezing- but all three deserted and were not again point.

seen. In the afternoon I returned to On the morning of December 28th the second camp. There was a truly the Carrels were somewhat better, and terrific wind in the night, blowing in were eager to be off exploring, so I sent squalls, and for several hours I continthem away at 7.50 A.M. to continue the ually expected that we and all our beascent of the ridge on which the camp longings would be blown away. This was placed, instructing them not to try was the first occasion upon which inconto go to any great height, and to look out venience was experienced from high for another and higher camping-place. wind, and upon the whole we were less They returned at 6.30 P.M., quite ex- frequently inconvenienced by it than I hausted, having made a push toward the had anticipated we should be from readsummit, and reached a height of nearly ing the accounts of other travellers in

I have never before, on the Andes. any mountain expedition, seen men in “ The following morning was fine, such a complete state of prostration as and the Carrels went off at an early they were on this occasion. They could hour with more things to the third scarcely crawl home.

camp. Perring returned at 10 “ The next morning both Carrels with a new arriero and an Indian lad, were still hors de combat, lying down in and two soldiers out of four who had been the tent most of the day. The eyes of sent to guard the baggage. It appeared both were badly inflamed, especially J. that Perring suspected that the late arA. Carrel's. Louis became better towriero was the thief, and had had him arard mid-day, and I sent him with Per- rested and sent to Guaranda. With the ring to fetch up the second tent from help of the new men we got the whole the first camp. They returned just at of the necessaries up to the third camp nightfall, having found it as much as by night, leaving, however, one tent and they could manage to carry. On the the bulk of the stores at the second 31st we were all somewhat better, and camp. as it was evident that the camp was Being now well established and pronot high enough, we started to select vided with sufficient food and firing at a loftier position. Having found one our high station, I considered that we at about 17,400 feet above the sea, might prudently attempt to make for the we returned to the second camp. In summit, and on the 3d of January, the afternoon I heard from an arriero 1880, we started at 5.35 A.M., to try to (who was retained as a courier to go ascend the mountain. At that time backward and forward between Chim- 'there was no wind, and we mounted for borazo and Guaranda) that some of a thousand feet without any great diffithe boxes at the depôt at the first camp culty, excepting such as arose from had been broken open and robbed; shortness of breath. Our course led up so I sent Perring down with the arriero, the ridge on which our two camps were with a letter to the authorities at Guar- placed. On one side of us, and deep anda, asking for a guard for the bag- down below, there was a large glacier, gage. Three Indians had been sent up and on the other some very extensive 10 replace those who had deserted, and snow fields.

It appeared to me, from these were dispatched with the Carrels, the description of Boussingault, to be carrying light loads, up to the place the same ridge which that traveller had which had been selected for the third attempted to mount nearly fifty years camp. By nightfall they returned to ago ; but the absence of precision in his the second camp.

published narrative renders it impossiNew Year's Day, 1880.—The Car- ble for me to be certain. New Sezes. -Vol. XXXIII., No. 4



“If I am in doubt as to the ridge fol- sonable rate. Until 11 A.M. we had met lowed by Boussingault, I am in still with no great difficulties, and up to that greater uncertainty as to the line taken time had experienced fine weather, with by Humboldt. In none of his remarks a good deal of sunshine. upon his expedition have I observed any “We were now twenty thousand feet reference to points of the compass. I high, and the summit seemed within our only know that he started from the di- grasp. We could see the great plateau rection of the Arenal ; but the Arenal which is at the top of the mountain, and grande is a tract of considerable size, the two fine snowy domes, one on its three or four miles long, and at least northern and the other on its southern several routes might be followed when side. But, alas ! the sky became cloudstarting from it. Then again he men- ed all over, the wind rose, and we entertions particularly the height that he at- ed upon a large tract of exceedingly tained, and the nature of the obstruction soft snow, which could not be traversed which stopped him. This causes me in the ordinary way, and it was found great perplexity ; for, at the elevation necessary to ilog every yard of it down, he mentions, there is not, upon the side and then to crawl over it on all-fours. of the Arenal, a place answering to his The ascent of the last thousand feet ocdescription. There are, however, places cupied more than five hours, and it was of that kind considerably lower down 5 P.m, before we reached the summit of than the altitude which he claims to the higher of the 'two domes of Chimhave reached. As it cannot be doubted borazo. that his expedition was actually made “ On the immediate summit the snow from the direction of the Arenal, the was not so extremely soft ; it was possiconclusion can hardly be resisted that ble to stand up upon it. The wind, he over-estimated the height that he however, was furious, and the temperareached ; unless, indeed, the whole moun- ture fell to 21° Fah. We remained only tain has sunk since his time, and this, ac- long enough to read the barometers, cording to my opinion, is not impossible. and left at 5.20 P.M.; by great exertion

“Soon after 7 wind began to spring succeeding in crossing the most difficult up, and at 7.30 it blew so hard as to rocks which had to be passed over just render further progress highly danger- as the last gleam of daylight disappearous. At this time we had scarcely ed; but we were then benighted, and mounted more than a thousand feet occupied more than two hours descendabove our third camp, and as it was cer- ing the last thousand feet, arriving at tain that we could not reach the summit the camp about 9 P.m." on that day, we came down again, hold- Mr. Whymper tells us that the very ing ourselves, however, in readiness to hurried way in which he was compelled start again on the following morning. to leave the summit prevented several

Ascent of Chimborazo.-I started observations being taken which he had with the two Carrels at 5.40 A.M., on

desired to make, and he consequently January 4th, on a very fine and nearly wished to make another ascent before cloudless morning, leaving Perring in he quitted the mountain. In consultacharge of the camp. We followed the tion with his mountaineers it came out track made yesterday, and benefitted by that the feet of Louis Carrel were badly the steps which had been then cut in frostbitten, and he was consequently the snow. At first the line of ascent obliged to descend without first going was on the southern side of the moun- up again. The retreat occupied a contain, but after the height of 18,500 feet siderable length of time, as mules and had been attained we commenced to men had to be fetched from Guaranda. bear round to the west, and mounted By January 12th all the party and the spirally, arriving on the plateau at the baggage were safely got down to the inn sumınit from a northerly direction. of Chuquipoquio, on the east side of the

“ The ascent was mainly over snow, mountain, and several days of rest were and entirely so after 19,500 feet had taken there. They then went on to the been passed. Up to nearly 20,000 feet town of Ambato and procured medical it was in good condition, and we sank assistance for Louis Carrel. Both his in but slightly, and progressed at a rea- feet were frightfully swollen, and when the swelling was reduced the flesh parted ascend toward the summit. The way at in great gashes, producing sores. “More first was over loose stones, but after we than three weeks elapsed before he was had ascended for about 1000 feet we able to walk, and more than five weeks came to snow, and the remainder of the before he made another ascent. We ascent was entirely over snow, with the thus lost an entire month in the finest exception of one or two little places part of our season.

where rocks came through the snow. Six months more passed before another We stopped to eat on one of these little ascent of Chimborazo could be made, patches of rock at 8.35 A.m., and after and this time it was resolved to try to Mr. Whymper had examined his merimprove upon the first route. The fre- curial barometer he encouraged us to quency of the easterly winds, which proceed by telling us that we had allargely preponderate in the interior of ready got more than half way up from Ecuador, had, upon his other expedi- the tent. From this place we saw the tions, induced Mr. Whymper generally sea. We went on again at 9.5 A.m., and to prefer the western sides of the moun- found the snow get steeper and steeper. tains that he ascended, and, in return- We were all tied together with good ing toward the coast, he passed be strong rope in case any one should slip, tween Carihudirazo and Chimborazo, to and except for this and for the things reach the western side of the latter. with which we had been provided I

On July 3, 1880, after having en- should not have able to get along at all. camped at a height of about 16,000 Sometimes it was very cold, and there feet, he again reached the summit, going was much wind, but when we were in the up and down again under twelve hours, sun it was very hot. Whether in the out of which time one and a quarter sun or in the shade the snow was very hours were passed on the top. As there soft, and we sank in deeply, often up to was very general incredulity in Ecuador the knees. This was very fatiguing and as to the possibility of ascending the it was owing to this that we took so much mountain, Mr. Whymper took two na- longer time in ascending the upper than tives with him on this occasion, and, on the lower part of the mountain. To his re-arrival at Guayaquil, he caused break the ascent we zigzaged about, and one of them- Javier Campana-to make at one time came round to the side the following formal declaration before fronting Guaranda, and then came back the British Consul at that port.

to above the place where the tent was print this at length, as it gives, in a few pitched. At last we got on to the top, words, a straightforward account of a and could see the two summits. The remarkable achievement.

snow was very soft indeed here, and we “I, Javier Campana, of Quito, here- went along very slowly, and had often by declare, that upon July 3, 1880, I to stop to get breath. The highest of accompanied Mr. Edward Whymper to the two summits was on our left hand, the very highest point of the summit of that is, upon the north side of the Chimborazo. We were also accom- mountain, and we went to it, without panied by Jean-Antoine Carrel, and by going upon the lower one.

As we apLouis Carrel (Mr. Whymper's two Ital. proached the very highest point we saw ian mountaineers), and by David Bel- that there was something strange upon tran, of Machachi.

Mr. Whymper it, and when we got up we found the placed his tent on July 2, 1880, on the pole of the flag which Mr. Whymper had north-west side of Chimborazo, at put up on January 4, 1880. It stood height, so he tells me, of about 16,000 up about ii varas above the snow, and feet, and he provided for the use of my very little of the fag remained, as it had self and of David the things which were been torn to pieces by the wind. I took necessary for an ascent, namely, good a small piece of the flag to show to my strong boots with large nails, warm friends below, and was filled with joy at gloves, spectacles to protect the eyes being the first Ecuadorian to reach the against the glare of the snow, and ice- summi tof the great Chimborazo! We axes to help us along. We started from arrived on the very highest point of the the tent at 5.15 on the morning of July summit at 1.20 P.M., and about the same 3d, 1880, and at once commenced 10 time ashes from Cotopaxi began to fall.

We re


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