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which formed the eastern boundary, and we heaved a sigh, and wished it could Gulliver found himself among the ever be less impure. free" Liliputians. And indeed there are Before, however, we decided on estabnot wanting numerous signs of this much lishing ourselves in these quarters, I de. vaunted liberty which the eight thousand termined to issue forth and see if the Liliputians enjoy. The word Libertà is little town, the centre of government, chalked up in large letters against every built upon a cliff a thousand feet above second house ; their motto of Libertas is the centre of commerce, could offer us forced on your notice at every turn ; it a more inviting resting place. adorns their stamps, their coins, their fortified in my search by a letter of inflag ; it is engraven over each of the city troduction to a leading Republican, portals ; and before a few days' resi- Domenico Fattori by name, no less a dence among them had expired, the very personage than the Secretary of State for notion of liberty became irksome in the Foreign Affairs, and brother of a most extreme. 1 went to the theatre and was learned citizen, who had printed a little greeted by a drop scene representing story of his country's liberties which was almost naked Liberty. I mounted up exhibited, together with other treasures to the piazza and found a white marble of the like sort, in San Marino's little statue representing the same personage. room at the last Paris Exhibition. I ascended still higher to the parish Thus I stepped up the steep, rugged church, and lo! the patron saint stood path which leads to the city, gaining over the high altar, with a scroll in his confidence at every step as I left below right hand on which was written Liberty! me the loathsome

me the loathsome “Borgo," and saw Nevertheless it was satisfactory to enchanting panoramas of mountains, learn that this liberty ended not in a dis- plain, and sea, all brilliantly illumined play of the simple word, and this boast by a rich opalesque sunset over the pinof fifteen centuries' standing is still nacled Apennines, which here assume genuine in all its branches. Taxation those grotesque shapes delineated by here is reduced to a mere nothing; the masters of the Umbrian school. voice of the people governs everything. Did my eyes deceive me? No, it was The officials are sufficiently paid by the indeed true. Coming toward me down honor conferred upon them, and receive the rugged path, I saw a gentleman in a a mere nominal salary. Property, hence, tall hat, wearing a badly-fitting suit of as compared with Italy, is of enormous dress clothes and a white tie, and in atvalue, and a law has been passed enact- tendance upon him was a lackey in gaudy ing that no foreigner can hold land livery. Nothing more out of place could within the narrow precincts of the Re- be imagined : a half-naked anchorite or public unless he has spent six consecu- a skin-clad herdsman one would have tive years as a citizen within its bounda- passed by unnoticed ; and my heart misries, and during this period has conduct- gave me, for into this wild spot I had not ed himself as a moral and exemplary thought it necessary to drag my evencitizen should.

ing toilette. I questioned my conducVery simple-minded are these Repub- tor as to the meaning of this apparition, licans; their requirements are but few, and learned to my relief that he was a and the luxuries they can offer to visit- Captain of the most serene Republic of ors are exceedingly limited, so that to San Marino out for a state walk. When one anxious to reside among them for engaged in his official capacity a Captain any length of time the accommodation always wears this dress, and in the state offered by the little inn in the Borgo or wardrobe six dress suits are kept to fit commercial centre at the foot of the all shapes and sizes of Republicans who rock, will be looked upon with blank may attain to the dignity of ruler. dismay. Ankle-deep we sank in mire as It was with some feelings of trepidawe crossed the threshold, to be accosted tion that I knocked at Fattori's door, by every stench with which an Italian and was ushered into a sitting-room to pot-house is redolent; the bedroom interview his wife and sister, owing to looked alive with discomforts, and, the absence of the lord. I told my tale though breathing an air of freedom far candidly. I stated how charmed I was older than any we could find elsewhere, with all I had seen except the inn, and

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that I craved for a more pleasing habita- combined result in many an uproarious tion. They referred me to a neighbor- scene. The Sunday before we left was ing house, and invited us next day to the festival of Santa Mustiola, celebratjoin their party in witnessing the grand ed at a short distance from the town. ceremony of the installation of the in- After the formalities of the mass and coming Captains, on which occasion, procession had been gone through, twice a year, the Sammarinesi shake off crowds of men and women collected at their lethargy and appear right merry in a neighboring house to drink and play holiday attire.

games. By this time I was well known Charıningly primitive were our host to most of them, and each exhorted me and hostess, whom I found inhabiting a to put my lips to their brimming jugs of little house near the principal gate of wine. They filled my pockets with walthe city ; perhaps no two people could nuts. So intent were they on hospitalbe more entertaining in their domestic ity that I was forced to watch my oparrangements. The lady of the house portunity to effect an escape as fast as was portly and garrulous; she was, we my legs would carry me, to avoid involremarked, most noble in her bearing, untary inebriation. and of noble Republican blood she On the day of San Marino, their proved to be. Hers was one of the old- patron saint, they hold grand festivities est of San Marino's noble families, for, outside the walls. The pièce de résistance owing to the inconvenience of having for this day is a refined species of cruelty two illiterate Captains, certain families to animals : a live cock is procured and are set apart as noble, from among whom hung by its legs from a tree ; each comone of the rulers is chosen. Here their petitor in turn endeavors by a leap to privileges of nobility cease, but not wring its neck. Great excitement pretheir pride, for old Signora Casali, whose vails among the bystanders, and when maiden name was Belluzzi, was most success attends the attempt the victor is proud of her pedigree. She scoffed at loudly cheered, he receives the bird by the later elevations to the Sammarinese way of reward, and the unsuccessful pay peerage as “nobilità di carta," mere a small sum toward the purchase of the paper upstarts, and for her own parental cock. house she claimed the honor of possess- Winter at San Marino is terribly ing the genuine nobility of blood. She severe ; for months they are snow and thoroughly despised her lame and frost-bound, and to amuse themselves drunken husband, who was the imper- the Republicans have invented a species sonation of a henpecked nonentity. of tabogening, and down the main street Every meal we ate under the shadow of of the town they whirl themselves on a their roof was attended by the talkative crazy piece of wood with terrible velocpair, and many were the stories they told ity. Last winter a lady Sammarinese us of their quaint little country, which gained for herself an unpleasant notoserved as a relish to many a frugal re- riety at this game, for she slipped off her past.

liscia or sledge, and performed the rest Though poor, our accommodation was of the downward descent on her own cleanly, and though our food was

person, which became wofully contused brought up from the Borgo and invari- thereby. ably arrived cold, yet the keen mountain The first of April is a day of general air assisted us to dispose of most unpal- mirth and hilarity. Woe to the Lilipuatable dishes. Everything they sent us tian sluggard who tarries in bed after tasted the same—be it turkey, beefsteak, sunrise on this morning ; he renders or chicken, the difference was hardly himself liable to be dragged from his perceptible; but we had come to study couch, and in his nocturnal attire placed the Liliputians and not our own com- on muleback with an umbrella in his forts, so we were content.

hand, and, shivering with cold, he is set How do the Liliputians amuse them- up as an object of derision in the most selves ? was one of our first questions, exposed part of the town. This disaster and we soon found them a right jovial one year befell our old host, who had eight thousand. Religious festivals are been imbibing freely the night before. common, and so is wine, and the two His wife entered fully into the fun of the

thing, and assisted her husband's tor- earlier days of the Roman Republic ; mentors in laying their plans. How they owe their election to the Senate, ever, lest her domestic arrangements which at San Marino as in Rome still should be exposed to question, she took wields the chief executive power, but care that her spouse should retire to rest now it is termed the Council of Sixty. with a clean night-gown, so that he might There is yet another power in the state, appear before the world to the best ad- namely, the general arringo, or gathervantage.

ing of the people, to decide on momenIt is the case at San Marino, as it is tous questions of the day. Each male in other primitive societies, that the Republican can here make his voice marriage ceremony is attended with un- heard ; but it is now but seldom conusual merriment; the happy pair trip vened, and occupies much the same along the street attended by all their position that Rome's Comitia Curiata did friends at an early our in the day, to be in the latter days of the Republic. united under the roof of their country's I felt myself lucky when one day our god ; or, if the distance be great, the host informed me that an arringo would bride rides with her lady friends astride be held on the morrow, and that he a mule. On the return to the parental would have much pleasure in conducting homestead the bride and bridegroom are me thither. My thoughts involuntarily placed aloft on a daïs to be the cynosure wandered back to the days when Rome's of neighboring eyes for the remainder of people were summoned to the Comitia to the day, while wild dancing and festivi- decide on peace and war, but I was not ties take place around them. It is a privileged to hear an eager unanimous keenly contested point among the assem- decision on the necessity of crushing bled matrons, who shall have the honor Carthage, or of resisting to the death the of assisting the bride on retiring to rest ; invaders from Gaul. No, it was a real but it is the oldest and most venerated blow to my dreams of the past when of the Liliputian mothers who is ap- some forty or fifty Republicans assempointed to the almost sacred office of bled to discuss the advisability of opening presenting the “ nouveaux mariés" with telegraphic communication with the a mess of pottage at sunrise.

neighboring town of Rimini, and thus They dearly love the Italian game of did the degenerate offspring of the palla on this mountain-top; they are in- Roman Curia on that day recognize its veterate theatre goers, possessing two existence in the nineteenth century, and within their territory; an excuse for a acted accordingly. masquerade they seize with avidity, and This existence of telegraphy I look talk incessantly of their success in de- upon as one of the first symptoms of deception on such occasions. Our land- cay in our veteran state. The simplelady told us how her mother, when mindedness with which they assembled eighty years of age, had gone to a daily around the postman in the Borgo masked ball dressed as a girl of seven- at the sound of his bell, and awaited the teen, and, thanks to her good figure and distribution of his small handful of letactivity, she was enabled to carry off the ters, will rapidly disappear. They repalm of being belle of the evening. sisted to the death a tempting proposi

Let us now say a word about the con- tion for a railroad, an hotel, and a gamstitution of this curious little state. In bling house, from some energetic comit we see the lineal descendant of an- pany ; but will they resist the more incient Rome, tracing its pedigree through sidious innovations which will follow in the vicissitudes of mediæval Italy and the wake of the electric wires, and in the her municipal organizations, each of train of the feverish excitement incident which reproduced a miniature example on having a separate room in the Street of the mighty Roman fabric. Here, in of Nations at a Paris Exhibition ? No, the days of constitutional governments if I could have that day recorded a vote and deeply elaborated schemes of legis- in San Marino's assembly, I should have lation, we find two old Roman consuls opposed the introduction of the teleruling a speck of Italy. They now call graph. I should have opposed entering themselves Captains, but one is still pa- into contact with the outer world, and trician and one is still plebeian, as in the have been content to boast of the greatest claim to notoriety San Marino has, gard for cleanliness to allow of putting namely, that of being a living fossil of them on. bygone ages.

For the lovers of legendary lore and Let no one who can so arrange fail to wild fantastic beauties, San Marino is a visit San Marino on April 1st or October perfect paradise. Legends are attached ist ; perhaps, if he be not an early riser, to each weird spot, principally connectfor above-mentioned reasons the lattered with the history of their patron saint, date had best be chosen ; for on these and the scenes of his spiritual labors in days the Captains are elected for the en- the days of Diocletian. There is his suing six months, and the visitor will de- bed of hewn stone, his garden in an rive much amusement, if not profit, from almost inaccessible cliff, his head and being present at the ceremony. Their face in the parish church ; but perhaps dress is rich ; they are resplendent with the heritage he has left his successors the cordon of San Marino's military most worthy of remark is their skill in order around their necks, and moreover stone-masonry. Himself a quarryman a eulogistic address is delivered to the employed in building Rimini, S. Marino bystanders, entering deeply into San gathered around him on his mountain a Marino's historical lore. On this day colony of his comrades, and for fifteen is to be seen the little Republican army centuries these men of San Marino have of eighteen strong, drawn up to the best hewn and toiled in their natural workadvantage. Though the soldiers have shops for a means of livelihood. no notion of drill or of military bearing, They are most expert too in the rearthough their gaudy uniforms fit them ing of cattle, and from far dealers come like sacks, nevertheless they are unique to the fairs at San Marino to purchase in themselves ; there are only eighteen the far-famed oxen fed on the slopes of such in the whole wide world, and they the giant mountain. represent the smallest standing army in Very excellent grapes are produced existence. However, San Marino is not on the sulphurous soil around Mount entirely dependent on them for its de- Titanus, and the wines produced from fence ; every male citizen is presumably them are sparkling and pure. Their a soldier, and they are divided into cellars beneath the mountain are warm several regiments ; but their uniforms in winter and cool in summer ; no wonhave long since been worn out, and in der then that they exceed occasionally these days of peace the prudent law- in their libations. There is a wellgivers have not seen fit to replace them. known character at San Marino, an old Yet the law obliges each man to keep a beggarman, who gains his livelihood by gun and a cockade in case of a rupture means of a poem he once wrote ; he has with some foreign power.

spent his patrimony on drink, and now I feel morally convinced that Lord subsists on the enthusiasm excited by Cardwell must one day have been at San his stirring verses. This poem is enMarino, and, while sighing over the titled, “Che Tremenda Repubblica," extravagance of the British lion, have and, intoxicated with their love of libermentally resolved to follow the humble ty, the Sammarinesi at their festivals will example set him by Europe's smallest listen again and again to the pompous state.

refrain of the old man's song. He is The traveller who is not fortunate the hero of their oft-repeated festivals enough to be present at the installation and the minstrel of their board. of the Captain may any day get an It was with many feelings of regret order to inspect their state wardrobe, that we left this old-fashioned little counwhere are seen their rich velvet cloaks, try, and it was with infinite pleasure that their insignia of office, and the above- shortly after my departure I received an mentioned collection of dress clothes ; intimation that for the interest I had he will then feel thankful that he was taken in the Republic they had thought not born a Sammarinese, with a chance fit to make me a citizen. For in these of the captaincy, for it would require an days of craving for novelty it was satisacute archæologist to decide on the date factory to me to look through the list of of these raiments, and an entire disre- citizens, and find myself the only Englishman enrolled therein. Continental and ancient cathedrals where the bishops celebrities there were by scores whom of Montefeltro once held their see. interest or curiosity had brought in con- This is indeed a strange weird spot, tact with the Republic ; and the accom- built on a rock which, like San Marino, panying letter, herewith transcribed, will is raised 2000 feet above the surroundshow their own opinion of the honor they ing valley. On the journey thither from conferred upon me. It ran as follows : San Marino, the traveller passes Monte SAN MARINO, Feb. 14, 1879.

Maggio, or the “bowing mountain,' ILLUSTRIOUS SIR AND Fellow-CITIZEN : The which the countryfolk tell you inclines gift of citizenship of San Marino is truly a eastward each year more and more in great one, since if perchance you are at a pious reverence toward the Holy Sepuldistance you may be protected thereby; but chre ; and the old inhabitants of San. can molest you, and you will be respected by Marino affirm that now they can disall, and possess the same privileges that the tinctly see houses which were invisible other citizens enjoy. Accept, then, dear sir, from the opposite valley in their youth. this diploma, in order that the great city of And Monte Maggio too is celebrated for London may rejoice with you over the possession of it. Be good enough to acknowledge

a theft perpetrated by Napoleon, who the receipt of the diploma.

took from thence to Paris two lovely Your devoted servant,

frescoes by Giulio Romano, and replaced FRANCESCO CASALI. them with hideous daubs. P.S.–Our Republic enjoys the greatest Urbino, the eagle nest of the Montetranquillity.

feltrian dukes, the quondam hereditary Before bidding adieu to San Marino, protectors of our little Republic, is a I propose laying before any traveller pleasant drive from San Marino, and who may wend that way the advantages there the artist and the antiquary can which a sojourn in the Republic offers enjoy to the full the legacies of beauty for exploring an almost unknown dis- which the art-loving Dukes of Urbino trict of the Apennines. By means of a have left behind them. small pony-chaise, possessed by an ener- Buried in a cleft of the Apennines, and getic Republican who has seen somewhat approached only by a bridle path from of the outer world and served under the San Marino, is the quaint village of Italian flag in the Crimea, we were en Monte Cerignone. A high arched abled to make some delightful excursions bridge over a mountain stream leads you from our Republic to Verruchio, where into the town, and reminds you of the Dante places the scene of the imprison- Ponte alla Maddalena near Lucca. And ment of the erring Paolo and Francesca a grim square castle overlooks the town, da Rimini, and where a red mediæval once a favorite summer resort of the castle, a stronghold of the Malatesta, Urbino dukes. It is still rich in moulddominates a beetling cliff, and looks ering frescoes and beautiful specimens down in grim silence on a little town of Cinquecento work by skilful artists, teeming with reminiscences of the who were summoned thither by the wrong heads.

dukes to beautify their summer hiding To the small streamlet which once place. decided the destinies of the world we These and many others are the attracpaid a pilgrimage—the far-famed Rubi- tions offered by San Marino, where a con, which flows some few miles beyond spring or autumn month can be spent, Verruchio, or rather there is the bed in combining as it does the rare advantage which it once did flow.

of sea breezes and pure mountain air toSan Leo offers the architect two rich gether.-Fraser's Magazine,

INSECT CONSERVATISM. Sir John LUBBOCK will certainly earn sors in the same field put together. And the praise of accumulating more facts his latest published observations on the upon which we may found reasonable subject, communicated to the Linnæan inferences as to the intellectual character Society, and printed in their “ Transof the Ant, than all his acute predeces- actions,"contain some of his most inter

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