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good old fairy, who is supposed to wan- “Lotus Eaters,” should not be omitted. der in the dusk, scattering an invisible Shelley's poem,
“ The Magnetic Lady powder on the sleepy eyes of children. to her Patient, Blake's cradle-song is very pretty, but Sleep on, sleep on! Forget thy pain, rather too long, and not too grammati- My hand is on thy brow, cal in the later verses :
would try the force of its mesmeric Sweet dreams, form a shade,
spell. Shelley's poem on Night, too, O'er my lovely infant's head ;
might claim a place in a volume of lulSweet dreams of pleasant streams
labies for grown-up children by virtue By happy, silent, moony beams.
of its lines,
Thy brother Death came and cried,
“ Wouldst thou me ?"
Thy sweet child Sleep, the filmy-eyed, Hover o'er my happy child.
Murmured like a noontide bee,
“Shall I nestle near thy side ? There is something of the disconnected
Would'st thou me?" and I replied, coherence of the visions of the night in
“No, not thee !" Beddoe's “Dream Pedlary," which reads like a memory of a poem heard in Filicaja's nde must not be forgotten, nor sleep :
Cowley's, nor Denman's song in “ The
Sophy. But Keat's sonnet may close If there were dreams to sell,
the list of invocations which Homer What would you buy ? Some cost a passing bell ;
made Hera begin :
O soft embalmer of the still midnight!
Shutting, with careful fingers and benign,
Our gloom-pleased eyes embower'd from the If there were dreams to sell,
Enshaded in forgetfulness divine :
O soothest Sleep, if so it please thee, close,
In midst of this thine hymn, my willing
eyes, But a sleepier and more soothing song• Or wait the amen, ere thy poppy throws than this is Sydney Dobell's chief suc- Around my bed its lulling charities; cess in verse, a passage of drowsy and Then save me, or the passed day will shine monotonous music that rings
Upon my pillow, breeding many woes;
Save me from curious conscience, that still On the margin grey
lords 'Twixt the soul's night and day,
Its strength for darkness, burrowing like a Singing awake away
mole ; loto asleep.
Turn the key deftly in the oiled wards,
And seal the hushed casket of my soul. Probably a wider research than we have made would discover many more
In spite of Keats, and of the proverb lullabies and songs of sleep, which about the sleep of the just, we fancy might make a charmed volume for
that conscience keeps few people awake. wakeful eyes. Mr. Tennyson's cradle Coffee, and overwork, and tobacco, and song in Sea Dreams," and the verses
the noises of the night may demand from the "Princess,
chloral, but not conscience. Men have
lain awake, and the night has fretted Now sleeps the crimson petal, now the white,
them, but not for conscience.—Saturwith the languid choral music of the day Review.
The problem by which the founders among the Irish tenantry. The latest of the Land League were confronted in epoch of famine was in the years 1846 the early part of 1879 was no new one to 1849. To understand the movement in the history of the Irish Land Ques- of to-day, it is necessary to understand tion, for famine has been periodic the ineaning of the events in these years; for it was the lessons of 1847 at the rate of more than one death an and 1848 which taught the agitators of hour.* Mr. James H. Tuke tells of an 1879 and 1880 ; their judgments were inspector of roads who caused no less formed, their proposals were regulated, than 140 bodies to be buried, which he iheir acts must be judged, by the oc- found scattered along the highway in currences in that period. It was that Clifden, County Galway. t Deaths by epoch which showed to them the mean- samine had become so common by the ing of a famine in Ireland ; from that end of February, in 1847, that at a meetepoch they also learned what, in a pe- ing of coroners in Cork it was resolved riod of famine, the action of Irish land- to hold no more starvation inquests. I lords might be expected to be ; from It was quite an usual thing to find entire that epoch also they could forecast the families swept away, and the dead and fate of Irish tenants, should a similar the dying often lay together for days in catastrophe place the tenants in similar the same cabin. At a place called Coolcircumstances.
dorahey a young fellow named Manley The Land Leaguers, therefore, in was found dying, with his brother and asking the consideration of their case, sister lying close beside him, the last of have a right to make it a primary de- a large family ; the
a large family ; the sister had been dead mand that their judges shall be pos- for five, the brother for three days. sessed of the events and lessons of the Lord George Bentinck, in a speech in the Great Famine. I cannot within the House of Commons, mentioned a case in space at my disposal attempt to give any, which in one cabin ten corpses were found thing like a complete picture of that out of a family of eleven ; and another time ; and I must therefore attempt, by case in which seven putrid corpses were the mention of some statistics, and of a found in the same hovel.. The supply certain number of characteristic inci- of coffins proved utterly unequal to the dents, to bring something like a concep- demand. In Roscommon, where whole tion of the calamity to the English families retiring to rest at night alive mind. The first great fact as to that were found all dead in the morning, period is the diminution in the popula. sixty bodies were within a short time tion. In 1841 the inhabitants of Ire- buried without coffins. A newspaper land numbered 8,175,124 ; in 1851 the correspondent, writing from Dingle, in population was 6,552.385 ; that is to Kerry, speaks of a parish of three thousay, the population had in this period di- sand souls, of whom five hundred had minished by about a million and a half. perished in six months. Three fourths Even these figures do not, however, of them
interred coffinless ; represent the full extent of the carnage. scores of them thrown beside the The famine did not begin till 1846 ; the neareast ditch, and there left to the population accordingly had gone on mercy of the dogs, which have nothing with the natural increase until 1846 ; else to feed on."** In other parts of and when the famine began the popula- the country the difficulty was met by a tion would be about 8,750,000. *Again, singular expedient : coffins were made with but the intervention of the famine, with a slide or hinged bottom, and so and allowing for natural increase, the did duty for several corpses in succespopulation in 1851 would have been siun.ft something above nine millions. The These few incidents, selected out of work of the famine then was that a coun- many thousands, are sufficient to give try which should have had a population the reader an idea of what the great of nine millions in 1851, had in reality a famine in Ireland meant to the Irish population of six millions and a half. tenants; the next point to be considered The loss in population was two millions and a half. Let us take another great
* O'Rorke's "History of the Great Irish and guiding fact--the number of in- Famine of 1874," p. 369. habited houses. The total in 1841 was +"A Visit to Connaught in the Autumn of 1,328,839 ; and in 1851, 1,046, 223.
1847." By James H. Tuke, p. 8. Quoted by And now for a few of the incidents of
OʻRorke, pp. 384-5.
g Ibid. p. 369. the time. There were 174 deaths in
Ibid. p. 380. Cork Workhouse in a single week, being
| Ibid. p. 344.
# Ibid. p. 401.
** Ibid. p. 409.
is the action of the landlords during O'Rorke, having quoted his authority, that period. In the year 1847, accord- goes on to tell that he visited the dising to a report drawn up by Captain tricts described twenty years after. Larcom, afterward Under-Secretary for “ I had a conversation,” he writes relaIreland, 70,000 occupiers were evict- tive to the famine,“ with a gentleman ed-that is to say, about 300,000 per- who knew the midland counties, and porsons. In 1849 there were, according tions of the west, well.
tions of the west, well. I asked him to the late Mr. Kaye,t 50,000 evic- what was the effect of the famine in his tions; and in the four years following district. My district,' he answered, the famine—from 1849 to 1852—there was by no means regarded as a poor were, according to a table in Mr. J. C. one, but the famine swept away more Morison's excellent pamphlet, “ Irish than half its population. The census of Grievances," 221,845 evictions. I Sir 1841 gave the families residing in it as Charles Wood, in a speech in the House the census of 1851 gave them at of Commons, called attention to the cir
Did the landlords,' I inquired, cumstance that the landlords in Mayo 'come forward liberally to save the lives were evicting as they never evicted of the people ?' 'Only one landlord,' before, in proof of which he announced he replied, in the whole locality with the fact that out of 6400 processes at which I am connected did anything to the Quarter Sessions in Ballina, 4000 save the people, F--- O'B-- He were at the suit of landlords for arrears asked no rent for two years, and he of rent.
These proceedings had almost never afterward insisted on the rent of depopulated whole districts, and town these two years, although, I must say, lands which had been held by 400 or he was paid it by many of his tenanıs of 500 persons were then uninhabited. Ştheir own free will ; but, for the rest, Mr. U'Rorke quotes a placard, posted he cancelled those two years' rent and in the town of Cahir, in April, 1846, to opened a new account with them, as the effect that if “ all rent and arrears with men owing nothing.' And of rent due to the 25th of March" were what,' I further asked, ' were the feelnot paid on the 12th of May," the ings of the landlords with regard to most summary steps will be taken to their tenants dying of starvation ?' He recover the same." This is signed by answered, with solemn emphasis, ' De“ John Chaytor,” agent to the Earl of lighted to be rid of them!'"* Glengall. Symptoms of a widespread Here is another case. The Rev. B. systematic extermination," says another Durcan, P.P., of Swinford, writing on athority, are just beginning to exhibit November 16, 1846, on the condition themselves.
The potato culti- of his parish, says : vation being extinguished, at least for a
“One word as to the landlords.
There are time, the peasant cultivators can pay no several owners of land in this parish (Kilconrents ; sheep and horned cattle can pay duft), but not one of them resident. We made rents, and smart rents too ; therefore an effort to create by subscription a fund for the sheep and cattle shall have the in Swinford, to be sold in small quantities.
the purpose of keeping a supply of provisions lands, and the peasants shall be ousted The non-resident landlords were applied to, from them ; a very simple and most in- but not one of them responded to the call. evitable conclusion, as you will see. They are not, however, idle. Their bailiffs I repeat it, a universal system
are on the alert distraining for rent, and the of ousting the peasantry is about to set
pounds are full." + in. . . The number of civil bills In County Sligo Father O’Rorke tells served by landlords for the approaching of a case where thirty families were Sessions of this town will treble those evicted by one landlord-one hundred sent out for the last ten years."|| Father and fifty individuals in all. I In the sec
ond year of the famine corn was dis
trained in October for rent which fell * Quoted in Mitchel's “ History of Ireland," vol. ii. pp. 451-2.
due in the following May. S +"Free Trade in Land,” p. 305.
There was one case of eviction, howI“ Irish Grievances,” p. 55. $ Quoted in O'Rorke, p. 355.
* Father O'Rorke (p. 389) himself emphaA correspondent of the Frioman's Journal sizes these last words. quoted by O'Rorke, p. 386.
+ O'Rrke, p. 265.
Ibid. $ Ibid.
ever, which exceeded all the rest in the One other point must be noticed.* harshness of its circumstances, and The emigration between the years 1842 which excited the greatest attention. and 1851, both inclusive, amounted to This was the eviction in the village of 1,436,862. Quoting the “Irish Crisis,' Ballinglass, County Galway. The land- by Sir Charles Trevelyan, Father lords were a Mr. and Mrs. Gerard. In O'Rorke calculates that the deaths on this case no rent at all was actually the voyage to Canada rose from five in due, and the tenants had over and over the thousand (the ordinary rate) 10 again offered to come to terms. Fixed about sixty in the thousand, and while in their determination to be rid of the the ships were in quarantine they rose villagers, Mr. and Mrs. Gerard refused from one to forty in the thousand ; so all offers ; and on Friday, the 13th of that, instead of six emigrants in the March, the sheriff, accompanied by a thousand dying on the voyage and durlarge force of the 49th Regiment, and ing quarantine, one hundred died, “beby a heavy body of police, carried out sides still larger numbers who died at the decree. Sixty houses were destroyed ; Quebec, Montreal, and elsewhere in the one was left standing in which were interior.”+ Out of 89,738 emigrants lying a man and woman who were ill of who embarked for Canada in 1847, the fever, and they shortly afterward Father O’Rorke calculates that 15,330 were served with notice to leave the died on the voyage or afterward in hosplace within fifteen days, " or the house pital. Of 493 passengers who sailed would be tumbled on top of them. in the Erin Queen, 136 died on the voy. Only a portion of the walls were pulled age ; of 552 in the Avon, 246 died ; of down in the first instance ; and the villagers, pitching a few poles slantwise * Since writing the preceding paragraph in against these walls, took shelter there. reference to the Ballinglass eviction, I have The next day the bailiffs came, pulled
come across accounts of cases of equal atroci. down all the walls, and rooted up the tention in Parliament, and even excited the
ty. One of these attracted considerable at. foundations. The tenants then took disgust of so staunch a friend of the landlords refuge in the ditches,“ where they slept as Sir Robert Peel. The hero of this eviction in parties from ten to fifteen each, hud- of which County Galway was also the scene dled together before a fire, for the two
—was a Mr. Blake, a magistrate. Sir R. Peel succeeding nights."| One other inci- ing from Major McKie, an official employed
quotes the following account of the proceeddent. A tenant-he was nearly eighty by the Poor Law Commissioners : years of age, and had lived in the vil- “It would appear, from the evidence relage of Ballinglass for over sixty-eight corded, that the forcible ejectments were ille
gal; that previous notices had not been years—was, to use a modern word, “in
served ; and that the ejectments were perpeterviewed ;'' and two questions, with trated under circumstances of great cruelty. their answers, will sufficiently indicate The time chosen was for the greater part the nature of this old man's story :
nightfall, on the eve of the new year. The occupiers were forced out of their houses,
with their helpless children, and left exposed “ Is it true,' asked the correspondent of to the cold on a bleak western shore in a the Freeman's Journal,' that the remainder of stormy winter's night; that some of the chil. the walls were ordered to be thrown down to
dren were sick ; that the parents implored prevent the people sheltering themselves at
that they might not be exposed, and their night?' 'In troih it is, sir ; they would not houses left till the morning ; that their pray. let any one go near the place; we slept in the
ers for mercy were vain ; and that many of ditches for two nights, and I got pains in my them have since died. I have visited the poor old bones after it.' 'Did the women
ruins of these huts (not at any great distance sieep in the ditches?' 'They did, sir, and I saw
from Mr. Blake's residence); I found that one of the women with a child on her breast
many of these unfortunate people were still hunted by the bailiffs from three places, the living within the ruins of those huts, endeavnight after they threw down the houses, when
oring to shelter themselves under a few sticks we were under the walls, and they came to
and sods, all in the most wretched state of put out the fires, and they put out the fires in
destitution; many were so weak that they the road ditches on us too.'"
could scarcely stand when giving their evidence. The site of these ruins is a rocky, wild
spot, fit for nothing but a sheep walk."--Han* Freeman's Journal, quoted in Dublin Na- sard, 3 S. xcvii. 1009. tion, March 28, 1846.
t"Irish Crisis," quoted by O'Rorke, p. + Ibid.
I O'Rorke, p. 497.
476 in the Virginius, 267 died on the Relief Committee, which teem with devoyage ; and Mr. William Henry Smith, scriptions of a state of destitution which C.E., an English_gentleman, in a pam- may be well called appalling ; but I can phlet entitled Twelve Months' Resi- safely rest the case on the figures with dence in Ireland During the Famine and regard to the potato crop. the Public Works,” states that of 600 What do those figures show? That who emigrated in one vessel, not 100 in three years there was a loss in the survived. *
Lord Lansdowne, grand- potato crop alone of £10,000,000 ; and father of the present peer, was one of the annual tenement valuation of Ireland the most ardent supporters of the sys- is but one million more-namely, £11,tem of forced emigration. So many of 000,000. Further, this table shows that his tenants whom he sent abroad in the potato crop of the year 1879 was but these times perished, that a portion of a one third of what it was in the year hospital in America was known by the 1876. It must be remarked that in some name of the Lansdowne Ward.
districts the potato crop was not even One fact, finally, by way of showing one third ; it was totally destroyed. As the combined results of famine, pesti- the potato is the chief, if not the only lence, and evicting landlords during the food of the Irish tenants, it follows that famine years.
The number of peasant in parts of Ireland the tenants were left cabins in 1841 was 491,278, in 1851 the absolutely without food. These facts number was 135,589. In Connaught, justify the anticipation of the Land where famine, pestilence, and eviction Leaguers that a famine was imminent. raged most severely, the number of The next proposition the Land Leagcabins fell from 121,346 in 1841 to 31,- uers have to prove is that the landlords 586 in 1851.7
of 1877 to 1879 were animated by the With these facts before them, the same spirit as the landlords in the years Land Leaguers were entitled to draw between 1846 and 1849. Again, official three conclusions : (1) That the failure statistics supply the answer to this quesof the potato crop in Ireland was likely tion : to lead to a famine, and that the propor
No. of Ejecttions of a famine must in Ireland be
1269 gigantic ; (2) That famine would lead
.1323 to equally destructive pestilence; and 1878.
. 1749 (3) That the landlords would take ad
1880 (Estimated Number in) 3893* vantage of the famine and pestilence to
This table speaks for itself: as in the push the most extreme assertion of their years of the Great Famine, so in the rights.
present epoch of distress, the landlords The first thing the Land Leaguers are increased the number of evictions in bound to show is that, at the moment
exact proportion to the increase of disthey began their operations, there was
tress among the tenants. reasonable ground for anticipating a
This extraordinary fact was one of the famine. The following official statistics chief
reasons, they themselves supply the best answer to this ques- avowed, why the Government introduced tion :
the Disturbance Bill, and it was made Potato CROP.
the subject of frequent comment in the Estimated Produce.
ministerial speeches. Thus, Mr. Glad1876.... 4,154,784 tons..... £12,464,382 1877.... 1.757,275
stone, speaking on the second reading,
5,271,822 1878.... 2,526,504
sued these words :
7,579,512 11879.... 1,113,676
“The two bad harvests of 1877 and 1878 I might, in addition to these figures,
were succeeded in 1879 by a harvest which in quote the reports of the Duchess of parts of Ireland was the very worst known
since the Great Irish Famine. With these Marlborough and the Mansion House bad harvests the number of evictions increas
ed. In truth, the act of God in the failure of * O'Rorke, p. 499.
crops had replaced the Irish occupier in + Thom's Almanac.
# Quoted from a speech of the Attorney- * There are some later statistics, I believe, General for Ireland on the Disturbance Bill with regard to 1879, but I have not been able (Hansard, 3 S., ccliii. p. I, 160).
to obtain them.