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no one has yet suggested the exceedingly sim- WHAT IS A COLD BATH?—The season of ple and obvious explanation that the flash be- the year when very many people who have exing oblique and instantaneous appears to start perienced pleasure and advantage from a daily from the bottom or top, whichever is nearest cold bath have to discontinue the practice has to the spectator, owing to the time required

Months will elapse before the return by the light to travel over the different interval of genial weather will allow of their indulgence of space. The top of a flash may be a mile in what may be termed man's natural stimufarther off than the bottom.

come.

lant. Among the young and robust there are a large number who are able to bathe even in

the depths of winter ; the advantage of so doMISCELLANY.

ing is, however, questionable. But let it be

once well understood what a cold bath really BEAUTY.- Forms of beauty, whether ele- is, and the course by which we can avoid Scylla mentary or complex, are primarily found in and Charybdis will be obvious. A cold bath nature, but the creative idea is often marred, is not necessarily a bath in water of the temdross debasing the pure gold. Yet nature strives perature of the atmosphere. A bath is truly to purge away impurities, to cast out deformi- and really cold when produces a certain ties, and to preserve and develop the normal physiological effect-a slight momentary shock type ; whenever nature reaches her standard followed by pleasant and lasting reaction. of perfection she is beautiful. Beauty consti- These effects are for the majority of people tutes the ideal, and the true ideal in art corre- must pleasantly obtained by bathing in water sponds to the perfected real in nature. Out- about 35° to 40° below the temperature of the ward and visible beauty is announced and de- body-the usual temperature of unheated water termined by the response and approval of the in June and July. Bearing this in mind, we mind, the mind being made for beauty as the can enjoy our physiological “cold” bath as eye is constructed for light : the inward intui- safely and pleasantly at Christmas as at midtions planted in man pulsate, as chords of a lyre,

summer, and there is no necessity for the to the vibrations or impressions from without.

most timid or weakly to discontinue his mornBeauty obtains a twofold sanction when it ex- ing tub because the summer weather is over. ists as the perfection of outward nature, and When the water sinks below a temperature of when it obtains the approving response of the 60°, let it be heated to that point and then best minds. Beauty stands in some undefined used, and we shall still have our cold ” bath, relation with truth and goodness. Partial and though of heated water. The daily stimulanı incompleted beauty often contains an admixture effect of such a bath is so beneficial to the of error and badness, but perfect beauty is

great majority of persons, and is of such without alloy, and lies in continuity with truth marked service in maintaining health, that it and goodness; the three conjoined making an

is very important to have it widely known unbroken circuit, each fortifying the other. that a cold bath may be taken all the year All beauty becomes the more confirmed when round, provided cold is not mistaken to mean it has been sanctioned and made manifest by

at the temperature of the outer air." To the great artists of the world, and when it is heat our bath during the winter months is too embodied in the master-works of the foremost often thought to be unmanly, while in reality architects, sculptors, or painters. Beauty re

it is truly scientific, and to bathe in unheated sides within every true and good work of art,

water all the year round, whatever the temjust as the soul dwells within the human body perature that water may be, is to prove one's -it is there to a certainty-we have only to

self an ignorant slave of oulward circumfind it out. And forms of beauty appear with

stances.-Lancet. overwhelming evidence when they obtain, as just indicated, a threefold warranty : when they EYE MEMORY.-Look steadily at a bright possess the impress of the Creator in nature; object, keep the eyes immovably on it for a when they have gained the approval of the artist short time, and then close them. An image by a place in universal art; and lastly, when of the object remains ; it becomes, in fact, they have awakened within humanity an visible to the closed eyes. The vividness and allegiance and a love, And these manifold duration of such impressions vary considerably phases of beauty declare what they are by the with different individuals, and the power of repleasure they impart : beauty always pleases, taining them may be cultivated. Besides this and what displeases is unbeautiful ; it is her sort of retinal image thus impressed, there is privilege to lead from joy to joy. The worth another kind of visual image that may be obof any beauty is measured by the dignity of tained by an effort of memory. Certain the emotions awakened ; the use of beauty is adepts at mental arithmetic use the “mind's to elevate, adorn, and add to the enjoyment of eye" as a substitute for slate and pencil by life.--Good Words.

holding in visual memory pictures of the figures

66

now are.

upon which they are operating, and those of diminishes their chance of being struck). In their results. In my youthful days I was ac- Mexico sites for temples are supposed to be quainted with an eccentric old man who then indicated by the Deity where lightning strikes. lived at Kilburn Priory, where he surrounded - English Mechanic. himself with curious old furniture reputed to have originally belonged to Cardinal Wolsey, and which, as I was told, he bequeathed to the

THE ENGLISH; LANGUAGE. Queen at his death. He was the then cele

A PRETTY deer is dear to me, brated, but now forgotten, “ Memory Thomp

A hare with downy hair ; son," who in his early days was a town trav

I love a hart with all my heart,

But barely bear a bear. eller (for a brewery, if I remember rightly),

'Tis plain that no one takes a plane and who trained himself to the performance of To have a pair of pairs ; wonderful feats of eye memory. He could A rake, though, often takes a rake close his eyes and picture within himself a

To tear away the tares,

All rays raise thyme, time razes all; panorama of Oxford Street and other parts of

And, through the whole, hole wears. London, in which picture every inscription

A writ, in writing "righti” may write over every shop was so perfect and reliable that

It “wright," and still be wronghe could describe and certify to the names and For "write" and "rite" are neither “right," occupations of the shopkeeping inhabitants of

And don't to write belong.

Beer osten brings a bier to man, all the houses of these streets at certain dates,

Coughing a coffin brings, when Post-Office Directories were not as they

And too much ale will make us ail,
Although Memory Thompson is

As well as other things. forgotten, his special faculty is just now re

The person lies who says he lies

When he is but reclining; ceiving some attention, and it is proposed to

And, when consumptive folks decline, speciaily cultivate it in elementary schools by

They all decline declining. placing objects before the pupils for a given A quail don't quail before a stormtime, then taking them away and requiring the

A bough will bow before it ;

We cannot rein the rain at all pupil to draw them. That such a faculty ex

No earthly powers reign o'er it. ists, and may be of great service, is unquestion- The dyer dyes awhile, then dies ; able. Systematic efforts to educate it, if

To dye he's always trying, successful, will do good service to the rising

Unțil upon his dying-bed

He thinks no more of dyeing. generation ; and, even should the proposed

A son of Mars mars many a sun; training afford smaller results than its projec

All deys must have their days, tors anticipate, the experiments, if carefully And every knight should pray each night made and registered, cannot fail to improve

To Him who weighs his ways.

'Tis meet that man should mete out meat our knowledge of mental physiology.-Gentle

To feed misfortune's son ; man's Magazine.

The fair should fare on love alone,

Else one cannot be won. INDIAN IDEAS OF LIGHTNING.-The Indians

A lass, alas ! is something false ; !

Of faults a maid is made; of America have somo curious ideas about thun

Her waist is but a barren wasteder and lightning. Recently two Indian women

Though stayed, she is not staid. were struck by lightning in the neighborhood The springs spring forth in Spring, and shoots of Fort Bufford as they were carrying pro

Shoot forward one and all ;

Though Summer kills the flowers, it leaves visions to the garrison. The Indians could

The leaves to fall in Fall. not be induced to stay near the bodies, which I would a story here commence, they thought to have become the habitation of

But you might find it stale ; an evil spirit. The catastrophe was attributed

So let's suppose that we have reached

The tail end of our tale. to the presence of whites. Nearly all the Indians of the United States imagine thunder to be caused by the flapping of the wings of a

LOVE SONG. gigantic bird, while the flashes are iron serpents

My will is gone to sleep, dear, which everywhere accompany this animal. The

And only you can wake it ; ancient tribes of the Mississippi valley worship

My heart is in your keep, dear,

To hold or drop and break it. ped thunder in the form of a god, who was to be propitiated with sacrifices ; they offered

One day I hold most dear, sweet, him a dog whenever it thundered, or a child

The day when first I met you,

One thing I see most clear, sweet, fell ill. This god was believed to produce fires.

I never can forget you. The natives of Honduras burn cotton seeds on

Daylight without your eyes, dear, the altar of the gods whenever it thunders.

For me all brightness misses, More southern tribes do not offer sacrifices,

And most in life I prize dear, but prostrate themselves abjectly on the ground

The memory of your kisses. on approach of a thunder-storm (which naturally

WALTER H. POLLOCK.

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ON THE LIMITS OF HUMAN KNOWL

EDGE CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE
TO THE UNITY OF NATURE,

IV.

more than a morbid effect of weakness and fatigue, has been embraced as a doctrine and systematized into a philosophy. Nor can it be denied that there are

some partial aspects of our knowledge in AND yet, although it is to Nature in which its very elements seem to dissolve this highest and widest sense that we be- and disappear under the power of selflong-although it is out of this fountain analysis, so that the sum of it is reduced that we have come, and it is out of its to little more than a consciousness of fulness that we have received all that we ignorance. All that we know of matter have and are, men have doubted, and is so different from all that we are conwill doubt again, whether we can be sure scious of in mind that the relations beof anything concerning it.

tween the two are really incomprehensiIf this terrible misgiving had affected ble and inconceivable to us. Hence individual minds alone in moments of this relation constitutes a region of darkweariness and despair, there would have ness in which it is easy to lose ourselves been little to say about it. Such mo- in an abyss of utter scepticism. What ments may come to all of us, and the dis- proof have we-it has been often trust which they leave behind them may asked—that the mental impressions we be the sorest of human trials. It is no derive from objects are in any way like unusual result of abortive yet natural the truth? We know only the phenomeffort and of innate yet baffled curiosity. ena, not the reality of things.

We are But this doubt, which is really nothing conversant with things as they appear,

New Series.-Vol. XXXIII., No. 2

10

not with things as they are “in them- all exertion ends and all desire is satisselves.' What proof have we that these fied. This is the law of every faculty phenomena give us any real knowledge subject to a limit which is absolute. In of the truth? How, indeed, is it possi- physics, the existence of any pressure is ble that knowledge so “relative" and the index of a potential energy which, so "conditioned"-relative to a mind though it may be doing no work, is yet so limited, and conditioned by senses always capable of doing it. And so in which tell us of nothing but sensations, the intellectual world, the sense of preshow can such knowledge be accepted as sure and confinement is the index of substantial ? Is it not plain that our con- powers which under other conditions are ceptions of creation and of a Creator are capable of doing what they cannot do at all mere anthropomorphism ?" Is it présent. It is in these conditions that 'not our own shadow that we are always the barrier consists, and at least to a chasing? Is it not a mere bigger image large extent they are external. What of ourselves to which we are always bow- we feel, in short, is less an incapacity ing down?

than a restraint. It is upon suggestions such as these So much undoubtedly is to be said as that the Agnostic philosophy, or the to the nature of those limitations on our philosophy of Nescience, is founded mental powers- of which we are conthe doctrine that, concerning all the high- scious. And the considerations thus est problems which it both interests and presented to us are of immense importconcerns us most to know, we never can ance in qualifying the conclusions to be have any knowledge or any rational and drawn from the facts of consciousness. assured belief.

They do not justify, although they may It may be well to come to the consid- account for, any feeling of despair as to eration of this doctrine along those the ultimate accessibility of that knowlavenues of approach which start from edge which we so much desire. On the the conception we have now gained of contrary, they suggest the idea that the unity of nature.

there is within us a reserve of power to Nothing, certainly, in the human mind some unknown and indefinite extent. It is more wonderful than this-that it is is as if we could understand indefinitely conscious of its own limitations. Such more than we can discover, if only some consciousness would be impossible if higher intelligence would explain it to these limitations were in their nature absolute. The bars which we feel so But if it is of importance to take note much, and against which we so often of this reserve of power of which we are beat in vain, are bars which could not conscious in ourselves, it is at least of be felt at all unless there were something equal importance to estimate aright the in us which seeks a wider scope. It is conceptions to which we can and do as if these bars were a limit of oppor- attain without drawing upon this reserve . tunity rather than a boundary of power. at all. Not only are the bars confining No absolute limitation of mental faculty us bars which we can conceive removed, ever is, or ever could be, felt by the but they are bars which in certain direccreatures whom it affects. Of this we tions offer no impediment at all to a have abundant evidence in the lower boundless range of vision. Perhaps animals, and in those lower faculties of there is no subject on which the fallacies our own nature which are of like kind to of philosophic phraseology have led to theirs. All their powers, and many of greater errors.

" That the finite canour own, are exerted without any sense not comprehend the infinite' is a propof limitation, and this because of the osition constantly propounded as an very fact that the limitation of them is undoubted and all-comprehensive truth. absolute and complete. In their own Such truth as does belong to it seems to nature they admit of no larger use. come from the domain of physics, in The field of effort and of attainable en- which it represents the axiom that a joyment is, as regards them, co-exten- part cannot be equal to the whole. sive with the whole field in view. Noth- From this, in the domain of mind, it ing is seen or felt by them which may comes to represent the truth, equally not be possessed. In such possession undeniable, that we cannot know all

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that infinity contains. But the meaning speak and think of the result as a vacuinto which it is liable to pass when ap

But we know now that when air plied to mind is that man cannot con- and all other terrestrial gases are gone ceive infinity. And never was any prop- the luminiferous medium venains; and osition so commonly accepted which, so far as we have means of knowing, this in this sense, is so absolutely devoid of medium is ubiquitous and omnipresent all foundation. Not only is infinity con- in the whole universe of space. In like ceivable by us, but it is inseparable from manner we are accustomed to see solid conceptions which are of all others the matter so dissipated as to be invisible, most familiar. Both the great concep- intangible, and wholly imperceptible ; tions of space and time are, in their and therefore we think we can imagine very nature, infinite. We cannot con- matter to be really destructible. But ceive of either of these as subject to the more we know of it the more certain limitation. We cannot conceive of a we become that it cannot be destroyed, inoment after which there shall be no and can only be redistributed. In like more time, nor of a boundary beyond manner, in regard to force, we are acwhich there is no more space. This customed to see matter in what is called means that we cannot but think of space statical equilibrium-that is to say, at as infinite, and of time as everlasting. rest ; and so, perhaps, we think we can

If these two conceptions stood alone conceive the cessation or extinction of they would be enough, for in regard to force. But here again the progress of them the only incapacity under which research is tending more and more to atwe labor is the incapacity to conceive tach irrevocably the idea of indestructhe finite. For all the divisions of space tibility—that is, of eternal existenceand time with which we are so familiar- to that which we know as force. The our days and months and years, and our truth is that this conception is really various units of distance--we can only implicitly involved in the conception think of as bits and fragments of a whole of the indestructibility of matter. For which is illimitable. But although these all that we know of matter is insepgreat conceptions of space and time are arably connected with the forces which possibly the only conceptions to which it exerts, or which it is capable of exertthe idea of infinity attaches as an abso- ing, or which are being exerted in it. lute necessity of thought, they are by no The force of gravitation seems to be allmeans the only conceptions to which the pervading, and to be either an inherent same idea can be attached, and probably power or property in every kind, or alought to be so. The conception of mat. most every kind, of matter, or else to be ter is one, and the conception of force is the result of some kind of energy which another, to which we do not, perhaps, at- is universal and unyuenchable. All tach, as of necessity, the idea of inde- bodies, however passive and inert they structibility, or the idea of eternal ex- may seem to be under certain condiistence and of infinite extension. But it tions, yet indicate by their very existence is remarkable that in exact proportion as the power of those molecular forces to science advances, we are coming to un- which the cohesion of their atoms is derstand that both of these are concep- due. The fact is now familiar to us that tions to which the idea of infinity not the most perfect stillness and apparent only may be, but ought to be, attached. rest in many forms of matter is but the That is to say, that the eternal existence result of a balance or equilibrium mainof inatter and the eternal duration of tained between forces of the most treforce are not only conceivable but true. mendous energy, which are ready to Nay, it may be our ignorance alone that burst forth at a moment's notice, when makes us think we can conceive the con- the conditions are changed under which trary. It is possible to conceive of space that balance is maintained. And this being utterly devoid of matter, only, per principle, which has become familiar in haps, because we are accustomed to see the case of what are called explosive and to think of spaces which are indeed substances, because of the ease and the empty of visible substances.

certainty with which the balanced forces expel also the invisible substances or 'can be 'liberated, is a principle which gases of the atmosphere, and we can really prevails in the composition of all

We can

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