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teacher of elocution in this city who is known worked into the portraiture of quite a number to have given his best attention during many of the characters. But to one really acquainted years to the subjects with which his book deals. with the history of the last fifty years, and with

the prominent actors in it, nothing could well ENDYMION. A Novel. By the Right Honor

appear more absurd than the performances of able Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beacons

the gossips who have constructed a complete field. New York : D. Appleton Eu Co.

list of dramatis personæ, identifying Lord RoeIf, as appears to be the case, “ Endymion” hampton with Lord Palmerston, Lord Montfort was written recently, it shows a remarkable with Lord Melbourne, the Earl of Ferrol with persistence of those qualities which character- Prince Bismarck, Job Thornberry with John ized Disraeli the Younger when he first began Bright, Myra with Lady Palmerston and the his literary career. It is more than fifty years Empress Eugènie, and (the climax of malicious since“ Vivian Grey" startled and somewhat absurdity !) Ste. Barbe with Thackeray. The bewildered the public by its audacities, and

extreme tenuity of the resemblances that have now, after more than an ordinary lifetime has furnished the basis for all this guessing reintervened, precisely the same sensation is minds one of the etymological achievement of produced by the appearance of Endymion.” Sydney Smith, who derived “ Middleton" There is the same thinly-disguised portraiture from “morals" by leaving off the rals and of well-known persons, the same more or less changing o into iddleton. conscious disclosures of the author's own per- Regarded in its purely literary aspect, “ Ensonality, the same tone of caustic satire and dymion" could hardly be assigned a very excynical depreciation, the same zest in depict- alted place even in current fiction, which caning “high life" and the pageantry of wealth, not be said to average very high ; but as a pothe same glorification of “race" and " blood,” litical novel written by a self-made Prime Minand the same brilliant, scintillating, epigram- ister it possesses a certain piquancy now, and matic, burnished, and rhetorical style. The will always retain a certain interest. style, indeed, is somewhat less tawdry than in

THE FAMILY MEDICAL GUIDE. A Complete the earlier story, and there is, perhaps, more repose of manner ; but there is no diminution

Popular Dictionary of Medicine and Hy.

giene. Edited by Edwin Lankester, M.D., of vivacity or vigor, and the work of the aged

F.R.S., etc. American Edition. New statesman is as lively, as aggressive, and as

York : E. R. Pelton & Co. full of animal spirits as the earlier achievement of the literary free lance.

The public has been so often imposed upon The action of “Endymion" covers the by works of this kind that any new venture in period from about 1830 to 1850, and in its in- the field is apt to be regarded at the outset with cidents and development follows, in the main, a well-grounded suspicion. Nor is this a mat. the order of historical events. As the author ter for surprise. Hitherto the field has been himself played a prominent part in these events, surrendered to medical quacks or to irresponthis of itself would suffice to give a certain sible compilers, whose productions have never piquancy to the story; and the piquancy is represented the best medical science and pracenhanced when we discover that the story of tice, and have wrought infinite harm to those Endymion is the story of one who, like its who have been confiding enough to trust them. author, raised himself from a position of ob- Lankester's “ Family Medical Guide" is a scure insignificance to that of Prime Minister work of a very different character. Dr. Lanof England. Yet it is obvious throughout that, kester himself is a physician and scientist of while there is a certain parallelism between the highest standing and of world-wide reputathe actual career of Benjamin Disraeli and the tion, and he states in a Note prefixed to the fictitious one of Endymion Ferrars, and while volume that he should not have undertaken the real incidents of the former have been used to editorship of this "Guide" had he not been illustrate the latter, there has been no intention fully assured that the professional gentlemen that the one should be regarded as a reflection who wrote the greater part of the articles were of the other. And the same thing is true of fully competent to the task. “They all posmost of the other characters. The Duke of sess," he says, “the highest qualifications, and Wellington, Husķisson, and Peel are intro- some of them are attached to public instituduced under their own proper names, and the tions, so that their individual opinions may be disguises of others are so diaphanous that it was regarded as of importance." He adds: “On evidently designed that they should be easily the whole, I believe the book will be found penetrated. Prince Florestan, for example, is more up to the science and practice of the time quite obviously Louis Napoleon ; the banker than any previous attempt made to popularize Neuchatel is the late Baron Rothschild ; and the practice of medicine and surgery.” The traits from the character or incidents from the American edition of the work has been very life of known men and women have been carefully revised, with a view to the different

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local conditions, and contains many valuable tasteful and elegant exterior. Almost without articles not found in the English edition. exception the poems which it contains are sug

For convenience of consultation the contents gested by Greek themes, and there is a scholof the Guide" are arranged in alphabetical arly and antique flavor about them, as well as order, as in a dictionary or cyclopædia, and the explanatory Notes, which is very pleasing. there are upward of two thou titles, the There is nothing of the Greek joyousness about scope of the work being far more comprehen. them, however, the author's mind being evisive than in anything of the kind previously dently of a grave and reflective cast. Serenity undertaken. Besides the articles on every of spirit is as marked a characteristic of them form of disease or ailment that flesh is heiras elevation of thought, and the verse, without to, each of the medicines, drugs, plants, and being melodious, exhibits a strong sense of preparations used in medical practice is fully rhythmical harmonies. It is a book for cultreated of in a separate article, and there are tured readers, which cultured readers will estivery complete instructions for the treatment of

mate highly. those various accidents that are liable to occur

HEROES CHRISTIAN HISTORY (Henry at any time, and which require immediate action. By the special desire of Dr. Lankester,

Martyn, by the Rev. Charles D. Bell, M, A., much space has been assigned to all questions

D.D.; William Wilberforce, by the Rev. connected with hygiene, or the preservation

John Stoughton, D.D.; Philip Doddridge,

New of health, and every branch of human physi

by the Rev. Charles Stanford, D.D.). ology is expounded and discussed by an ex

York : A. C. Armstrong & Son. pert. On such subjects as Food, Diet, Indi- Under the above apt and striking title the gestion, Fevers, Insanity, Climate, Health Re- publishers propose to issue a series of short sorts, Mineral Waters, Vaccination, and Sani- biographies of the men whose works and names tary Regulations, the articles are, in length and occupy the most prominent and distinguished importance, equivalent to special treatises. places in later religious history. Each volume Moreover, as the book was written by London of the series will be prepared by a writer of physicians of recognized ability and the highest recognized ability and authority, and while reputation, the methods of treating diseases aiming at scholarly exactness in the method of recommended in it comprise the very latest dis- treatment, will be entertaining in form, popular coveries and improvements in the science and in style, and adapted to the needs of those who practice of medicine. “In this respect,' have neither the means to procure nor the the preface says, “it is probably twenty years leisure to read more elaborate works. Among ahead of the average medical practice in this the subjects already selected for treatment (becountry, outside the few largest cities ; and sides those named at the head of our notice) many, perhaps most, physicians would learn are Richard Baxter, John Knox, Robert Hall, much from it regarding novel uses of medicines John Wycliffe, Thomas Chalmers, and Jonaand improved modes of treating disease.than Edwards ; and the volumes already issued

It should be said, however, that, while writ- show that the design of the series will be adten by professional men, the “Medical Guide” mirably carried out. The sketch of Henry Maris designed and adapted strictly for family use. tyn, the missionary to India, is particularly All technical phraseology has been carefully good, and besides the biographical narrative, avoided, and the aim has been to make a book contains an interesting selection from his corwhich any intelligent person could understand respondence. The career of Wilberforce was with ease and use with confidence. The di- in an unusual degree varied and picturesque, rections are simple and precise ; the remedies and furnishes an opportunity to the biographer suggested are such as may be readily obtained of which Dr. Stoughton has not failed to make and safely administered ; and particular pains good use ; and Dr. Stanford has made a hardly have been taken in explaining the significance less readable record of Doddridge's life. of those signs or symptoms of disease which it is so important that we should appreciate correctly. Occasions are constantly arising in family life when an intelligent man or woman,

FOREIGN LITERARY NOTES. using the information thus furnished, may

It has been estimated that there are now no mitigate suffering and perhaps save life.

fewer than 143,000,000 copies of the Bible, as UNDER THE OLIVE. Poems. By Mrs. Annie against only 5,000,000 copies in circulation at Fields. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Su Co.

the commencement of the present century. If it possessed no other attraction than its Russian translations of Bunyan's “Piloutward aspect, this little volume would be en- grim's Progress" and “ Holy War'' are to be titled to some degree of attention, but its con- published shortly, along with the illustrations tents stand in strict relationship to its extremely which appear in Messrs. Cassell's editions.

as

A new edition of Victor Hugo's “ Toilers Few are aware of the extent to which Sanof the Sea" is in preparation, in which all the skrit is at present used as a medium of convervigorous sketches with which the author illus- sation and correspondence in India, and of its trated the margins of his Ms. will be reproduced extreme convenience when employed as a kind in fac-simile.

of lingua franca among learned men in a counAfter much deliberation, Professor Lotze,

try where there may be no affinity between the the metaphysician, and the well-known author spoken vernaculars, or not sufficient affinity of “Mikrokosmos," has accepted a chair of

to make two persons living in adjacent districts philosophy at Berlin, where he will remove

mutually intelligible. Mr. Cust has shown from Göttingen at Easter, 1881,

that about two hundred languages and dialects

are spoken by the inhabitants of our Indian A REMARKABLE discovery has been made empire. What a barrier would this variety of in Berlin, viz., the papers of Marshal Bertier, speech be to the interchange of ideas, were it found in a chest that had not been touched for not for the universal employment of Sanskrit seventy years. Among these papers are some and Hindustani as vehicles of intellectual inletters from Napoleon I., and the summons to tercourse by the educated classes in all parts of Saxony in October, 1806 : they are shortly to the country !-Athenæum. be published.

It is well known that the contemporaries of The project of an International Congress of Goethe and Schiller published some very Orthographers, which was mooted in the spring strange criticisms upon them. Herr Julius of this year, received sufficient support from Braun is engaged upon the compilation of a scholars in England and on the Continent to book which is to be made up exclusively of a render it very probable that the first congress chronological reprint of the criticisms which will meet in the autumn of 1881.

appeared in various periodicals upon the two DON FRANCISCO CARRASCO is preparing a

great German poets between the years 1770 and

1834. The articles are collected from wellcatalogue of all the materials of the sixteenth ‘and seventeenth centuries preserved in the

known contemporary publications of Berlin, “ Archivo de las Indias,” and relating to the

Vienna, Leipzig, Dresden, Halle, Jena, Weidiscovery and description of America, for the

mar, Stuttgart, and Mannheim. Congress of Americanists to be held at Ma- We understand that Mr. Boscawen has disdrid in September, 1881,

covered in a private collection of objects com

ing from Carchemish a gem representing a A BENGALI writer, Jogendaranath Bidyabhu- priest, who stands upon a bee when sacrificing. shan, has recently published in the vernacular

The cultus of the bee among Semitic tribes a life of Mazzini, together with a short account

could be deduced from the name of Deborah, of Italian history, his object being, as he says, “ Bee." Mr. Boscawen's discovery may help to excite patriotic feelings among the Hindoos,

the understanding of the passage in Isaiah and to teach them to prefer the 'good of their

7:18, “ And

shall come to pass in that day, country to their self-interest.

that the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the The editors of “ Charles Dickens's Letters'

uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt (the Phiare anxious to get together more of his corre

listines worshipped the fly), and for the bee spondence. Miss Dickens and Miss Hogarth

that is in the land of Assyria.”
will, therefore, be grateful if any persons pos-
sessing letters of Dickens which have not been
published will send them under cover to Miss

SCIENCE AND ART.
Hogarth, at 11 Strathmore Gardens, Kensington,
W. The letters will be most carefully pre-

The Earth's ROTATION.—The Earth's roserved, copied, and returned to their owners

tation was demonstrated by means of the penwith as little delay as possible.

dulum by Leon Foucault, in Feb ry, 1851.

He was permitted to hang a bob of 28 kilos. The recent destruction of Professor Momm. from a wire 67 metres long, beneath the dome sen's library by fire has drawn the attention of the Pantheon, in Paris. A posthumous note of librarians to the necessity of insuring the in explanation of the observation is published safety of rooms in which mss. are deposited in the recently collected works of the great Thus the Library of Heidelberg has obtained physicist. He fully appreciated from the first a special grant for building fireproof rooms for that the rapidity of the deviation is equal to the its Mss.

We are sorry to say that nothing of Earth’s velocity multiplied into the sine of the the kind has been planned as yet for the Berlin latitude of the place of observation ; correLibrary, in which the mss. are, so far as we are sponding simply with sidereal time at the pole aware, stored up in those rooms which are and being infinite at the equator. The pendu nearest the roof.

lum had a period of eight seconds for each vi

bration. It continued in motion with a single PNEUMATIC CLOCKS. - Pneumatic clocks impulse for six hours, making a complete rota- have been successfully established in Paris, tion in thirty one hours, and a deviation of 1' both for public and private purposes.

The 33" in each oscillation. By this noble experi- subscribers are supplied with dials on this sysment he substantiated an important physical tem for the sum of a halfpenny per day. Air fact, namely, the fixedness of the plane of oscil- is compressed to five atmospheres in a reserlation, as a consequence of vis inertiæ in matter voir at the central station. A distributing-clock generally. This he afterward demonstrated places this in communication with distributingstill more ingeniously by means of a delicately- pipes for twenty seconds every minute, the suspended gyroscope.

Another less known used air being again employed to wind autoform of the experiment is also recorded in his 'matically the original train. The distributingworks. A thin, long, elastic rod of steel is tubes are of iron, 27 millim. in bore, carried fixed to the mandril of an ordinary lathe, being under ground. These, by leaden or indiafree at the farther end. If this be pulled at the rubber connections, communicate with the free end out of its position of rest, it vibrates affiliated dials. The dial has a small caoutin a series of lines, circles, and ellipses, follow- chouc bellows, similar to that of the pneumatic ing each other in regular succession. The telegraph, acting on a lever, which takes, by same phenomenon is seen in Wheatstone's means of a ratchet, into a wheel of 60 teeth, kaleidophone. When, however, a steady oscil- carrying the minute-hand. The hour-hand is lation has been obtained, it is not interfered moved by the usual motion-work. Striking'with in direction by causing the mandril and clocks are also fitted up on the same system the attached rod to rotate rapidly about their for the small increase in price of a single cenaxis, the plane of oscillation continuing stable time, namely, six instead of five per diem. It though the mass of the vibrating body is in appears that the whole expense is from fifteen motion. Even beyond this the rotation pro- shillings to a pound per annum. tects the oscillatory plane against deformations due to unsymmetry of the rod, and renders it ILLUSTRATING POLARIZED LIGHT.-A beaumore stable than in a state of rest. Indeed, tiful illustration of the laws of polarization of whatever form the vibratory curve may have light has lately been made by M. G. Govi. taken up, whether linear, circular, or elliptical, Let a parallel beam of light be passed through this is preserved unchanged as long as the a polarizer, then through a thin slice of quartz axial rotation is kept at a certain speed. cut perpendicularly to the optic axis, then

through an analyzing Nicul prism. It is seen, THE SUSPECTED ULTRA-NEPTUNIAN PLAN- as is well known, to be colored. This colored ET.-No results have been made known with light when passed into a spectroscope gives a respect to the distant planet believed by Pro- spectrum marked by one or more dark bands, fessor George Forbes to be at present close corresponding to the particular rays whose relto the star B Virginis. It is probable, there- ative retardations in passing through the crysfore, that no attempt has been made to search tal slice have produced interference. These for this very problematical planet. It will be bands are not always in one place ; they are remembered that Professor Forbes sounded his displaced right or left (according to whether belief in its existence on a study of the orbits the crystal is a right-handed or a left-handed of the different comets of long period, and that specimen) if either the analyzer or the polarizer he assigned a distance from the Sun of over be rotated. A slice of quartz about 4.3 millims. 100 times that of the Earth, and a period of thick produces a single band. One of 8.6 milover 1000 years.

Professor Forbes also lims., two bands at once in the visible spectrum, pointed out that in 1857 this supposed planet the number of bands being proportional to the would be in the position of the star No. 894 in thickness of the crystal. Now suppose a methe Greenwich First Seven-Year Catalogue, a chanical contrivance by which both the anastar which was only seen in the year 1857, and lyzer and the spectrum can be rotated at the on no subsequent occasion. We now learn same velocity. A direct vision prism attached that this star, No. 894, was a tenth-magnitude to the front of the Nicol prism realizes the opstar, observed by mistake for one of the minor tical portion of this combination. There will planets, and that it still remains in its place. be seen on rotation a circular spectrum, having The hypothesis of Professor Forbes that this either red or violet at the centre, and either might be his planet therefore falls to the violet or red at its outer circumference. Now ground. As before pointed out, if Professor since the dark band spoken of is displaced by Forbes's planet really existed, it would prob- a quantity proportional to the amount of rotaably be so faint (like a fourteenth-magnitude tion, interference will take place in this circular star) and would move so slowly that it could spectrum along points which form geometrically not be detected without enormous labor with a spiral of Archimedes. The persistence of an exceeding powerful telescope.

impressions on the retina will enable this dark

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spiral to be seen in its entirety, provided the side. It was some minutes before I rotation be sufficiently rapid. If a thicker covered.' Unfortunately, the conditions for piece of quartz be used, giving two, three, or the repetition of the experiment are not very four dark bands, the rotation - spectrum will readily obtainable ; . otherwise considerable present a most beautiful appearance, being light might be thrown upon the undoubted crossed by a two-branched, or three-branched, phenomenon of “globular lightning."-Elecor four-branched spiral, the separate lines of trician. which proceed from the centre to the circum

EDUCATION OF ference. The sense of these dark spirals will

THE DEAF.—The meeting change with the sense of the impressed rota

of the International Congress for the education tion. The effects, says Nature, are very strik

of the deaf at Milan may be regarded as iming.

portant, for they resolved to discard signs in

teaching, and to adopt the pure oral method." AN EXTRA BONE IN THE HUMAN WRIST.- The president, Abbé Tarra, said in his adDr. Eugène Vincent has found an additional dress, “Signs must be altogether abjured, (ninth) bone in each wrist of an old Arab. The though a few simple gestures may be allowed first row of carpals consisted, as usual, of four when the little child is first introduced to bones, but the second row had five ; the sup- school-life. In the school-room begins the replementary bone, which was equal in size to demption of the deaf-mute. He is waiting to the pisiform, was between the trapezium and be made into a man. Let him be taught to the grande, and it was applied against the move his lips in speech, not his hands in scaphoid above and the trapezoid in front, but signs. Of all movements for the expression articulated by one of its faces with the second of ideas, those of the lips are most perfect. metacarpal. The structure was the same in Speech is addressed to the intellect, while gesboth wrists. The orang and most of the lower tures speak coarsely to the senses. These apes regularly possess a ninth tone in the

views were supported by speakers from differcarpus, but this differs somewhat in position ent parts of Europe ; and from experiments from the bone found by Dr. Vincent, and does made in England and other countries there is not appear to reach the second metacarpal no doubt that persons utterly deaf can be bone which is nearest to it. In the quadrumana, taught to speak by watching the movements Cuvier considered the supplementary bone to of their teachers' lips. be a separated portion of the grande ; but according to the opinion of M. Alix it is rather a LIGHT AND VEGETABLE GROWTH.-From dismemberment of the scaphoid. Dr. Vincent observations made during nearly twenty years regards the ninth bone in his Arab as probably in a forest in the Jura, it appears to be proved derived from the trapezoid, which was much that: (1) when light strikes the ground without reduced in size.

having been sifted by foliage, it stimulates the

production of carbonic acid in the soil ; that ARTIFICIAL GLOBE LIGHTNING.–The follow. (2) the growth of wood is diminished when the ing passage occurs in an old book entitled

underbrush is so thick and tall as to impede the ' New Dissertation the Electricity of

passage of sunlight to the soil, and its reflex Bodies." “ The 12th January, 1748, easterly action on the branches of the trees; and (3) wind and great cold. I stretched out a large that mould in too great a thickness becomes cat on the coverlet of my bed, and on rubbing inert, and thus remains many years, as is the it I obtained in the darkness sparks of fire, the

case with farm-yard manure when too deeply sound of which much resernbled that of a comb

buried. when the hand is passed over the teeth. A thousand little points of fire danced about here THE COURSE OF A LIGHTNING FLASH.and there, and, by continuing the friction, the Professor Tait, of Edinburgh, insists that when sparks augmented to such an extent that they people think they see a lightning flash go upappeared like spheres or balls of fire, of the size ward or downward they must be mistaken. of a hazel nut. I observed these little globes The duration of a lightning flash is less than detach themselves from the body of the cat, the millionth part of a second, and the eye fall upon the coverlet, rebound like foot-balls. cannot possibly follow the movements of such ... A thousand balls of fire were moving over extraordinary rapidity. The origin of the misthe cat and on the coverlet ; I observing at- take seems, he says, to be a subjective one, tentively. I approached my eyes to a ball viz., that the central parts of the retina are which appeared more luminous than the others. more sensitive, by practice, than the rest, and Immediately I heard a kind of explosion or therefore that the portion of the flash which is crackling, and felt a pricking sensation in the seen directly affects the brain sooner than the eyes. There was no shock in any other por- rest. Hence a spectator looking toward tion of the body ; but the pain was followed either end of a flash very naturally fancies that by a weakness which caused me to fall on my end to be its starting-point. It is singular that

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