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St. Luke's Gospel thus—“ Remember the words of the Lord Jesus, how he said, Wo to that man by whom offences come,
" &c. So, too, Polycarp to the Philippians, 21 “Remembering what the Lord taught us, which is followed by another exact citation from St. Luke's Gospel, implying that their readers were familiar with the Scripture itself.
2. QUOTATIONS FROM, AND ALLUSIONS TO, THE SCRIPTURES OF THE NEW
TESTAMENT, IN THE WRITINGS OF THE APOSTOLICAL FATHERS. In this very custom of quoting the words of Scripture in all their By citations. writings, we may perceive another mode in which the Church and its rulers became the vehicle of evidence to the sacred record, and the means of preserving it pure. When Clement or Ignatius cites a passage of St. Luke or St. Paul as inspired, the citation serves at once the purpose of preserving to posterity their testimony to the inspired character of the writings, and of enabling us to identify those writings with such as have been transmitted to us as Scripture. In no respect is the testimonial office of the Church more apparent than in this. During a period of nearly eighteen hundred years, the Church of one age has been thus passing on the memorial of its own conviction and satisfaction to another. Like a chain of heralds stationed over a wide extent of country, for the purpose of transmitting some great and urgent tidings; one generation has written, what
may be called, the telegraph of its own conviction to the next; and thus it has passed on even unto us.
Let no one, therefore, blame the zeal which incites numbers still to tread the same ground with their predecessors; to write on the same topics on which they have written, even without the design of superseding their labours, or the ambition of rivalling them. He who has left to the world a statement of his belief in any Gospel truth, and in the authenticity of the record which preserves it, if his writings but remain to another generation, will have borne a part in one of the most important offices of that great society to which he belongs. His writings will have served to swell the voice that speaks out, according to the appointment of Providence, from one station of time unto another; and which must continue to be heard till time shall be no more.
Out of those writings of the apostolical Fathers which are commonly selected as genuine, the following quotations from, and allusions to, the New Testament Scriptures, may serve to show in what way those writings attest the genuineness of our Canon ; and a reference to the context, in each instance, will enable us farther to judge how far these Fathers applied the Scriptures, according to what we consider to be their true import and intent.22
21 Chap. ii.
22 These passages are from Archbishop Wake's version. Wherever it fails to
give the full sense of the original, the deviation is noticed at the bottom of the page.
CLEMENT. Citations by First Epistle to the Corinthians, chap. xiii. “Remembering the Clement. words of the Lord Jesus, which he spake concerning equity and
long-suffering, saying, Be ye merciful, and ye shall obtain mercy: forgive, and ye shall be forgiven: as ye do, so shall it be done unto you: as ye give, so shall it be given unto you: as ye judge, so shall
ye be judged: as ye are kind to others, so shall God be kind to you: with what measure ye mete, with the same shall it be measured to you again.” Compare Matt. vii. 1, 6, and Luke vi. 36–38.
Chap. xxxvi. “ This is the way, beloved, in which we may find our Saviour, even Jesus Christ, the High Priest of all our offerings. By him would God have us to taste the knowledge of immortality, who being the brightness of his glory,24 is by so much greater than the angels, as he has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they. For so it is written. Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire. But to his Son,25 thus saith the Lord: Thou art my Son, to-day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the utmost parts of the earth for thy possession. And, again, he saith unto him: Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.” Compare Hebrews i. 3—13.
Chap. xxxvii. “Let us for example take our body; the head without the feet is nothing, neither the feet without the head. And even the smallest members of our body are yet both necessary and useful to the whole body. But all conspire together, and are subject to one common use,20 namely, the preservation of the whole body. Compare St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, chap. xii.
Chap. xlvi. “Why do we rend and tear in pieces the members of Christ; and raise seditions against our own body ?-Are we come to such a height of madness, as to forget that we are members one of another ? Remember the words of our Lord Jesus, how he said, Wo to that man by whom offences come !27 It were better for him that he had never been born, than that he should have offended one of my elect. It were better for him that a millstone should be tied about his neck, and he should be cast into the sea, than that he should offend one of my little ones. Compare Matt. xviï. 6; Mark ix. 42; Luke xvii. 1, 2.
23 'Ezisizeid, meekness, forbearance, mercy. Even dizutocúrn was so applied, as in 2 Cor. ix. 9: Η δικαιοσύνη αυτού μένει £is tòy alive. In Matt. i. 19: 'Iworo di o drve auris dizolos y, should be rendered,
Joseph her husband, being a mild or merciful man.”
24 'Απαύγασμα της μεγαλωσύνης αυτού, the brightness of his majesty;" the word μεγαλωσύνης Occurring in the same verse, was very naturally substituted by
one quoting, as Clement probably did, from memory. See ver. 3, in the passage alluded to.
25 'Esi dè tū Tim aútoũ,“ in reference to his Son."
26 Υποταγή μιά χρήται εις το σώζεσθαι önov, “all practise submission, that they may be preserved as a whole."
27 The latter part of the sentence is not in the original.
Chap. xlvii. “ Take the Epistle of the blessed Paul the apostle into your hands. What was it that he wrote to you at his first preaching the Gospel among you ? 28. Verily, he did by the Spirit admonish you, concerning himself, and Cephas, and Apollos, because that even then
had begun to fall into parties and factions among yourselves.” Compare St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, especially chap. i. 11, 12.
Chap. xlix. “Charity covers the multitude of sins: charity endures all things, is long-suffering in all things. There is nothing base and sordid 80 in charity. Charity lifts not itself above others; admits of no divisions; is not seditious; but does all things in peace and concord. By charity were all the elect of God made perfect. Compare St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, chap. xiii. 7, &c.
IGNATIUS. Epistle to the Ephesians, chap. xii. “You are the companions By Ignatius. of Paul in the mysteries of the Gospel, the holy, the martyr, the deservedly most happy Paul, who throughout all his Epistle makes mention of you in Christ Jesus." Compare St. Paul to the Ephesian especially chap. iii. 3—9.
Same Epistle, chap. xviii. " The doctrine of the cross is a scandal33 to unbelievers, but to us is salvation and life eternal. Where is the wise man? Where is the boasting of those who are called wise?” Compare First Epistle to the Corinthians, chap. i. 18–20.
Epistle to the Magnesians, chap. x. Lay aside therefore the old, and sour, and evil leaven, and be ye changed into the new leaven, which is Jesus Christ.' Compare St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, chap. v. 7, 8.
Smyrncans, chap. i. “ Our Lord Jesus Christ, who truly was of the race of David according to the flesh, but the Son of God according to the will and power of God.” Compare Epistle to the Romans, chap. i. 3, 4. Epistle to Polycarp, chap. v.
brethren, that they love their wives, even as the Lord the Church.” Compare St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, chap. v. 25.
28 'Εν αρχη του ευαγγελίου. Compare τους μικρούς των δαπανήματων πολλά αναλίσ- . Phil. iv. 15, Οίδατε δε και υμείς Φιλιππήσιοι, κοι, και λαμπρύνεται παρά μέλος. Ολον ερανισ ότι εν αρχή του ευαγγελίου, ότε εξήλθον από Tès youssois lotoWv. Clement, doubtless, Μακεδονίας ουδεμία μοι εκκλησία έκοινώνησεν, , intended to express St. Paul's ń áréron
Ecclesiastical writers use the ου περπεξεύεται, ου φυσιούται. phrase in the same sense.
31 'E TEEá noar, “have been made per29 The article is wanting, as is the case
fect." in the original expression of St. Peter, from whom it was, doubtless, borrowed.
32 Συμμύσται, persons initiated in the 30 Ουδέν βάναυσον εν αγάπη, ουδέν υπερή
same mysteries. It is an allusion to the “Display” would have expressed
apostle's language, concerning the call of the meaning of Bérauroy more exactly.
the Gentiles, which he speaks of as “the Aristotle, in his Ethics, makes Bevoucía
mystery which was kept secret since the the excess of peyarorgétice, see Lib. II. C.
world began, but now is made manifest." 7. and Lib. IV. C. 2. Ο βάναυσος, τώ
See more especially Eph. ii. 3—9 ταρά το δέον αναλίσκειν, υπερβάλλει, εν γας
33 “ A stumbling-block.”
%. 7. a.
POLYCARP. By Polycarp. Epistle to the Philippians, chap. iii. “Paul, who being himself
in person with those who then lived,34 did with all exactness and soundness teach the word of truth, and being gone from
you, wrote an Epistle 35 to you; into which, if you look, you will be able to edify yourselves in the faith, which has been delivered unto you." Compare St. Paul's Epistle to the Philippians.
Chap. i. “ Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death. Compare Acts i. 24. Chap. ii.
Wherefore girding up the loins of your mind, 36 serve the Lord with fear.” Compare St. Peter, 1 Epistle, i. 13.
Ibid. “Remembering what the Lord has taught us, saying, • Judge not, and ye shall not be judged ; 87 forgive, and ye shall be forgiven.' Be ye merciful, and ye shall obtain mercy:* form with the same measure that you mete withal, it shall be measured to you again. And again, · Blessed are the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of God.'”. Compare Luke vi. 36–38; Matt. v. 3; vii. 1, 2.
Chap. iv. “The love of money is the root of all evil.40 Knowing, therefore, that as we brought nothing into the world, so neither may we carry any thing out,” &c. Compare St. Paul's First Epistle to Timothy, vi. 7, 10.
Chap. v. “Every such lust4l warreth against the spirit; and neither fornicators, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, shall inherit the kingdom of God.” Compare First Epistle of St. Peter, ii. 11; and I Cor. vi. 9, 10.
Chap. vi. “We must all stand before the judgment seat of Christ, and shall every one give an account of himself.” Compare St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, xiv. 10, 12.
Chap. vii.“ Whosoever does not confess that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, he is antichrist.”
Compare 1 St. John iv. 3.
Jesus Christ, who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree; who did no sin, neither was guile found in
34 'Ev úp'iy omitted; "those of you who then lived ” would have expressed it.
35 'ERITToNás. Lardner understands him to speak of the Epistles to the Thessalonians, as well as that to the Philippians, (see Credibil. B. I. C. 6.) Cotelerius, in his note on the word, cites Eusebius and other authorities, to show that the word is sometimes used in the plural for a single Epistle. This is partly true. The plural of tuoton may be so used as not to imply more letters than one, but not, like the Latin literæ, to express one letter. The translation therefore is not quite correct. It should be, “Paul, &c. wrote to you, and, if you will refer to what he wrote.” The circumstance of its being one or more Epistles, is not intended to be expressed.
36 “Of your mind,” not in the original.
37 "Ινα μη κριθήτε, in order that ye may not be judged.
38 "Ινα ελεηθήτε, in order that ye may obtain mercy.
39 “For,” not in the original.
40 Távtay xonerūv, “all difficulties." Polycarp must have made the quotation with that expression of our Saviour in his mind, “How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God.” “It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God." -Luke xviii. 24, 25.
41 Πάσα επιθυμία, “ every lust.”
his mouth; but suffered all for us, that we might live through him.” Compare 1 Peter ii. 22–24.
Chap. ix. “Keep yourselves from all evil. For he that in these things cannot govern himself, how shall he be able to prescribe them 42 to another. If a man does not keep himself from covetousness, he shall be followed with idolatry, and be judged as if he were a Gentile. But who of you are ignorant of God? Do we not know, that 'the saints shall judge the world,' as Paul teaches ? But I have neither perceived nor heard any thing of this kind in you, among whom the blessed Paul laboured, and who are named in the beginning of that Epistle ; for the glories of you, in all the Churches who then only knew God.” Compare St. Paul's First Epistle to the Thessalonians, v. 22; Eph. v. 5; Coloss. ii. 5; 1 Cor. vi. 2; Phil. i.
Chap. xii. “ I trust that ye are well exercised in the holy Scriptures, and that nothing is hid from you ;43 but at present, it is not granted unto me to practise that which is written. and sin not;' and again, • Let not the sun go down upon your
Compare Eph. iv. 26.
• Be angry,
It has been observed by some, that although, in most of these These and the like instances, the citations are sufficiently correct to pre- sometimes clude all doubt of their being taken from the very parts of Scripture diferrecome to which they are assigned; yet, that in a few, the meaning, and words of
42 Hoc, “this,” the rule, namely, other words are only to be found in the which follows, “If a man does not,” &c. New Testament; and being there coupled agreeably, to our Lord's language, as with the former, there can be no doubt recorded by St. Matthew and St. Luke, that the whole was intended as a quota“How canst thou say to thy brother, tion from the same passage. Ignatius, Brother, let me pull out the mote that is even, makes more than one apparent in thine eye, when thou thyself beholdest allusion to a collection of the New Testanot the beam that is in thine own eye?” ment Scriptures, e.g. Ep. ad Philad. Sec. -Luke vi. 42; Matt. vii. 4.
8; Certain persons declared in my 43 (Et nihil vos latet.) The translator hearing, 'I believe nothing which may seems to have read latere.
not be found in the ancients (or the 44 The sentence, as it stands in the archives.'*) On my saying, 'It is original, is obscure. Mihi autem non con- written there, they answered, cessum est, modo, seems rather to refer to point is proved.?" Again, in the same the assiduous study of the Scriptures, Epistle, Sec. 5, we read, “Fleeing to the which he had been recommending in the Gospel' as to the body of Christ, and to words immediately preceding. Ut his the apostles, as to the presbytery of the Scripturis dictum est, begins another Church. At the same time, let us reperiod, and the quotations denoted are spect the prophets, for they announced those which follow, Be ye angry and to mankind, that we were to believe in sin not; let not the sun go down upon the Gospel and in and to expect your wrath.” This passage so arranged, him.” Now as the writer evidently (and it is the most natural arrangement,) meant by " the prophets,” the writings proves two things; first, that the New
of the prophets, (under which denomiTestament was appealed to as Scrip- nation he might' have comprehended all ture, -as a written record,-by Polycarp; the inspired writings of the Old Testasecondly, that it comprehended already, ment,) the most natural interpretation of beyond the sacred narratives, at least the terms Gospel,” and “apostles," is the Epistle to the Ephesians. For, al- the recorded Gospel,” and “the writthough it may be said that the former ings of the apostles. part of the quotation, “Be ye angry,
and sin not,” may have been cited from the * There are two readings, demos0ss anu book of Psalms immediately; yet the agxeiois.