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The Parliamentary proceedings of this Year, a natural Bond of Con

nerion between the great Events of 1807 and 1808.--Speech from the Throne.- Debates thereon in both Houses.Moved in the Peers by the Earl of Galloway:

Amendment moved by the Duke of Norfolk. This Amendment seconded by Lord Sidmouth.-Opposed by the Earl of Aberdeen.-Supported by Lord Grenville.- Opposed by Lord Hawkesbury, Supported by the Earl of Lauderdale. Opposed by Lord Mulgrave.--The Amendment rejected. In the House of Commons the Address moved by Lord Hamilton.--Motion for the Address seconded by Mr. C. Ellis.-Observations by Lord Milton respecting the Attack on Copenhagen.--Speech of Mr. Ponsonby, and Notice of a Motion respecting the affair of Copenhagen.-The Address supported by Mr. Milnes. -Strictures on the Address by Mr. Whitbread. Speech of Mr. Canning in support of the Address.---Lord 11. Petty against the attack on Copenhagen.- Mr. Bathurst ditto.-Mr. Windkam ditto.- Reply of Mr. Perceval.-The Question carried without a Dirision.- Report of the Address.-- Fresh Debates.


THE wonderful events that had were brought into discussion in the

come to pass on the continent imperial parliament of Great Britain of Europe in the summer and au- and Ireland, that was assembled on tuma of 1807, formed a great por- the 31st of January, 1808. It is tion of the rarious subjects that therefore proper, in the history of Vol. L.



this year, for the sake of order, of the enemy to compel the courts both chronological and natural, in of Denmark and Portugal to subthe first place to give some account scribe their navies to a general conof the proceedings and debates of federacy about to be formed against this great national council; the this country. This formidable only great council in Europe in combination had been frustrated which political affairs could be treat with respect to Denmark by force, ed with freedom. The attention of of arms. The hostile sentiments parliament towards the close of the of the court of Denmark, evinced session was rouzed with equal impor- in many ways for some years past, tunity by the most unexpected events had rendered every other mode of in the west of Europe : events which proceeding useless. It was an unseemed to be as fortunate and bright, fortunate circumstance that the as those in the north and east bad Danish fleet should be encircled by been disastrous and cloudy. Though the walls of the capital, thereby therefore parliamentary affairs con- causing misfortune which every hustitute only a secondary and subor- man mind would wish to have dinate part of the history of Europe, avoided. But it was creditable to in the present case, they form a the arms of this country, and merivery natural bond of connexion be- torious in the officers commanding tween the great events of 1807 and the expedition, that every attempt those of 1808.

was made to prevent that evil. As The speech from the throne®, soon as success had enabled us to delivered by commission, turned as judge for ourselves, every predice usual on the great public questions tion of government had been verithat would come under discussion tied. An arsenal was found to be in parliament; the most important over supplied with every article of of which were the expedition to equipment, magazines replete with Copenhagen ; our relations with stores, ascertained to have been Russia, Austria, and Sweden ; the purchased by agents of France, and departure of the royal family of demonstrations which could not Portugal for the Brazils; and the escape the eye of seamen, that the orders in council respecting neutral fleet was on the eve of being fitted commerce. In the house of peers out. It was gratifying to reflect on an address, in answer to his majesty's the means that had been employed speech, was moved by the earl of 10 secure the navy of Portugal from Galloway, wlio recapitulated with the grasp of France, by recomgreat approbation its most promi- mending to the court to transfer the nient features. In the speech from seat of their government to the the throne, their lordships had been Brazils ; to see one government of informed, that soon afier the treaty Europe preferring emigration to subof Tilsit had announced the dire- mission to France, an event from liction of Russia, of the cause she which, provided a strict friendship had espoused, lis Majesty's minis- and liberal policy should be observed lers received the most positive in- by both Britain and Portugal, the formation that it was the intention most beneficial results were to be

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expected. It was gratifying also he, “ we must make a stand someto reflect, that at the very moment where, and where can we do it betwben our merchants were deprived ter than in defence of our seamen of their trade with Russia, so large and our trade, which the Ameria portion of the continent of Ame- cans unequivocally demanded? If rica was thrown open to their enter- America prefer French alliance to prize. He hoped that we should British connection, it is not in your become independent of Russia for power to controul ber choice, nor ever. If the legislature of these can you prevent that war which I kingdoms would grant a liberal do not wish to take place ; but bounty to encourage the cultivation which, if it does take place, I am of bemp and flax, both at home and confident, if pursued by us with in the British colonies, we might judgment and reference to the yet live to greet the day of our American character and situation, quarrel with Russia, and even hail no man need to fear.” But lord with satisfaction the inauspicious Galloway observed, our chief contreaty of Tilsit.

cern was with France; “ Slie proWith respect to the other powers claims, my lords, that she will of Europe, lord Galloway observed, not lay down her arms, but will that with the single exception of augment her force until she Sweden, they were prostrate at the bas conquered the liberty of the feet of France, and obedient to the seas, the first right of all nations. mandates of their domineering In recommending to us an armed master. But the conduct and spirit truce, which she calls a peace, slie of the independent monarch of says, “it shall endure until she Sweden merited every eulogium. chooses to proclaim anew the prinHe trusted that a British force ciples of her armed neutrality," would aid him in the Baltic to defy when she permits you to proclaim his enemies, and that British grati- your principles of maritime law. tude would compensate any loss he is this what you are willing to acmight be obliged to suffer, by trans- cept as your peace? Have we alferring to him some of those colo- ready forgot the peace of Amiens ? aies we could so well spare, and Do we wish to see the seamen of most soon take from our joint foes. France all restored, and the pendAs to our dispute with the United ants of her ships going up, while States of America, local knowledge ours will necessarily be coming obtained by him at the early periods down ? My lords, although the of the French revolution had en- arms of Europe may appear on the abled him to form a very decided side of France, I cannot believe opinion with respect to that country, that her heart is against this couisand he was sorry to say, he could try. If we remain firm and unapnot form a flattering one; and he palled, as recommended by his was bappy to learn by the tenour majesty, and exemplified by himof bis majesty's speech, that it was self, some balance may yet be preBot the intention of bis majesty's served in Europe; if we yield, no government to concede one single man can forsee the consequences." point inore to that illiberal and pre- The earl concluded by moving an judiced people. "My lords," said address to his majesty, which, as

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usual, re-echoed the sentiments of been apprized of the intention the speech. This motion was se- of the enemy to combine the conded by lord Kenyon, who powers of the continent in one gendwelt chiefly on the passage in the eral confederacy, to be directed speech which related to the emi- . either to the entire subjugation of gration of the court of Portugal to this kingdom, or to the imposing the Brazils, and the spirit with upon his majesty an insecure and which ministers conducted them- inglorious peace; that for this purselves in not surrendering the paval pose, states formerly neutral, were rights of this country to the Ameri- to be forced into hostility, and cans. The duke of Norfolk was compelled to bring to bear against sorry that it would be impossible for the different parts of his majesty's him to give his unqualified assent to dominions, the whole of the naval the address as it stood. The speech force of Europe, and specifically from the throne declared, that it the fleets of Portugal and Denmark. was with the de pest reluctance bis If this were really the case, it would majesty had found himself com- be a complete justification of the pelled to resort to the extremity of conduct of this country, not only force against Depmark. Now the in our own eyes, but those of the duke, looking in the most careful whole world. For the moment a manner to the speech, did not per- nation meditates hostility against ceive that it was in the contempla- you, that is to be regarded as a tion of his majesty's servants to af- declaration of war. But then, to ford to the house any such infor-, give effect to this justification, some mation on the subject as should proof of its existence must be adenable them to say that they saw duced. “A hostile disposition,” it reason for concurring in a declara- had been said, on the part of the tion that there was a necessity for Danish government towards this the measure. He was aware it country, bad manifested itself for would be said that every species of the last seven years; and the fact discretion should be observed in of their having acceded to the views exposing matters of such delicacy. of France, was evident from the This principle, and the propriety of immense quantity of stores and acting upon it, in most cases, he ammunition found in their arsenals. was far from disputing ; but he Lord $. asked if it was consistent thought it was carrying the doctrine with human reason, or even with the too far to desire of that house to words of the speech itself, in anexpress their opinion of the necessity other paragraph, that the court of of a measure of so extreme a nature, Denmark should be in amily with without the most distant tittle of France at a time when France was evidence to justify it. His grace carrying on hostilities against Russia? herefore moved, that the clause re- or if it could be supposed, that bespecting the expedition to the Baltic, tween the period of the battle which in the redress, should be omitted. preceded the peace of Tilsit, and

The amendment proposedl was our attack on Copenhagen, these seconded_by lord visount Sid- stores had been collected? Where mouth. The speech referred to then were the demonstrations of the fact of his majesty having hostility manifested on the part of


Denmark against this country? been more magnanimous to have Where were her armies? In Hole attacked the powerful than the stein. Where was her fleet ? Lying weak ? It was known that the minds in ordinary. Her armies, so far of the inhabitants of Petersburgh from being in hostile movemeut were favourable to this country. Our against ns, were, to the number of fleet, by presenting itself at a proper 20,000 mnen, encamped in Holstein, time before that capital, inig at have guardins against the hostile minve- gained possession of it, and thus ments of the French. Had they Sweden would have been saved ; beep in Zealand, we might not so and Denmark, who was as much taul trave been able to congratu- our friend as Russia was our ally, lale ourselves on the victory we' would have been spared. This mode obtained. Her navy, so far from of warfare his lordship objected to, meditating hostilities against us, was particularly as tending to overturn surprizell, the greater part of it in the law of nations.'It would have been a state of complete disrepair. It more becoming in Great Britain to was saint that the French would oppose our honour and good faith bave seized on Holstein, and from to our enemy's mode of warfare. theuce might have easily passed over The earl of Aberdeen defended into Zealand. This, bis lordship the expedition to Copenhagen. Of understood, was by po' means so the law of nations, self-protection easy as was imagined : such a frost was a principle. Much had been seld m occurred as to afford a com- said of the extraordinary and unfortable passage from the one place precedented nature of this expedito the other; and even when it did tion; but there was a precedent so happen the people of Zealand for it in the conduct of the late ad. might break the ice nearest to their ministration towards Turkey. And own side. And, supposing that the he did not conceive it to be more French might thus have got pos- probable, that the Turkish feet session of the Danish navy, what should sail into the English channel tese could they have made of it ? than the Danish. What had we to dread from the Lord Grenville said, that from addition of sixteen sail of the live, the commencement of the war in of such ships as those of Denmark? 1793, down to the termination of Even before the battle of Trafalgar the illustrious administration of the we could have had pothing to dread illustrious Mr. Pitt, in no speech from such an accession of strength from the throne, at the cominenceto our enemy, far less pow. We ment of a session, were parliament were told that bostile dispositions, on called upon to pledge themselves in the part of the northern powers, bad support of measures without evi. begun to shew themselves ever since dence before them of their necessity, the peace of Tilsit. Why then had propriety, or utility. In no case ve allowed a Russian fleet since that were they called upon to approve twine to pass through the Mediterra- of measures before the papers reDean, and three sail ofthe line belong. Jating to them were produced, ing to Russia to go unmolested, at whereon a judgment might be form. the very same time the Danish fleet ed according to the evidence of the was seized op? Would it not have case ; vet, in the present instance,

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