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VII. I shall now select a few other things.
1. He a styles John the Baptist, the sacred boundary of the Old and New Testament.
2. He speaks of the evangelist Mark, as the first bishop of the city of Alexandria.
3. The apostle Paul, he calls the master of the whole world.
4. He d sometimes compares the Greek and the Latin copies of the New Testament..

5. In citing the Old Testament, he follows the ancient Latin translation that had been made from the Seventy, and was then in general use. However, once at least," he has quoted Jerom's version as the more exact, or more agreeable to the Hebrew.

6. He quotes the epistle to the Ephesians with that title.

7. Cassian is always reckoned an opposer of the Augustinian doctrine; nevertheless, he was also very averse to Pelagianism, which he describes in this manner : · He says they do not so

much consider Christ to be the Redeemer of mankind, as their teacher, and example, delivering • to them precepts of virtue, and setting them an excellent pattern; that obeying him, and

following him in the same path of virtue, they may obtain rewards, like those which have been • bestowed upon him: thus, he says, setting aside, as far as in them lies, the great design of • Christ's coming.'

8. In the year 428, Nestorius was made bishop of Constantinople, who scrupled to call the virgin • Mary, mother of God;' thinking it more proper to call her, mother of our Lord,' or • mother of Jesus Christ.' In 430, as before shewn, Cassian wrote against him in seven books; and he treats him with great severity. He calls him an apostate, perfidious; a blasphemer, impious, and impudent: and * earnestly exhorts the people of Constantinople to separate themselves from him, and have no communion with him, but to shun him as a wolf, or pest

, lest they should be devoured or infected by him.

9. And he sets out, at the beginning of that work, with an invective against all who had been called heretics in former and latter times ; as low as Apollinarius and Pelagius. Such is the temper of some men; indeed, of very many! They behave, as if they were infallible: they are, it seems, exactly right; and if any man differs from them never so little, he is presently a heretic and a blasphemer; impious, impudent, perfidious; and the like.

10. I never intended to insert in this work a history of Nestorius: I now therefore take this opportunity to refer my readers to ' Socrates, and some other ancient writers; and

* De Joanne quoque, qui Veteris Noviqne Testamenti velut Dicis itaque, quisquis es ille hæretice, qui Deum ex virquidam sacratissimus limes, finis initiumque processit.... gine natum negas, Mariam autem matrem Domini nostri Jesu Inst. I. i. c. 2. b Iust. 1. ii. c. 5.

Christi Jeoloxoy, id est, matrem Dei appellari non posse, sed • Disce ergo primum ab apostolo totius niundi magistro. Xpusoloxov, id est, Christi tantum matrem, non Dei. Cass. de De Inc. Chr. J. iv. c. 1.

Incarn. Ch. 1. ii. c. 2. 4. Habentes autem alimenta et operimenta, his contenti .... Dic mihi, quæso, si Judæorum quispiam aut Paganosimus.' (1 Tim. vi. 8.] 'Operimenta' inquiens, non 'vesti- rum catholicæ fidei symbolum neget, num audiendum eum ' inenta, ut in quibusdam Latinis exemplaribus non proprie existimes esse? Non utique. Quid si id ipsum hæreticus aut continetur ; id est, quæ corpus operiant tantum, non quæ apostata ? Multo certe minus; quia intolerabilius est veritatem amictûs gloriâ blandiantur. Inst. 1. i. c. 3.

cognitam relinquere, quam incognitam negare. Duos igitur * Dicente Scripturâ :. ... Si in sanctis suis non confidit, in te videmus, catholicum et apostatam. Quid facis in eccle'et in angelis suis reperit pravitatem;' sive, ut emendatior siâ catholica; catholicorum prævaricator? Cur cætum populi translatio habet: • Ecce inter sanctos ejus nemo immutabilis, polluis, qui fidem populi denegâsti? Insuper et consistere in et cæli non sunt mundi in conspectu ejus.' (Job xv. 15.] altari, et conscendere tribunal, et offerre impudentissimum et Coll. 23. c. 8.

perfidissimum os tuum populo Dei ausus! De Inc. I. v. c. 10. i In epistolâ quoque ad Ephesios de hoc ipso opere ita præ- vid. et l. iii. c. 10.-Exi itaque, effuge hinc, si potes, tu quise cipit, dicens :....

... Inst. I. x. c. 17. Vid. et Coll. 13. cap. 14. quis es, qui rabido ore, ac blasphemo spiritu furens, nihil inet alibi.

teresse inter Adam et Christum putas. Ib. I. v. c. 9. --Et tu, & Illud sane unum prætereundum non arbitramur, quod O impiissime, atque impudentissime, præclaræ urbis conpeculiare ac proprium supradictæ illius hæreseos, quæ ex Pe- taminator, catholicæ ac sanctæ plebis gravis et exitiosa contalagiano errore descenderat, fuit. ... Quo factum est, ut in gio, stare in ecclesiâ Dei ac loqui audes ?.... L. vii. c. 30. majorem quoque ac monstrosiorem insaniam prorumpentes, * Unde obsecro ac deprecor omnes vos, qui intra Constandicerent, Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum hunc in mun. tinopolitanæ urbis ambitum siti.... ut separetis vos ab illo, ut dum non ad præstandam humano generi redemtionem, sed ad scriptum est, lupo rapaci, qui devoret Dei populum, sicut præbenda bonorum actuum exempla venisse : videlicet, ut cibum panis. Ne tetigeritis, neque gustaveritis quidquam disciplinam ejus sequentes homines, dum per eamdem viam illius, quia sunt omnia ad interitum. Exite de medio ejus, virtutis incederent, ad eadem virtutum præmia pervenirent; ac separamini, et immundum ne tetigeritis. L. vii. c. 31. evacuantes, quantum in ipsis fuit, omne sacri adventûs donum, Socr. H. E. I. vii. c. 29. 81, 32. et omnem divinæ redemtionis gratiam, &c. De Inc. Ch. 1. i. m Theodoret. H. F. 1. iv. c. 12. Evagr. Schol. H. E. 1. i. c. 3.- quæ.. eruditorem eum fecit humani generis, magis c. 2. ...7. M. Mercat. P. ii. ex. edit. J. Garnier. Par. 1673.. quam redemtorem fuisse; quia non redemtionem vitæ bo- Phot. Ep. 1. p. 7, 8. Ep. 35. p. 95. Vincent. Lir. Com minibus, sed vivendi dederit exemplum. Ib. 1. vi. c. 14.

cap. 16.

to · Mr. Bower, and other learned moderns; where they who are desirous, may receive information.



I. His time, and works. II. Books of the New Testament received by him. III. An argument

against following the most. IV. An argument for studying the scriptures.

1. EUTHERIUS, bishop of Tyana, in Cappadocia, flourished, according to · Cave, about the year 431. He was a friend of Nestorius, and pleaded his cause against those who condemned him ; especially against Cyril of Alexandria, and his followers.

He wrote in Greek; and his works were translated into Syriac; for they are in Ebedjesu's Catalogue : who,“ beside others, mentions a Commentary upon the gospel; for which reason Eutherius is placed among commentators by · Le Long: but Asseman says, that this Commentary is mentioned no where, except in Ebedjesu. For a farther account of Eutherius and his works, I refer to s others.

II. In the little that remains of him, the books of the New Testament are often quoted; particularly, the beginning of St. John's gospel ; the Acts of the apostles ; and the epistle to the Hebrews, as Paul's.

III. Having observed this, I shall transcribe a part of two remarkable arguments.

The first is against those, who judged of principles by the multitude of those who embraced them. Christ, says he, is the truth, as he himself said. Him we ought to follow, who said, • “ Be of good cheer, I have overcome the world.” (John xvi. 33.] Are not they then to • be pitied, who judge of the truth of a doctrine by the numbers of those who embrace

it? Such i do not consider, that the Lord Christ had twelve disciples, illiterate, poor, unexpe• rienced, whom he encouraged to withstand the whole world: not directing those twelve to • follow myriads; but requiring, that myriads should learn of them. And in like manner will • truth always prevail, though it be at first maintained by a few only......Let them be ever so many, they shall not persuade me to think, that day is night; nor induce me to take brass

money for gold, or manifest poison for wholesome food. In things of this world we do not • follow the judgment of the mistaken multitude. Why then should we follow it in heavenly • things, which are of much greater moment, without any good reasons assigned; and at the same • time abandon doctrines, that have been handed down to us with great consent from ancient • times, agreeably to the testimony of the scriptures ? Have we not heard the Lord saying?

Many are called, but few chosen." And again: “ Strait is the gate, and narrow the way, • that leadeth to life: And few there be that find it.” [Matth. vii. 13, 14.] Who that is in • his senses would not wish to be of the few that enter through the strait gate to salvation, • rather than of the many that go in the broad way to destruction ? What wise man, if he had • lived in the time of the blessed Stephen, who was stoned alone, would not have taken his part,

p. 3, 4,

• History of the Popes, Vol. i. p. 386....406.

& Vid. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 446, &c. Du Pin. Bib. T. • Asseman. Bib. Or. T. i. p. 203. 346. 354. 547. T. ïïi. jii. P. ii. p. 67. Tillem. Mem. T. 14. S. Cyril. d'Alex. art. P. i. p. 35. 611. et alibi. et T. iii. P. ii. Pagi Ann. 428. n. 11. 97. Phot. Cod. 46. Mr. Bower's History of the Popes, Vol. ii. et alibi. S. Basnag. Ann. 428. n. 8. &c. et in Præfat, ad Annal. p. antepenult. T. i. J. Basnag. H. de l'Eglise. 1. x. c. h Vid. Eutherii, Tyanor. Episc. Sermones : seu confuta4. 1. xx. c. 2. n. 7, &c. et c. 4. n. 22. et alibi. Cav, H. L. T. i. tiones quarumdam propositionum. ap. Theodoret. T. V. p. Du Pin. Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. ii. P. ii. Tillemont S. Celestin. 688. .. .726. et ap. Athan. T. ii. p. 5.0. ...594. edit. Bened. Pape et St. Cyrille d'Alex, art. 8, 13. 17, &c. Mem. Ec. Προς της αληθει μονω κρινονlας την αληθειαν. . T. xiv. CH. L. T. i. p. 419.

* Ap. Theodoret. T. V. p. 690, 691. et Athan. T. ii. p. . Eutherius edidit disputationem adversus Theopaschitas, 561, 562. necnon homilias, variasque interpretationes, et expositionem Και και συνιενες, 67ιπερ ο δεσπότης Χρισος δωδεκα μαθηίαις evangelii. Ebed. Catal, cap. 32. ap. Assem. Bib. Or. T. iii. απλοις, αγραμμαίοις, σενησιν, ευαλωτοις, το καλα σανloς τα • Bib. Sacr. p. 718.

κοσμο θαρσος δεδωρήσαι. κ. λ. ! Ubi supr. p. 42,


P. 42.

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rather than that of the multitude, which judged of truth by numbers? The judgment of one • sedate and discreet person, is more valuable than that of ten thousand unthinking people.

Many examples, in support of this assertion, might be alleged from the Old Testament, as well * as from the New...... You, if you think fit, may honour the multitude that was drowned in the · flood : give me leave to retire into the ark, and be saved. You, if you think fit, may stay * with the people of Sodom: I will travel with Lot, although he goes alone: not but that I • too have a respect for the multitude; nevertheless, not when they shun inquiry, but when they

produce evidence; not when they are influenced by flattery and bribes, or are misled by igno• rance, or are swayed by fear of threatened evils, and prefer the momentary pleasures of sin • before eternal life.

IV. The other argument is against some who discouraged the reading of the scriptures. •I* • must, in the next place, confute those who have the assurance to say, that studying the scrip* tures is needless. If a man believe, it is sufficient; inquiry only makes things more obscure and • uncertain. But, says he, this is the reasoning of men who distrust the merits of their cause, * On the other hand, relying upon the truth of our doctrine, and the assistance of him who • cannot lie, and has said, “ He that seeketh, findeth,” [Matth. vii. 8.] we inquire, hoping to • know what we are desirous to be acquainted with : we prove what we assert ; and hear, with « attention and candour. In which method we convince our friends, confute our opposers, and • satisfy ourselves, that we do not propose false doctrine? Shall I neglect the scriptures ? How • then shall I attain to knowledge ? If I want knowledge, how shall I have faith? Accordingly • Paul says: “ How shall they believe, if they have not heard ?” And again : “ Faith cometh by

hearing, and hearing by the word of God." [Rom. x. 14, 17.]......To be ignorant of the • Roman laws is safe for no man. How great then is the sin of those who forbid men to learn • and meditate upon the important oracles of the King of heaven! The scripture is the food of • the soul. Do not then cause the inner man to perish with “a famine, not of bread and water, • but of hearing of the word of the Lord.” [Amos viii. 11.) There are enough to wound the • soul: and do you hinder a man from seeking proper medicines ? Consider the chamberlain, a • true lover of the word, who had the charge of all his queen's treasure. [Acts viii.] Who even, • when travelling, ceased not to read. Whose conduct was so approved by the Lord, that he • sent one to explain to him what he did not understand; and by the scriptures to lead him to • the knowledge of the Saviour. And himself said : “Search the scriptures,” (John v. 39:] • which implies a diligent and attentive examination of things obscure and difficult......In a • word, some endeavour to hinder men from reading the scriptures, with a pretence, that it is prying into things that are inaccessible; but indeed, that they may the better binder men from shewing, by them, the absurdity of their false opinions.'

Du Pin says that, • in these passages, the author advances principles that agree very much with those of the pretended reformed: nevertheless he has been so good as to translate them, I presume, therefore, that my doing the like can give offence to none: moreover, these passages have been highly commended by Mr. Bower,



1. Prosper, of Aquitain, by some said to have been a bishop; by others,« more probably, reckoned a mere layman, is placed, by Cave, as flourishing about the year 444: Basnage' speaks of him at the year 434, which seems to be more proper; for Prosper had some correspondence with Augustine, who died in 430; and, in the year 434, had written several things in favour of

* Ap. Theodoret. T. v. p. 692, 693. et Athan. T. ii. p. 562, 563.

• As before, p. 67.
History of the Popes, vol. ii. p. 3, 4.
Vid. Pagi Ann. 455. n. 17. 466. n. 4. Basnag. Ann. 434.

13. Fabr. Bib. Lat. T. iii. p. 521, 522, et alios historiæ lite-
rariæ scriptores.
Hist. Lit. T. i. p. 435.

! Ann. 434. u. 13.

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Works ascribed to Prosper of Aquitain. the Augustinian doctrine. He is supposed to have lived until after the year 460; but the exact time of his death is not known.

2. I place below · the chapter of Gennadius concerning him; who commends Prosper's learning and style, or manner of writing, though he dislikes his doctrine.

3. There are several things ascribed to Prosper, which are not received by all as genuine. I intend, in this chapter, to make extracts out of those works, which are generally allowed of; and, in the following, to take notice of some others, whose genuineness is contested.

4. Prosper quotes not only the gospels, and Acts, and other books of the New Testament, universally received; but likewise the epistle to the Hebrews, the epistle of James, the d second of Peter, and the Revelation.

5. He expressly rejects the book of Hermas, or the Shepherd, as of no authority. 6. He s quotes the epistle to the Ephesians, with that title.

7. Prosper has a fine passage concerning good works, which I transcribe in the margin. Some may suspect that his expressions represent them to be of greater value than he intended.



I. Two books of the calling of the Gentiles. II. An Epistle to Demetrias. III. Of the divine

promises and predictions. IV. A work entitled, De Vita Contemplativa.


SHALL now make some extracts out of those writings which have been ascribed to Prosper; but are not certainly known to be his.

I. One is a work, in two books, entitled, ' Of the Calling of the Gentiles. Quesnel " has a dissertation to shew that it is not Prosper's, but Leo's. Anthelmi and ' Pagi still think it to be Prosper's. Du Pin " has carefully considered the arguments on both sides, without determining the question ; but somewhat inclining to Quesnel's opinion. Tillemont " likewise weighs the

• Prosper, homo Aquitanicæ regionis, sermone scholasticus, • Et in Apocalypsi est ista vox martyrum. [Apoc. vi. 10.] et assertionibus nervosus, multa composuisse dicitur. Ex Expos. Ps. 118. ibid. p. 188. H. Et habenti dicitur : Tene quibus ego chronica illius nomine prætitulata legi, continentia quod habes, ne alius accipiat coronam tuam.' [Apoc. iii. 11.] a primi hominis conditione, juxta divinarum scripturarum In Ps. 134. ib. p. 151. C. fidem, usque ad obitum Valentiniani Augusti, et captivitatem Post illud autem nullius auctoritatis testimonium, quod urbis Romæ a Genserico Vandalorum rege factam. Legi et disputationi suæ de libello pastoris inseruit.... Contr. Collat. librum adversus opuscula sub personà Cassiani, quæ ecclesia cap. 13. n. 42. in App. ut supra. Dei salutaria probat, ille infamat nociva. Quæ enim vere 8 De Ephesiorum etiam fide quid sentiat, audiamus, &c. Cassiani et Prosperi de gratiâ et libero arbitrio sententiæ fue- Contr. Collat. cap. 16. n. 50. runt, in aliquibus sibi contraria inveniuntur. Epistolæ quoque h Lex Christi perfectio caritatis est, quâ Deus proximusque Papæ Leonis adversus Eutychen, de verâ Christi incarnatione, diligitur, et per quam dicitur conditori legis: 'Dimitte nobis ad diversos datæ et ab ipso dictatæ dicuntur. Gennad de V. I. • debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris.'

Bene enim exspectat promissionem Dei, qui mandata ejus Et si omnia bona, utique et fidem, sine quâ nemo placere exsequitur. Nec frustra sperat parcendum peccatis suis, qui potest, et quæ est virtutum omnium fundamentum. (Hebr. ignoscit alienis. Lib. Sentent. n. 37. in App. ubi supra. Et xi. 6.) Pro Augustin. Responsion. ad Exc. Genuen. Exc. 8. Conf. Expos. Ps. 139. V. 4. ubi supra. ap, Append. Opp. Augustin, Bened. T. x. et alibi.

i De Vocatione omnium Gentium. Libri duo. Ap. Leon. c Vid. Ep. ad Rufin. de Grat. et. Lib. Arbitrio. cap. 17. et M. Opp. T. i. edit. Quesn. I.ugd. 1700. passim. In ead. App.

* Diss. 2. ap. Leon. Opp. T. ii. d A quo quis superatus est, ei servus addictus est. [2 Pet. | Vid. Pagi Ann. 444. n. 4. et seq. et 461. n. 13. ii. 19.) Lib. contr. Collat. in App. ibid. Nam et verbum m Bibl. T. iii. P. ii. p. 193. De l’Auteur des livres de la propheticum lucernæ comparans apostolus Petrus. • Habe

Vocation des Gentils, et de l'Epitre à Démétriade. mus, inquit, ' certiorem propheticum sermonem, &c. " S. Prosper. art. 12. Mem. T. xvi. (2 Pet. i. 19.) Exp. in Ps. 118. al. 119. ap. Bib. PP. T. viii.

cap. 84.

P. 139. H.


reasons on both sides, without declaring for either; and in another place says, he does not think Quesnel's arguments to be conclusive. S. Basnage says, the style of the work plainly shews it not to be Prosper's; but he does not say whose it is. For my part, I think the author may be reckoned unknown and anonymous.

1. This writer had in his copies the latter part of the sixteenth chapter of St. Mark's 2. He quotes a the epistle to the Ephesians, with that title. 3. The epistle to the Hebrews is here quoted several times. 4. He ' quotes the epistle of St. James.

5. The most remarkable thing in these two books is, that the author quotes the epistles of St. Peter, as written to Gentile Christians.

6. He quotes both the epistles of Peter, and the first epistle of John, very often : he also quotes' the epistle of Jude, and the book of the Revelation.

II. There is a letter to the virgin Demetrias, ascribed sometimes to Ambrose, of Milan; at other times, to Prosper, of Aquitain. Quesnel contends, that it was written by the author of the Calling of the Gentiles; who, he says, was Pope Leo. Pagi " thinks it was written by Prosper. Cave also " is willing to allow, that this epistle and the books of the Calling of the Gentiles, were written by Prosper. Du Pin allows, that they were both written by one and the same person : which, indeed, is the general opinion, though all are not agreed who the author is.

Here ” seems to be a reference to the epistle to the Hebrews. The epistle of James is here quoted, and' both the epistles of Peter. I need not say any thing of the first epistle of John, or other generally received books, which are here often quoted.

III. Another work, formerly ascribed to Prosper, but' now generally supposed to be written by an African, is entitled, ' Of Divine Promises and Predictions, in three, or five parts. If the author's name was Prosper, he must not be he of Aquitain, but another of that name, in Africa; and he may be a contemporary writer.

1. Here are many quotations out of almost all the books of scripture; particularly, the epistle to the Hebrews, the epistle of James, both the epistles of Peter, and the Revelation, which is quoted very largely: I need not make any particular references.

2. This author quotes " the latter part of the sixteenth chapter of St. Mark's gospel. 3. He quotes the * epistle to the Ephesians, with that title.

P. 21.

a Il semble néanmoins, qu' il y prouve mieux la foiblesse naturaliter velut bruta animalia norunt, in his corrumpuntur.' des conjectures des autres, que la solidité des siennes. S. (Jud. ver. 10.) L. i. c. 19. Leon Pape. Art. 1. T. xv.

* Vid. 1. ii. c. 11. • De Vocatione Gentium liber, qui vulgo et Prospero addi- | Vid. Diss. iv. ap. Opp. S. Leon. T. ii. citur, ab eo esse abjudicandum, certissime docent stylus ab m Ann. 413. n. 8, 9. illo Prosperi diversus, altumque de Augustino silentium. A Hist. Lit. T. i. p. 436. An. 434. n. 14.

• Ubi supra, note m · Secundum Marcum vero eisdem apostolis ita dicitur : p Aut quod vir sacratissimus Melchisedec, Domini et Sal• Ite in orbem universum. Prædicate evangelium universæ vatoris nostri præferens formam, non fuerit perfecte humilis, creaturæ,' &c. (Marc. xvi. 15, 16.] De Vocat. Omn. Gent. quia et sacerdotio eminebat et regno. (Heb. vii. 3.] Ep. ad 1. 2. c. 2. Vid. et cap. 3. Ap. Leon. Opp. Lugd. 1700. Demetr. cap. v. p. 41. Ap. S. Leon. Opp.

d Ad Ephesios quoque scribens ... 1. l. c. 23. Vid. et 9 Vid. ib. cap. 9. p. 43. et c. 24. p. 48. c. 24. et alibi.

Sed contra hoc periculum quid beatus Petrus in prima e Aut cum ait: ‘Novissimis istis diebus locutus est nobis epistolâ prædicet, audiamus ... Item in epistolâ secundâ.... ' in filio, quem constituit heredem universorum.' (Hebr. Ib. c. 16. p. 46. i. 2.] 1. 1. c. 9. Vid. et 1. 2. c. 11.

• Vid. Cav. in S. Prospero. H. L. T. i. p. 436. Pagi Ann. L. 1. cap. 24.

444. 3. Basnag. Ann. 434. n. 14. Du Pin. S. Prosper. 8 Sicut est quod sanctus Petrus apostolus, scribens sui et T. iii. P. ii. p. 189. Tillem. S. Prosper, art. 12. T. xvi. futuri temporis gentibus, ait : Vos autem genus electum, re- • De promissionibus et prædictionibus Dei. Part. iii. Qui. gale sacerdotium, gens sancta, &c. [1 Pet. ii. 9, 10.] 1. i. bus adjunguntur dimidium temporis, ad cujus finem implendæ c. 11 Vid. et c. 15.

sunt visiones .. de Antichristo, et de gloriâ regnoque sanctoby Item idem in secundà epistola de fidei perceptione loqui

Ap. Bib. PP. T. viii. p. 1...52. et ap. Prosperi tur. • Simon Petrus, servus et apostolus Jesu Christi, his qui Opera, p. 1...50. Paris. 1671.

coæqualem nobis adepti sunt fidem.' [2 Pet. i. 1.] 1. i. "Firmant hæc evangelistæ, dicente ipso in Marco : Signa C. 23.

autem credentes hæc subsequentur. In nomine meo dai Et, ut brevissime pateat, qualis sit natura humana sine * monia ejicient; linguis loquentur novis.' [Marc. xvi. 17.) gratiâ, dicat Judas apostolus, quid agat vel ignorantia imperi- De Promiss. et Prædict. Part. 3. Prom. 31. Vid. et cap. 30. torum, vel doctrina sapientium : ' Hi autem,' inquit, quæ- ubi citatur ver. 14. * cumque quidem ignorant, blasphemant: quæcumque autem * Exponens quippe hunc locum in epistola ad Ephesios,

ait. Ibid. Part. i. c... Vid. ib. cap. 7.



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