the sea, and the highest kishlak or vil-, els. It is not unlikely that the district lage about 11,000 or 11,500. The climate, preserves in its name a memory of the as may be guessed, is rough, and the ancient Sacæ, as it undoubtedly forms a bitter blasts that blow from Pamir down part of the region that they once occu. the valley, and across the higher tracts pied. Next comes Darwáz, a kingdom of Bahakhslán, are recognized with a lying still in deep obscurity: No Euroshudder as the "wind-oʻ-Wakhán " -- the pean has been near it ; nor has Badakh. Borra of the Upper Oxus. A few willow shán apparently ever claimed its allegi. and poplar trees alone can stand against ance.* The name calls up imaginations it.

i of dark gorges, perilous rocky paths over At Panja, the chief place of Wakhán, abysses, the roar of white Okus surging the river bearing that name is formed by up faintly from a thousand yards below: the contluence of two streams; the more and, back through the ages, of the Seric northerly descending through a wild un- caravans picking their toilsome way uptenanted valley from the lake which Wood ward to Pamir along the wild valley of discovered (Lake Surikol or Victoria), ly, the Comedæ ; in later days, of Moslem ing at 15,600 feet above the sea, in a hol- warriors raising a barrier across the glen low of Great Pamir; the other, issuing to bar the Turk forays ; whence the valfrom a smaller lake on Little Pamir, at an ley got the name of Al-báb, Persianized altitude

2000 feet lower, flows to Darah-i-Darwaz, the Glen of the through the valley called that of the Gateway.” Wakhán Sarhad or Marches, bordering on Darwáz stretches well to the north, and Chitral ; and here the hamlets appear to there borders on Karátegin — the Karitas be more thickly scattered than elsewhere guinea of the Russian despatches; anin the principality. Even at such a other country shrouded in obscurity height the people have some agriculture, which just begins to break. It forms á but their chief wealth is in live-stock, valley-state on the great northern tribusheep, goats, kine, ponies, and yaks; for utary of the Oxus, the Surkliáb or Redhere we are bordering on Tibetan ground. water, which comes down from the Alli The houses are built contiguous (as com- Steppe north of Pamir, visited recently monly in a Scotch clachan), of stone for the first time by M. Fedchenko: nor and 'mud, flat-roofed, and warmed by before him had any European seen the large stoves of masonry. The vent-hole stream in any part of its course. Rusin the roof serves as a sun-dial. The sian enquiry begins to afford us a little housewife recognizes the dinner hour information about Karátegin, and their when a particular spot is gilded by the rough estimates of population give it sun's rays shining through that orifice, 100,000 souls, likely enough to be in exand an analogous observation determines cess of the truth. The people are a Perthe seed-time.

sian-speaking race, called Galchas, living The Wakhis are by profession Shiáhs ; secluded, without foreign traffic, under a but when a slave-raid upon brother Shiáhs Khán or Mír, who, like his neighbours, is in hand, they are ready to curse Ali claims, or used to claim, descent from and all his belongings.

Alexander. They practice some slender At the lower end of Wakhán the Panja tillage, with cattle and horse-breeding, turns sharp to the north, and quits the gold-washing, salt-mining, and a manufield of anything like precise knowledge. facture of excellent iron. Just here, on the right bank, and in the In Karategin, or immediately below it, fief of Ishkashm, are the mines of those must have been the country of Wakhsh, rubies which under the form of Balas famous in old Arabian geographies, and made the name of Badakhshán a house in the name of which we trace that form hold word in the far West, in the days of of the great river's name which the Dante and Chaucer. They have not been Greeks made Oxos. Here some of those worked for many years.

old geographers represent the river as The river next reaches Shaghnán (or plunging underground, like

* Alph the Shig!ınán*) and Roshán, two other seclud- Sacred River," and in terms a good deal ed states owning allegiance, at least nom- resembling those which Polybius uses in inally, to the Mír of B.idakhshán. The speaking of the Oxus in a lower part of Shighnis grow crops of wheat and barley, its course.f The Arab story is more conand abundant stone-fruit, and have flocks and herds and two-humped shaggy cam

* Some Russian documents have spoken of Dareiz as owning allegiance to Khokand. If this is true, it is

recent; but we doubt its accuracy. * Written Chougnan in the Russian correspondence. 1 x. 48.

ceivable than that of Polybius ; for great narrows and tremendous gulfs. Having, after as are the changes indicated in the lower a hundred sufferings and losses, at length surcourse of Oxus, it is difficult to imagine mounted these murderous steep and narrow such a subterranean passage of its waters defiles, we came down on the contines of Fan. in the Turkman Desert.

| Among the mountains of Fan there is a large

lake. - Autobiography, p. 85. Below Karátegín and Wakhsh we have Kúláb, extending to the Oxus, a province It would seem to be of the same route that was subject to Kunduz in Murad that Fedchenko tells us : Beg's time, but has never, that we know of, been invaded by the Afghans. At

The road from the lake (Iskander Kúl) to present the local chief seems to call him. Ilissár is described as being very difficult; the

natives affirm that the watershed can only be self, when hard pressed, a liegeman of traversed on foot, for which reason travellers Bokhara. Kúláb is nearly coincident dispose of their horses in the villages at the with the region which was known from foot of the mountains, and procure fresh anithe earliest Mahommedan times, and mals on the other side. — your. Royal Geog. earlier, as Khot! or khotlán, a name Soc. xl. p. 450. even now not entirely obsolete. As re

We need inflict no more geography gards this and the adjoining province of Hissár, also owning spasmodical allegi- the humble one of elucidating the late

upon our readers. Our object has been ance to Bokhara, we stand grievously in want of information. Chaghánián, Hišsár correspondence with Russia, and not of Kobádián, Termedh, the Iron-gate, are cal speculation regarding the possible

adding to the mass of military and politiall names once famous in Eastern his collision of the two empires ; so our clostory, and all, we believe, still surviving, ing remarks shall be very brief. but that is nearly as much as we can ven

First, a few words as to objections ture to say. The famous pass of the raised by some members of both Houses, Iron-gate the second so called, another, in connection with the boundary of Wastill more celebrated, being Derbend on khán. Here, we have no doubt, the Govthe Caspian

has been seen by no Eu- ernment had reason on its side. ropean that we wot of since Ruy Gonza

Wakhán is, indeed, a valley; and lez de Clavijo passed through it in 1403 though the usual road through it happens on his way to the court of the great Ti- to lie on the south of the Oxus, and theremour as one of the envoys from Henry fore only to pass through villages on that III. of Castile. *

These states of the Oxus basin north side, a valley, like a frigate or a soupof the great river are cut off from the Oxus, 'which runs through the middle of

tureen, must have two sides, and the Russian territory in the valley of the Wakhán, cannot be its boundary. The Zerafshán by a lofty and rugged chain of true boundary of Wakhán is, no doubt, mountains, known as the Karatau, Fan- the watershed which divides it from the tau, and what not, rising far into the re- next great vailey to the north, i.e. from gion of perpetual snow, and presenting Shaglinán. But Shaghnán is a depengreat difficulties to passage. ian Baber had once, when in evil fortune. dency of Badakhshán, at least in theory, to make the transit from Hissar into the fore, to take the northern boundary of

as much as Wakhán. We ought, therevalley above Samarkand, and this is what Shaghnán. What that is, who can tell? he says of it :

Probably for the best approximation Having entered the valley of Kamrud, we to a definition we should have to go went up the river. In these roads, which are to Ptolemy and the Chinese pilgrims — extremely dangerous, often overhanging pre- say, e.g., a line drawn from the Oxus 50 cipices, and in the steep and narrow hill-passes schæni up the qúpays of the Comedæ to the and straits which we were obliged to ascend; Turris Lapidea, and thence to the Dragnumbers of our horses and camels failed, and were unable to proceed. After four or five Heaven and Earth! The thing is a kind

on-Lake and the middle point between days' march we reached the mountain pass Sir-e-ták. It is a pass, and such a pass! of reductio ad absurdum. Mr. Gladstone Never did I see one so narrow and steep; in a few words put the matter on its right never were paths so narrow and precipitous basis. But some of his colleagues in traversed by me. We travelled on with in- both Houses, by seeming to evade the credible fatigue and difficulty, amid dangerous real point, had provoked suspicion of

some conscious error. In certain cases • The translation by Mr. Markham forms one of the we believe this was simply because high most interesting volumes of the Hakluyt Society's | Officials had not taken the trouble to understand the question involved. We can-ing, not here only, but to some extent in not, indeed, doubt that the Under Sec- Russia, that we have somehow got an adretary for India understood the matter vantage over the latter.* thoroughly; but his recommendation to The best encouragement to be derived members interested to study Lord Strang- from the correspondence is the sense it ford's writings, though excellent in the gives us that our Ministers have not parabstract, was a little beside the purpose. taken of the ordinary apathy of the counNo one can drink too copiously from that try in prospect of very serious, though well of patriotic wit and wisdom, filled contingent, dangers. We have entire from a source too early sealed, so sorely faith in the moderate views and sincerity missed. But in reference to the point at of the Emperor Alexander ; we recognize issue, it was like advising a friend ex- that Russia has had justification for ercised by Mr. Fergusson's theories some, though not for all, of her forward about the Dome of the Rock, to read movements. Though we cannot, with the “ Robertson's Sermons."


late beloved and venerated patriarch of The tribute to Kábul for Wakhán we English geography, see only flowers of saw lately was reckoned at only 800 Order and Science spring beneath her rupees, or 80l. a-year! Surely the god- advancing steps, we admit the benefit to dess, whose rites are celebrated at No. I the world of her displacement of the harSavile Row, plays strange freaks in her barous Uzbeg tyrannies, the suppression distribution of fame. Wakhán was esti- of chronic outrage, and the opening of mated by Wood in 1838 actually to con- Central Asia to the research at least of her tain 1000' souls, excluding temporary own scientific servants. But facts renomad immigrants, and he judged it main, stronger than the individual will oi might be capable of supporting 5000!* any passing mortal however exalted, too Yet this barren and inaccessible upland, strong for cosmopolitan logic and sympa. with its scanty handful of wild people, thies. We should gladly recognize that finds a place in Eastern history and ge- it were otherwise, but, as things are still, ography from an early period, and has both in policy and commerce there exist now become the subject of serious cor- standing menaces of discord between respondence between two great Europe- Russia's interests and ours. The vessel an Governments, and its name, for a few of Russian power in Asia has shouls weeks at least, a household word in Lon- ahead, no doubt, but at present she has don.

all the prestige and momentum of adIndeed this is a striking accident of the vance, whilst ours rides at anchor and recourse of modern history. We see the fits, as all our words and acts are proSlav and the Englishman - representa-claiming. Our position in India, strong tives of two great branches of the Aryan as it is, and capable of crushing any dirace, but divided by such vast intervals rect attack, may, under certain contingenof space and time from the original com- cies not hard to suggest, – contingencies mon starting-point of their migration which draw our eyes to the Caspian and thus brought back to the lap of Pamir, to the Atrek rather than to the Oxus – bewhich so many quivering lines point as come a very costly and harassing one. the centre of their earliest seats, there by Spasmodic excitements like this last are common consent to lay down limits to mischievous, only less mischievous, as bemutual encroachment.

All this matter of Wakhán is, however, * Sir H. Rawlinson, in his discourse at the Royal trivial, and beside the real question, Geographical Society, on the 24th February, susgestel which has been lost sight of in the spe- Wakhán within the Afghan boundary were connect cial pleading about the Afghan frontier. with wrong impressions of its position, derived from the The importance of that particular affair fictitious geography which it has been so difficult toen has been overrated in England, and the Stremooukoff, now published I see B. pp. 12 and 64). Ard recent correspondence has produced an Prince Gortchakoff mighi not unnaturally see in the mu unfortunate and utterly unfounded feel- which accompanies Trench's “ Russo-Indian Question,

an expression of English acceptance of that gencrabs.

It is surprising to find an English map published so * A paragraph quoted in the "Times" of zoth recently (1869) adhere to these errors. March, from the "Cologne Gazette," as giving new † In India some alarm seems to be expressed at the purtlars about these regions, furnished by Herr concessions granted recently by the King of Persia to Schlagintweit, says that Punja (therein miscalled parties of whom Baron Reuter is the representat re. Punya) has a garrison of 2000 men.

We know too little of the matter as yet to say mure tua When Ibrahim Khan was there in 1370, there were in a word on the subject. But whatever euriches and Panja ten or twelve hoxemen." It is perhaps a mis- strengthens Persia is likely to be advantageous to Erge print for 207, the estimate (probably in excess) of Maior land; and that can only be attained by induc meat Montgomerie's Mirza, from whose report all these foreign capital to turn to account her natural resources, ne particulars

as yet the most neglected on the face of the earth.

This is nonsense.


seem to be derived.

ing more genuine, than that sham opti- I ters, that he was not sufficiently informed mism which so surely leads to them. We to express an opinion whether Afghanisdo need in lieu of both a well-informed tan would answer, and, at his Heidelberg and steadfast public opinion, recognizing interview with the Prince, it is for the the danger, far from provoking it, but de- Oxus as a line. not for Afghanistan or termined to meet it; and which would any other territory as a zone, that he arnot embarrass the Government, as these gues (p. 10). The Indian Government hot and cold fits do, but would back and and the council at Westminster reject or help it in developing a policy of vigilant ignore the notion of adopting Afghanisdefence as steadfast, and as capable of tan or any other zone (see pp. 4 and 40). action when need arises, as Russia's in- On the other hand, it is the Prince himstinct of advance.

self and his colleagues, MM. Miliutine As regards the establishment of an and Stremooukoff, who hold so tena“intermediary zone,” there is something ciously to the adoption of the Afghan to recommend it. It is undoubtedly most zone – - and no wonder. desirable to keep our dominions as long On the secondary question as to ceras possible from the strain and restless- tain details of the northern boundary of ness that would be the inevitable conse- Afghan dominion, the whole of the more quence of actual or approximate contact recent correspondence turns. And on with those of Russia. Such a zone might these details alone has any serious rebe of service in preventing those impul- mark yet been made in Parliament. In sive movements of Russian generals fact, the nature of that part of the correwhich have on several occasions involved spondence which alone was first pubtheir government in premature annexa- lished seems in a measure to have contions. And as long as the formal advance fused the minds of public men, and to of the Russian boundaries or Russian have distracted their attention from the predominance (as now in Bokhara) — in essential question involved. spite of all the assurances of moderation Wild officers of the Panjáb frontier given to Lord Clarendon and Mr. For- have been found, during the late discussyth by Prince Gortchakoff and his col- sions, to urge on England a new and leagues — means the advance of a barrier prompt advance to Kábul. There is no fear of monopoly and prohibitory tariffs, every of that. But wiser men have thought that measure seems desirable that keeps a por- under certain contingencies we should be țion of Central Asia longer outside that ready to push forward outworks to our barrier. And had both parties been equal empire “in advance of our present terrily and sincerely desirous for the establish- torial border, and on the most accessible ment of such a zone on equitable terms, line of attack.” * nature presents one admirably fitted for But if the whole of Afghanistan is conthe purpose in the Oxus basin itself, as de- stituted an “intermediary zone" in the fiped on the north and north-west by that sense pointed out by Prince Gortchakoff, scarcely penetrable barrier constituted by it seems to follow as a corollary that Rusthe Karatau and the mountains of the sia may advance to the Oxus, may cover Iron-gate, and on the south by the Hindu it with her steamers and line it with her Kúsh. For it is almost impossible that arsenals, whilst we have no right to take Russia should experience provocation umbrage or to make a single counter-step from the native States south of the Kara- in advance of our present frontier — at tau barrier,* or for us to experience it least none beyond Quetta — without ourfrom those north of the Hindu Kush; selves assuming the onus of breaking the and any movement by one or the other agreement. We tie our hands ; we set beyond those barriers must be of the na- hers free even from remonstrance. This, ture of a voluntary aggression.

most assuredly, was never intended nor We cannot discover from the published assented to by any Governor-General of correspondence who really suggested Af- India. Is it possible that it is this which ghanistan as the “intermediate zone.” Lord Granville has conceded ? Is it this For though Prince Gortchakoff ascribes that has passed without a serious word in the suggestion to Lord Clarendon (B. p. Parliament, whilst questions on trivial 4), this derives no confirmation from the incidents of detail have been pressed papers, whilst Lord Clarendon distinctly eagerly? It is hard to believe it; and says, in the earliest of the published let- yet this is the sense that lies upon the it has been read (we see) in this sense at ! take no undue advantage of her. Like St. Petersburg ; and surely, at the least, the gardener he felt that it would not do, there is a doubt obvious enough to have and having also, like the gardener, very been worthy of a question, serious enough little confidence in his mother's severity, to be worthy of being set at rest at once he determined to make the matter very and for ever.

surface of the published correspondence ; * The authority of Bokhara over the provinces south of that barrier is of a very unsubstantial nature, as Mr. Siremooukoff recognizes (see B. p. 29).

* See “ Quarterly Review” for October, 1865, p. 580.

clear to Innocent herself. Fortune fa. Here we must close ; but we cannot do voured him so far in this virtuous intenso without pressing on the Government tion that he found her alone in the breakthe necessity of giving distinct and strong fast-room next morning when he came encouragement to the study of the Rus- downstairs. Frederick was always late. sian language.

This was

one of the things that made A few years ago an Englishman requir- Dick so angry; while he, unhappy bov, ing, whilst in Italy, the aid of a Russian was hunted up at seven o'clock, Frederick translator, found that on the staff of one came down to breakfast at ten, with an college at Naples there were three Italian occasional mild remonstrance, but no gentlemen well acquainted with Russian. more. Things were sent away to be kept We will not ask if any college in any hot for him ; fresh coffee had to be made, city of Great Britain could present a par- and fresh rolls procured, and to everybody allel — but are there three teachers in all this seemed the most natural thing in the England, being Englishmen, of whom the world. He was always late, but he was same could be said ? Practically, at pres- later than usual on this particular day, ent, the English people, who have such which, being Monday, was an early day deep reason to be interested in the move with the household. I need not enter ments of Russia, are dependent for the into the reasons why Monday was an whole of their information regarding these early day. Every lady who is my gentle on the Berlin letters in the "Times," and reader, and who does her own housekeepon the papers translated at long intervals ing, will understand ; and for the uniniby the Messrs. Michell. The spirit of tiated it is well that they should learn to linguistic study is at a low ebb in England, believe and tremble. It might be unwise and needs direct and palpable stimulus. of Mrs. Eastwood to leave Innocent alone Why should not an exceptionally high in the room, but she was unaccustomed number of marks be assigned to Russian to the attitude of suspicion, and felt it in examination for the Indian Civil Ser- dreadful to be obliged always to bave her vice? Why should not the same stimulus wits about her. Perhaps it was with the be applied to the study of the Afghan object of seeing Frederick, that Innocent, and Oriental Turkish languages ?. There poor soul, lingered. She had been would be a difficulty about examiners at slightly, superficially touched by the kindfirst, but in a few years the demand would ness of her aunt to her the night before, produce them.

and by the fact that no “scolding” had followed upon the offence; and she had for the first time offered to do something, no greater a business than arranging

moss about some flower-pots, for which From The Graphic. purpose it was, nominally, that she was leit

in the dining-room. But another feeling much more strong possessed her. Freder

ick had “scolded ”her. He had beaten her


down when she was very low with angry

words, and consequently she had a wist. CHAPTER XVIII.

ful desire to be forgiven by him; to

know how he would speak to her next PHILOSOPHY FOR GIRLS.

time ; if there was any hope for her, or if The result of this day's proceedings all was over for ever. The others had was not on the whole satisfactory to Fred- slightly moved the surface of her mind erick. If, as he, like the maids, felt as- by their kindness, but Frederick, by his sured, Innocent's escapade had been unkindness, had touched her much more entirely on his own account, a despairing deeply, almost to the point of revolution. attempt to follow and be with him, such All her senses were keenly awake to indevotion, however fattering, was of an dications of his coming. She hcard his embarrassing character, and very likely step a dozen times before it really came: to compromise him, however prudently she wondered vaguely what he would say, and conscientiously he might struggle to how he would look; she was eager,







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