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at a level of upwards of 4000 feet above Khokand is practically a tributary. It is the sea, and its lowest part, where Lake indeed, alleged that the chief pass be. Lob lies, is supposed to stand about 1200. tween Khokand and Kashgar has been The populated country consists of a chain already made practicable for artillery. of oases forming an open necklace of rich But it is not probable that the Russian cultivation, girdling a central desert - Government will at any early date be dethe Takla Makán --- which is, in fact, a sirous so far to extend its cares; nor, if great inlet of the Gobi. A constant tra- it did, would the occupation be so serious dition in the country, confirmed by now to us as the establishment of Russian tices in Chinese works, alleges the great power on the Oxus. encroachments of this desert, and speaks During the period of the Chinese rule, of ci ies buried in its sands, of which the up to the murder of Adolphus Schlagintsites are known. That treasure is reputed weit at Kashgar in 1857, it is scarcely an to be found in these is a matter of course, exaggeration to say that as little rumour but that tea is found, in one of them at of what passed in Eastern Turkestan least, is a more uncommon circumstance, reached India across the high Tibetan and appears to be a matter of fact. The tracts as there reached Europe in the climate is very dry; there is little rain ; middle ages of what was passing among cultivation depends on irrigation from the Aztecs. Many Englishmen now live the rivers, which are utilized by an infining must have spent thirty years in the ity of canals and watercour:es. Mr. upper provinces of India without ever Shaw, the first Englishman to penetrate having heard a word of events in Kishgar this region, and fortunately for us, as in- of Khotan. About the years 1834-35 telligent as he is enterprising, was strong- some obstacles in the route usually fol. ly impressed by the cultivated and settled lowed by pilgrims from Chinese Turkeaspect of the country, and by the pros- stan, bound for the holy places of Arabia, perous, brisk, and intelligent aspect of led them to adopt the prictice of travelthe people. He believes that though they ling to Bombay for shipment to Jedda. have long been Turks in language, there Mr. Wathen, then Secretary to the Bomis in the race a deep basis of Aryan bay Government, having taken advantage blood. The long faces, well-fornied of this circumstance to collect from them noses, and full beards of the peasantry a number of particulars regarding the testify to this,

modern history and geography of their From the second century before Christ country, the publication of these wis rethis region has again and again come garded as a contribution to knowledge of under Chinese dominion. It did so on extreme novelty and value.* And justly the last occasion in 1759, and they held it, so, seeing how completely closed to modnot without frequent and serious revolts, ern exploration the country was. This till 1863. The spirit of insurrection entire absence of communication was due, which had for eight or nine years been no doubt, in some considerable degree, rife among the Mahommedan subjects of to the old Chinese custom of hermetiChina then spread to these regions; the cally sealing a frontier.f But, in a great eagles gathered from all sides to the prey, degree also, it was owing to the nature and the mastery of the country was of the routes between the two countries. eventually attained, through alternate A few figures will best show what that is. valour and treachery, by Mahommed | Amritsar, the commercial centre of the Yakub Kushbegi. This man is said to Panjáb, lies about 60 miles from the foot be by descent a Tajik of Shaghnán, but of the mountains, and its distance in a born at Pishpek, on the Chú river (now straight line to Yarkand is, roundly speak. in the Russian territory of Fort Vérnoë), ing, 460 miles. But the actual distance and, according to some accounts, com- as travelled by the principal routes is -manded the Khokand garrison of Ak-l. 1. By Kashmir, Ladák, Karakorum masjid, on the Jaxartes, when they re- Passes, and Shadulla, to Yarkand, 70 pelled the first tentative attack of the marches, or 945 miles; Russians in 1852. For the last six years 2. By the more easterly routes, via he has reigned over the whole basin of Kúlú, Ladák, Changchenmo, and ShaEastern Turkestan with the title of Atalik dulla, to Yarkand, 77 marches, or 1000 Gházi ; and his power now reaches from miles. Pamir eastward to Komul, a distance of * See " Journal of the Asiatic Society of Beaçıl," some 1100 miles. Should Russia covet vol. iv. p. 653. . this territory, she would probably not† The unchanged conservative custom of the ancient find the first conquest difficult, now that 'coetum reliquorum mortalium fugiunt." - Pliny; Yin 22

Seres: "Mites quidem sed et ipsis eris pers:

On the first of these two lines, and influence has secured the imposition of crushing the section between Ladák and Shadulla, differential duties to the detriment of English the frontier station of the Kashgar gov- trade. We thus see what we have to expect ernment, an interval which occupies 20

in the vastly more important inarket of Eastern marches, four passes have to be crossed

Turkestan, now that she has once put her foot that are higher than 17,500 feet above the

there. And surely we shall not be able to sea, and for 10 successive marches the

Diane the native ruler if he grants to Russia

exclusively those commercial advantages which haltiny-ground is never below 15,000 fcet, we do not take the trouble to ask for a share say the height of Mont Blanc.

in.* On the second route, the interval between Lidúk and Shadulla occupies 25

The chain of lofty Himalyan peaks marches. On this also four passes have striking off from the south-east point to be crossed that are higher than 17,500

Pamir, to which our maps give the Turki feet, and three of the four are over 18,350

| names of Múztágh and Karakorum, difeet. Moreover during these 25 marches

vides the highest valleys of Sarikol and the encampment is never below 11,000

the Yarkand river from the basin of the feet ; three times only it is below 12,000,

Indus, which draws, from those mounand in eleven cases it is at 15,000 feet

tains and the southern buttresses of Pamir, and upwards. This surely is the true

the tribute of the River of Gilghit and its Roof of the World ! Pamir is but an

confluents. This Gilghit valley, with the entresol.

valley-states ramifying from it of Hunza The intervention of such a region as

or Kanjút, Nagri, and Yasin, and others these figures characterize not only ren

to the south-west, of which we barely ders serious menace on that side imprac

| know the names, constitute Dardistán, ticable, but it is such a barrier to com

the country of the Diradas of old Sanmunication, and such a deadener of the

skrit literature, the Daradra and Darde sense of neighbourhood, that the pres

of Ptolemy and Pliny, still bearing the ence even of a Russian force upon the same generic name

same generic name as Dardus. Of the plain of Yarkand would not be realized | Gilghit valleys we know little yet, and from with anything like the vivid impressions

near the Gilghit confluence, for a course that would be produced by its advent on of many miles down the main stream, the Oxus opposite Balkh or Kunduz.

no-European has ever passed. The Raja Crets. These obstacles are there are of Kashmír is gradually annexing the not enough to prevent trade. The year | Dard

ar Dard valleys. In Yasin, one of the highafter our Government persuaded the est of them, poor Hayward was so cruelly Maharaja of Kashmír to abolish transit murdered two years ago, when about to duties on the trade with the Kashgar ter- | ascend to Pamir by the Pass of Darkot.t ritories, it increased sevenfold. The de- lis last letters give a few particulars remand, by that well-to-do population of garding the people, and speak of their which Mr. Shaw has told us, for our In- brown hair, occasional hazel and blue dian teas, and for our English woollens eyes, and the comparatively) English asand piece goods, is great. Shawl-wool, | pect of the women. Though the people silk, and gold are to be had in return of all the districts we have named are And yet we have all but let these advant- reckoned as Dardus, at least two lanages slip through our fingers : –

guages are spoken among them, having

absolutely nothing in common. The The trade of the new Russian province of Khajuna, spoken by the people of Hunza Tashkend was in 1868 about 5,000,000l.* in and Nagri, at the foot of the great Múzvalue, but was said to be capable of vast in- tách glaciers (the greatest glaciers in the crease if the Eastern Turkestan market could

world out of the Polar circles), is a nonbe secured. Since then Russia has made a

Aryan tongue, whose relationship has not commercial treaty with the Atalik Gházi, Mo- i hammed Yakub, for the purpose of securing

1 yet been traced to any language. Little access to this market, but it is quite open to

to has been told us of these people. The us at present to do the same. The moment, Ranjútis of Hunza are described as “tall however, is critical. Russia, in the exercise skeletons”; they are by habit and repute of her undoubted rights, has chosen to protect her own manufactures by establishing a pro

* Letter of Mr. R. B. Shaw in the "Times," Jan. hibitive tariff against English goods in her

25, 1873. - We are glad to see by recent accounts from newly conquered provinces. Even in the Calcutta that an envoy has arrived from Kashgar, that semi independent State of Bokhara. her in a commercial treaty is likely to be concluded, and that

Mr. Forsyth will conduct a return mission.

† We have a report of this pass by one Ibraham • This figure has naturally given rise to question, but Khan. It runs for about six miles over scow, and a the amount is not essential to the object urged.

glacier has to be crossed.

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desperate brigands and man-stealers, and men, though wearing arms as regularly as are the terror of the northern valleys. other men wear clothes, seidom or never The Shiná, again, ur language of the venture from their own lands, unless south-western Dards, is evidently a dia- disguised as priests or beggars. On the lect of Sanskrit kin.*

Peshawar plain, previous to the British Most, if not all, of the Dard tribes now occupation, men ploughed with rifle siung profess Mahommedanism, but, like others and sword girt; growing crops and grazof the rude converts round Pamir, they ing cattle were watched by armed pickets. have not abandoned their love of the All this is changed now within the red grape-juice, which abounds in these pur- line; and the Yusufzai plain, of which lieus of the Nysæan Mount.f And Islam great part was dreary waste, is becoming having but recently penetrated those re- rapidly covered with cultivation. But the gions, there is naturally a lack of those plain alone is within our boundars, and venerable shrines of ancient saints in the old characteristics prevail berend it. which Mahommedan devotees rejoice. Of our Pesháwar valley itself some Hence, it is alleged, the Dardu Moslem, parts have an aspect of sarage sterility; when they catch a promising saint, are but from the slight elevation on which apt to make a martyr of him, in order to the British camp stands, the impression, have a holy shrine at hand, as an aid in especially in spring, is very different. “ making their souls.”

A vast sheet of luxuriant wheat is at In that unknown tract of the Indus your feet, broken by groves of fruit-irees valley to the south. the Dard comes in rich in blossom; the clear bold ouuine contact with tribes of Afghan race, or, at of the mountains encircles you on all least, of tribes Afghanised by long con- sides ; snowy peaks, the outlicrs of Hindu tact and subjection, and these extend Kúsh, rise to the north-west; to the down to our own Afghan province of south-west open the dark jaws of Kirber, Peshawar. The name of Våghistán, ap: breathing painful memories ; far to the plied to the tract, exactly describes the north-east you almost certainly behold malandrinisco character which the peo- | Aornos, if you but knew which of those ple have borne ever since the region was heights it crowned ! Yonder cairn of colonized by the turbulent Afghan. A tumbled stones on the plain was once a large part of the country derives a more great Buddhist dagoba, rising in golden courteous name from the great Afghan splendour to a height of 700 feet so say clan of Yusufzui, who are its predominant the Chinese travellers), the work of te occupants, and who also inhabit the great Scythian conqueror Kanishka. Te northern half of our Peshawar plain. valley was studded with the cities and But the less complimentary name is thor- temples of an Indian people. But after oughly deserved. Their polity is, proba- the Mahommedan invasions began, and bly, the nearest approach to the realiza - Mongol raids that followed them, year tion of the French Commune, in its most after year, the fertile and prosperous modern sense, that exists on earth. plain became desolate ; man almost disEach petty tribe forms an independent appeared, and the rhinoceros haunted the commonwealth, and each such community marshy thickets of the valley. Then is the rival, if not the foe, of every other. came the Afghan immigration. The When undisturbed by a common external marshy thickets exist no longer, and tie enemy, the several tribes are always op- very memory of the rhinoceros, which posed ; feuds, estrangements, and affrays Sultan Baber hunted here little more are of constant occurrence; the public than 350 years ago, has perished as utroads and private property are alike inse- terly as the mammoth's on the banks of cure. The traveller invariably conceals Dordogne; nor does the animal exist and misrepresents the time and direction within a thousand miles of Peshawar. of his journey. Vendetta, unsurpassed. In the Yúsufzai country, near our borby anything in Corsican story, is a law der, there has existed for many years the imbibed by children with the mother's seat of a fanatical Maliommedan zealotry, milk; and the women are often the first founded originally some fifty years ago, to urge their men to deeds of blood. The land which has long derived recruits and

remittances from the bigoted and mal• A work now being published by Dr. Leitner, of content in India. The troubles stirred Lahore, may be expected to give information of high by this nest of sedition and fanaticisin interest on Dardistani.

Nothing seems clear as to the position of that city led to the somewhat serious operations anii Mount of Bacchus, which was visited by Alexander, lof 1863 known as the Sitána or Ambeyli except that it was somewhere in the angle between the Kábul river and the Indus.

| Campaign. A name often mentioned in

connection with those troubles was that through their own cemeteries, prefacing of the Akhund of Swát. This personage, the operation merely by an apostrophe to Abdul Ghafür, was originally a herdsman, their dead kith and kin, “ Look out! whose austerities and hermit life grad- tuck up your legs! the plough is comually won him an immense reputation for ing.” * The men are dark and lean, havsanctity and miraculous power. His his-ing little resemblance to the typical tory is singularly like that of some of the Afghan, and it is probable that a strong ascetic saints in the Roman Calendar. mixture of aboriginal blood, as well as Though not a man of literary or theologi- seclusion, has tended to fashion their cal education, he became a potent author- peculiarities. ity in all religious questions, and issued Near Jalálábád -a name still heard his rescripts to the surrounding regions. with pride by an Englishman, — the KáIt was commonly believed that he daily | bul river is joined by a large tributary, entertained hundreds of visitors, cured descending from the lofty mountain counthem of all diseases, granted their diver-try to the north, and generally called in sity of desires, and fed them as his guests, our maps by the local names of Kúner or without the aid of visible means. Prob- | Káma. It is the Choaspes, and perhaps · ably the Akbund was by no means him- the Malamantus, of the ancients. As far self the active and indefatigable intriguer as the first lofty chain of heights through that the Anglo-Indian press conceived, which the river breaks, the country is inbut he and his name were used as tools habited by Afghanised tribes ; after a by the Sitána gang.

rugged ascent the upper valley is reached, Swát is the greatest of the Yusufzai extending, it is said, in comparatively valleys. In old times, when yet an Indian easy slope to the borders of Pamir, and country, it was known as Udyana, or forming the kingdom called Chitral, or as “ The Garden." Its river, Suvastú, ap- often Káshkár. Klaproth, whose knowlpears by that name (Soastus) in the Greek edge was large, but not the omniscience writers, and the remains of old Indian which he supposed, decided that the mencities and Buddhist temples still exist in tion of a Kashkar in this quarter was a the valley. It has never been entered by blunder of Elphinstone's; but he was any European, nor is that easy for any rash and wrong.t stranger, even a Mahommedan. The val- Our knowledge of this country is lev, 70 miles in length, is crowded with scanty. The people make an ignorant villages, hidden among groves of plane profession of Shiah Mahomme lanism. and other stately trees ; the cultivation | Their language, from the vocabularies runs in an almost unbroken chain of ter- that have been published, is evidently of races beside the noisy and sparkling Sanskrit affinity. A telegram from Rusriver; and the mountains above are sia recently announced that the Mír of crowned with forests of the edible pine, Badakhshán had “concluded an offensive the Deodar cedar, and the wild olive. and defensive treaty with the Badshah of But this secluded paradise has its draw-Chitral.” The chief of Káshkár does in backs. It is frightfully unhealthy; the fact give himself the high-sounding title filth and vermin of the dwellings are even of Bádsháh, but it is about as appropribeyond other Afghan wont; and feuds ate as that of the quondam Emperor Souare at such a pitch in the upper valley | louque. The country is said to be fertile that hardly any intercourse takes place and well peopled ; but at heights varying between village and village. Some from 6,000 to 12,000 feet, these are relaof the Swát customs are very peculiar. tive terms; and probably 80,000 souls Among others is that of a periodical re-would be a liberal guess-estimate at the distribution of lands by lot, after intervals population of his territory. The country varying from ten to thirty years. Another is said to produce some silk and shawlis that when two proprietors fall out, both wool, with abundance of fruit, including are expelled from the community (like / fine grapes, from which wine is made, the “rogue elephants" of Ceylon) with and used freely. Man-selling is very rife the loss of all civil and domestic rights, until they can make it up again. The Captain Raverty, in B. A. Ş. Journal, xxxi. p. 265.

“... Un amas d'absurdités reçues à bras ouverts

won

par les compilateurs, et entre lesquelles le double Kachon visiting excursions 30 or 40 miles from a

ghar occupe le premier rang. Le voyageur anglais, M. home, in bevies of fifteen or twenty to- Elphinstone, ayant entendu parler de la ville de Kach

ghar ... et du pays du même nom..n'a pas su

combiner ces notions, que de supposar deux Kachchur. also, strange in Mahoinmedans, are said, Il est cependant bien clair,' &c. - idénoires relatifs after a few years, to drive the plough'à l'Asie, ii. 293.

ort.

in Chitral. The usual victims are the / utary to the Emperor of China." This is neighbouring Kafir tribes; but, failing a very curious circumstance, and, con them, the King is said to seize on slight bined with other information collected by pretence and sell his own subjects. B2- our eminent traveller, Mr. Shaw, iden: dakhshan is the usual mart. The Chief fies Chitral with that Bolor of the modera of Upper Kashkar, which recently formed Chinese Tables which has been ren lere. I a separate State, is alleged to have sent by a combination of accidents, suca 2 an annual tribute of slaves to the Prince Will-o'-the-Wisp in geography. of Badakhshán.*

The people of Káshkár are said to be The road by Chitral to Wakhan and very handsome, like their immediate Pamir (and so to Yarkand or Kashgar) is neighbours to the westward, the Katrs er said to present less natural difficulty than Pagans ; indeed, they are in all probab! any other from India ; but this is not say ity merely a converted section of the ing a great deal. The usual route leids same race. from Peshawar to Dír, in the north-west The land of the independent Kafirs -part of the Yususzai hill-country, through a land of lofty mountains, dizzy paths, the Bajaur highlands, between the Kiner and narrow bridges swinging over roaring and the Panjkora rivers, that is to say the torrents, of narrow, terraced vallers, of tract between the Choaspes and the Gu- umbrageous forest trees, of wine and milk raus, which Alexander traversed, and in and honey, remains, as when Elphinstone which he captured the city Arigauin. first collected particulars regarding the Dír is mentioned by Marco Polo as on people, untrodden by any European food the route taken by Mongol banditti in an The best chance that his ever occurre1 inroad on Kishmir and the Panjáb, from of exploring this country presented itself the side of Badakhshán. From Dír the during the British occupation of Kital road northward crosses the mountains and was, in a melancholy manner, de. which form the western wall of the Chi- spised and neglected. The story is thus trál Valley, by a pass having a probable told by Captain Reverty, in the words of height of 12,000 or 13,000 feet. In will an officer who witnessed the circumstanter this pass is impracticable on account of the snow, and in summer it is beset by! In the end of 1839... when the Shah Kafir robbers, who keep up an incessant (Shújál) and Sir W. Macnaghten had gone fire upon travellers. Many are killed in down to Jelalabad for winter quarters, a depu. the pass, and the graves of those who tation of the Siahposh Kafirs carne in from hive fallen are marked by cairns and Nurgil to pay their respects, and, as it ap. fans, and designated, “ The tombs of the peared, to welcome us as their relatives i ! martyrs.” Hundreds of these dismal re

i recollect right there were some thirty or forty memorials line the road and damp thellir

of them, and they made their entry into our

lines with bagpipes playing. In Atzian Peon, traveller's spirits on the way between Dír sitting outside t

sitting outside Edward Conolly's teint, on see

o and Chitrál. Besides the pass at the headling these savages rushed into his master's of the Chitral Valley, leading to Pamir, I presence, exclaiming, “Here they ar: Sir! there are more direct but more difficult They are all come! Ilere are all your relapasses from Chitral direct across the Hin- tions!” Conolly, amazed, looked up from his du Kúsh to Badakhshan. On that called | writing, and asked what on earth he incant; Nuksán, Glaciers and larre beds of snow when the Peon, with a very innocent face. are passed. In descending towards Chi-pointed out the skin-clad men of the mour

tains, saying, “ There! don't you see them? trál the traveller is girt with a leathern/

Your relatives the Kasirs?"... The Katrs kilt, and slides down the snow slope. the

shope, themselves certainly claimed relationship; but Ponies have their feet tied together and! I fear their reception by poor Sir William was are rolled down. “By these processes," not such as pleased them; and they returnud says the native authority, “both men and to the hills regarding us as a set of pursebeasts generally reach the base of the proud people, ashaned to own our country pass safely.”

cousins. During the remainder of our sojour The learned but errant Wilford, in the in Afghanistan nothing more wis Seen or latter part of last century, sent one Mo

tury sent one Mo-heard of this singular race ... and I cannot ghul Berr. a forerunner of Major Mont- but regard it as most unfortunate that when gomerie's “Pundits,” to explore theses

so favourable an opportunity presented itself

of becoming acquainted with these tribes, and regions, and was informed by him that.

the country they inhabit, they should have Chitral was then in great measure trib been allowed to depart unconciliated, and no

advantage have been taken of their visit.* * The same charge of selling his subjects was formerly alleged against the Iir of Badakhshin. Sec Timkow-l *“Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal," vol. xxvi. ski's Traveis," i. 423.

p. 345.

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