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the cadets of which have been sent for spring and summer, while in winter the training to the continental schools of for- difference is scarcely traceable. This estry. The present volume is the out- shows us that the effect of cle:rings is come of the first five years' results ob- mainly felt in summer, and that it is tained at the stations in Bivaria estab-greater the warmer is the climate. Diurlished under the superintendence of Prof. nal range is felt only to the depth of three Ebermayer, of the Forest School of As- feet, and it is materially diminished by chaffenburg.
the presence of forest. The annual ringe Many of the statements in the book de- of temperature is less in the forest than pend on the observations of only three outside it, but the periods of the two pheyears, or even of a single year, but our nomena do not agree very closely. author states his conviction that the main. The effect of wood on Air Temperature features of the subject can be elicited is similar to that just described, but the with suficient accuracy for each station extent of the influence is only about half in a period of observation as short as that that exerted on earth temperature: the mentioned, and that the instrument can differences between the temperature then with advantage be removed to a above and underground thereby profresh station.
duced are of great importance as affecting It must be remembered that the diffi- the aëration of the soil, and thereby the culties of the observations are very excep- nutrition of the roots. The observations tional, as the mounting a ladder to read a as regards height show furthermore that thermometer in the top of a tree is not an the temperature rises with the height at agreeable duty to perform in all weathers, I least up to the level of thirty or forty feet. and so too great a tax must not be laid When we remember that the diurnal range upon the officials to whom the instru- is reduced by the presence of wood we ments are entrusted.
see how an alternating vertical circulaThe subjects investigated in the open tion, like that assigned as a chuse for land country are, speaking generally, tempera- and sea breezes, is set on foot, the existture in shade and sun, earth temperature, ence of which, as our author amusingly hygrometry, rainfall and evaporation. To states, may be proved by watching the these are added, in the forest, observa-smoke of a cigar. tions made in the head of the tree and The tendency of forests is found to be on the temperature of the heart of the to moderate the extremes of temperature, tree itself at various heights.
and so to render the climate less severe. The first stations were established in This is a direct contradiction to the popu1867, and the total number in Bavaria is lar idea that the cutting away of our forseven, distributed over the country. To ests has made our climate less extreme these is added one in Bohemia on the than it used to be. property of a nobleman. The outfit of The observations on Tree Temperaeach station cost about £40, and the ture are very valuable, as by them we are yearly cost of maintenance is one-half | able to determine far more simply than that sum. Some of the apparatus used by any other means the total amount of deserves special notice, especially the heat required by each tree for its develvaporimeters for open water surfaces and opment. These experiments also throw for soil, and the arrangements for deter- great light on the causes which regulate mining the amount of infiltrated water. the flow of the sap.
The subject is, comparatively speaking, Becquerel's idea that trees warm the so new and the variety of observations air is distinctly controverted by the reso great that the author for the most part sults under discussion, which show that contents himself with simply enumerating the temperature of the trees themselves his results without attempting to deal is generally below that of the air. with the subject as a whole. We shall In the winter the trees are colder than therefore confine our remarks to an ac- the soil, and in summer warmer: hence count of some of the more important sub- we see that the main seat of activity is in jects touched upon in the volume. the roots in winter and in the branches
Earth Temperature comes first, as be- in summer. ing the most important element for vege- As concerns Vapour Prof. Ebermayer table life. It is found at the various finds that the existence of timber prodepths, 0-4 feet, to be lower, to the ex- duces no difference in the absolute quantent of twenty-one per cent., on the meantity present in the air, but that owing to of the year, in the forest than in the open, the depression of temperature the Fracand this is pre-eminently the case in' tion of Saturation is raised by the forest. Evaporation from a free water surface is to the contour of the country itself. The about sixty-four per cent. less in the for- influence of forests on rain is however est than in the open, and morever it is much greater among mountains than in far more ruled by the motion of the air the plains ; it is also greater in hot clithan by the temperature. Hence we see mates than in cold, and in summer than the importance to young plantations which in winter. are likely to suffer from drought of leav-! The actual amount of rain which is coling belts of trees to shelter them. Any- | lected on the ground in a forest is about thing which breaks the force of the wind three quarters of that which falls on the retains moisture in the soil.
cleared land outside. The quantity in The evaporation from the soil is, how-defect does not all remain in the tree ever, a very different thing from that from tops, as much runs down the stem ; but a free water surface, and in considering it is found that the proportion retained it we arrive at the valuable result that the by the foliage differs with the different brushwood, leaves, &c., which cover the character of the wood ; thus it is greater ground exert quite as great an influence with conifers (Nadelholz) than with leaf in retarding it as the forest itself. trees (Laubholz), and of all trees Scotch
It is found that for every hundred | fir retains the most. cubic inches of water evaporated from The usual proportion between evaporathe soil, in the open, the ground in a for- tion from a free water surface and rainest, cleared of brushwood, &c., gives off fall on the same surface during the only thirty-eight, and the uncleared year is that the former rather exceeds ground, in its natural condition, give off the latter. The evaporation from the only fifteen cubic inches. Hence we see ground is very different from that from how immediately the water supply de- a water surface, and so, as regards the pends on the wood, and the fact confirms soil of a wood, the proportion above menthe old observation that in new and thriv- tioned is reversed, for the diminution of ing settlements the springs dry up in evaporation is less than that of rainfall. proportion as the land is cleared.
If however the wood be cleared of brushIt is a self-evident proposition that wood, leaves, &c., the rate of evaporation plants require rain, but Hellriegel has from the soil is seriously increased, and shown how much they require : accord-in fact in such a case the amount of water ing to him every pound of barley requires stored up in the ground against periods the supply of seven hundred lbs. of water of drought falls below that in open land, during the period it is in the ground. owing to the fact that so much of the Trees require a different quantity from rain is intercepted before it reaches the corn, and in addition they have a very ground. great effect in draining the land, for it is The work concludes with some refound that land from off which the tim- marks on ozone, and on the hygienic efber has been entirely felled often becomes fects of forests, and with some practical swampy, and only dries again when the applications of the results obtained to the new plantations spring up. This fact explanation of the causes of certain disshows us that trees exert a constant de-eases which are very destructive to young mand on the moisture of the soil, so that fir plantations. Copious tables are apover-drainage of the ground must seri-pended, with an atlas of graphical repreously affect their growth.
sentations of the results. It is then a most important matter to! Our hearty thanks are due to Prof. determine the effect of forest on moisture. Ebermayer for the work, which contains, Prof. Ebermayer's experiments lead him as will be seen, a mass of carefully colto the view that the idea of the effect usu-lected and important data of the highest ally attributed to wood in increasing rain- value to the scientific meteorologist and fall is not fully justified, and that much botanist, as well as to the practical forwhich has been held to be due to the tim-ester and the landscape gardener. ber in a country is really much more due!
GENERAL LEFROY, the Governor of Ber-1 “LOST WITH ALL HANDS." muda, well known as a scientific man during “ Lost. with all hands, at sen" his long service at the War Office, has pub- | The Christmas sun shines down lished a very admirable report on the sanitary | On the headlands that frown o'er the harbour condition of Bermuda, compiled with the spe
wide, cial objects of gathering information respect. On the cottages, thick on the long quay side, ing the recent visits of yellow fever to that on
at | On the roofs of the busy town. colony, and of studying the general effects of the climate on the European and African races. “Lost, with all hands, at sea." These meet, we may observe, at Bermuda un- | The dread words sound like a wail, der fairer conditions than in any other British The song of the waits, and the clash of the possession, the climate being temperate with bells, out being cold for nearly half the year, though Ring like death-bed dirges, or funeral knells, of tropical heat during the summer. Thus | In the pauses of the gale. favoured, however, Bermuda, even independently of the dreaded epidemic, stands at Never a home so poor, present lower as to health results than the But it brightens for good Yule-tide. actually tropical stations of our troops in the Never a heart too sad or too lone, Windward and Leeward Islands, though much | But the holy Christmas mirth 'twill own, higher than Jamaica. General Lefroy's report And his welcome will provide. does not appear to settle the important question as to whether the fever which ravaged the
Where the sea-coal fire leaps, garrison in 1843, 1853, 1856, and 1864 can be or
1861 can be On the fisherman's quiet hearth, traced to direct importation; but it is abun- | The Yule log lies, for his hand to heave, dantly shown that the absence of all proper
When he hastes to his bride on Christmas Eve, drainage precautions, added to certain cases
In the flush of his strength and mirth. of overcrowding, had established before each
High on the little shelf recurrence conditions abundantly favourable to
The tall Yule candle stands, the propagation of the malady when once
For the ship is due ere the Christmas night, fairly started. General Lefroy, in summing up
And it waits, to be duly set alight his results, gives it as his opinion that to protect the islands effectually the sanitary meas
By the coming father's hands. ures urgently needed should be supplemented | Long has the widow spared by a moderate system of quarantine, to be en- Her pittance for warmth and bread. forced, however, only during the hot or dan- | That her sailor boy, when he home returns gerous months. With regard to the general May joy, that her fire so brightly burns, effect of the climate, it is apparent that, | Her board is so amply spread. though relaxing to the young, it is very favourable to the advanced in years. The re- | The sharp reef moans and moans. port gives a total of persons dying at ages | The foam on the sand lies hoar; over seventy-five years, which General Lefroy The "sea-dog” flickers across the sky, remarks “could probably not be matched by The north wind whistles, shrill and high, any district of 12,000 souls in England. It 'Mid the breakers' ominous roar. would have gladdened the late Sir George Lewis, however, to learn that the alleged cases Out on the great pier-head, of centenarians, of which four were at first The grey-haired sailors stand, reported to the governor, proved on close in- While the black clouds pile away in the west, quiry to be as mythical as many others nearer And the spray flies free from the billows' crest, home, the oldest, a white ladý, having died | Ere they dash on the hollow sand. when still wanting three months of the hundred years.
Never a sail to be seen,
On the long grim tossing swell,
| Their terrible tale to tell. they shall see God." That which is most ten- | Did a vision of Christmas pass der in God is most human :-“ Like as a | Before the drowning eyes, father pitieth his children, so the Lord pitieth / When 'mid rent of rigging and crash of mast, them that fear Him.”
| The brave ship, smote by the mighty blast, These two rays of light meet in Christ. Do / Went down 'neath the pitiless skies? they neutralize each other as light beams sometimes do? Does the divine weaken the hu- No Christmas joy I ween, man? the pure diminish the tender? The On the rock-bound coast may be. reverse. It is sin that hardens and dehuman- | Put token and custom of Yule away, izes us. So, then, with what confidence we While widows and orphans weep and pray inay cast ourselves on a sinless Saviour,“ holy For the “hands, lost out at sea." and yet harmless!”. Thoughts by the Way.
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