member of Cacoban's Cabinet, opposes it | Seas might have been spared the horrors in every way, thwarts and impedes its ev- and atrocities perpetrated by British manerý action, and encourages resistance to stealers. The bulk of the white populaits authority.

tion would now gladly see her assume the If England would boldly assume the sovereignty. Neither Cacoban nor his sovereignty of the Fijis, we should very natives can feel very strongly about their shortly witness the extinction of the slave- Constitution or the Ministry of the day; trade, and the cessation of the native and the Pacific Islanders would find esfeuds, the civilization and settlement of tablished in their midst a power which the islands, the spread of the Christian would protect right by might. religion, and the protection and welfare

EDWIN GORDON BLACKMORE. of the British subject. Had she accepted the offer made her in 1859, the South House of Assembly, Adelaide.

IVORIES, ANCIENT AND MEDIÆVAL. - The | are of the utmost rarity. The British Museum earliest carvings on ivory extant are those found | fortunately possesses several examples which in the caves of Le Monstier and La Madelaine may fairly be considered the work of Greek artin the Dordogne, consisting of fragments of ists. Early Roman specimens are also exmammoth ivory and reindeer's bone incised or tremely scarce. The South Kensington Museum carved with representations of various animals. has a plaque of the second century, part of a cup, These were probably executed, says Sir John representing a sacrificial procession; and one Lubbock, at“ a time so remote that the rein- leaf of a Roman diptych of the third century (the deer was abundant in the south of France, and other portion being in the museum of the Hotel probably even the mammoth had not entirely de Cluny), upon which a priestess is shown disappeared.” Of course the celebrated Egypt- standing before an altar, sprinkling incense in a ian and Assyrian ivories in the British Museum fire kindled upon it. In the Mayer Museum, at are modern compared with these. There are Liverpool, two leaves of a diptych are preexamples in that collection of the time of Mo- served, upon which Æsculapius and Hygieia ses, or 1800 B.C. Fifty Assyrian ivories, also are carved. These fine examples are probably there, show the characteristics of the art at that of the third century. The following remarks period. When sent to England by Mr. Layard, by Mr. Maskell will show the interest and imthey were in a state of decay, but the decompo- portance of mediævalivories:—“From the midsition was arrested, at the suggestion of Profes- dle of the fourth century down to the end of the sor Owen, by boiling them in a solution of gela- sixteenth, we have an unbroken chain of exam. tine. The various substances included under ples, still existing. Individual pieces may, perthe term ivory are the tusk of the elephant, the haps, in many instances be of questionable origin walrus, narwhal, and hippopotamus. To these as regards the country of the artist, and somewe must add the fossil ivory, so often used in times with respect to the exact date within fifty, early carvings. This was obtained from Siberia, or even a hundred years. But there is no doubt where the tusks of the mammoth are found along whatever that, increasing in number as they the banks of the large rivers. It is a curious come nearer to the middle ages, we can refer to fact that the largest tusks of ivory now procured carved ivories of every century preserved in would not furnish pieces as large as those which muscums in England and abroad. Their imwere used in the Middle Ages. There is every portance with reference to the history of art can probability that the ancients softened the ivory, not be overrated. There is no such continuous and could then enlarge the pieces. A fifteenth-chain in manuscripts or mosaics, or gems or century recipe in the British Museum directs enamels. Perhaps, with the exception of man. that the ivory should be placed in muriatic acid, uscripts, there never was in any of these classes and it will become as soft as wax. By being so large a number executed, nor the demand for placed in white vinegar, it hardens again. The them so great. The material itself, or the decoGreeks used ivory to decorate their couches, rations by which other works were surrounded, and also shields and arms. Greek sculptors very probably tempted people to destroy them; did not think it beneath them to work in the and we may thank the valueless character of substance. Pausanias has left us an account many a piece of carved ivory, except as a work of some of these early statues which of art, for its preservation to our own days. saw on his travels, among them an ivory The word diptych means anything doubled or statue of Venus, at Megara, by Praxiteles ; folded, and, among the ancients, referred to tabone of Hebe, by Naucydes; an ivory and gold lets upon which wax was spread for writing. A example, the work of Phidias, at Elis; and the diptych was in two portions, a triptych in three, coffer which the Cypselidæ sent as an offering and the outer portions of the leaves were orna. to Olympia, c. 600 B.C. Ivories of this period mented with carving. — Chambers' Journal.




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