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tween the quiet natives and the wild ones. Most of the wild ones were battering at the hatch. The attempts to pacify the men below having failed, the crew commenced to fire on them. The firing was kept up most of the night. I think everyone on board was more or less engaged in firing down the hold. . . . During the night, by way of directing aim, Mr. Wilson, one of the passengers, threw lights down into the hold." At daylight it appeared "there were about sixteen badly wounded and above eight or nine slightly. In the hold there was a great deal of blood with the dead bodies. The dead men were at once thrown overboard. The six/een badly wounded -were also thrown overboard. . . . I saw that ike men so thrown overboard were alive. We were out of sight of the land. Some were tied by the le%s and by the hands."
R. Wilson, a passenger, corroborated Murray's witness in the main.
George Heath, a seaman, gave evidence not so favourable to Murray, as that miscreant had suppressed certain facts. On the night of the disturbance "saw Dr. Murray with a musket in his hand singing the song' Marching through Georgia.' At daylight a party went into the forehatch and fired in amongst the natives. Believed it was Murray and another man now in Leonka."
We must not omit that the poor wretches who were not butchered, were, on their way to Leonka, taught to hold up their fingers and to say "three yam," meaning three years, as though they had agreed to give three years' service.
On one of the prisoners, a warder in the Sydney gaol found a log of the cruise. We give some specimens.
"Monday, i$th January (1872). Got five men down in the forecastle threading beads, and hauled the ladder up. Five more were laid hold of on deck and shoved down in the hold. The ship was then got under way for Santo.— January 22. At night, in the first watch, one of the stolen blacks slipped over the rail: whether he fetched the land or was drowned, I don't know.— February 4. Got under way, and went closer in shore. This day stole twelve natives — four women and eight men. One woman came off to give them warning and she got nailed.— February 9. Stole four men. Three swam for the reef. Lowered boats and picked them up. Kept one. The other two were old men. Took them on shore, and three came on board to take canoe on shore, and were kept on board.
However they got two women for the old man.— February 27. Mem. of Malgrave Islanders jumping overboard and fired at.— March 5. Cook going to clear out, but brought up quick with a pistol, after which he went to sleep." But we need not multiply these revelations.
The evidence given on the trial of Mount and Morris in Melbourne supplies some particulars not elicited in the Sydney trial, and we shall give such extracts as appear to us to throw additional light on the incidents of this iniquitous slave-trade.
Matthias Devescote deposed: "We fitted up the hold with saplings. When I saw that the poles were taken in, I thought that the pearl-fishing expedition, was cooked then, but it was too late to back out. ... I heard Dr. Murray say (this was off Palma), 'This is a big ship, and we can make it pass for a missionary ship. If we disguise ourselves we can get some of the natives to come on board, and can then put them down below.'" Another witness will supplement this : —
James Fallon deposed: "The captain and Wilson went ashore. The former turned a coat inside out and put it on. Wilson dressed himself in an unusual way. Mick, a sailor, put on a blue coat, and old Bob, one of the Kanakas, put something round his cap. Mount was dressed in a long red shirt and smokingcap, but he did not go ashore. They said they would dress like missionaries. Mount got up on top of the house on deck and walked about. He held a book in his hand. The ship was anchored about a couple of hundred yards from the shore Wilson commenced singing 'Marching through Georgia' and 'Wait for the Tide.' Wilson tore out some of the leaves 0/a book he had with him and gave them to the natives, who fell upon their knees before he commenced to sing. They were kneeling down all round him.'"
Devescote relates when the canoes were alongside: "I had heard Murray say to the captain to get all ready, and he would give the word of command. Murray said, 'Are you ready, Captain?' and he said 'Yes,' and Murray said 'When I say one — two — three, let the men jump on the canoes.' This was done. . . Dr. Murray would say, • Are you ready? Look out! one — two — three,' and then the crew would be lowered down, the canoes swamped, and the men thrown into the water. . . . The natives were very bruised when they came on board, and the bilge-water of the two boats was mixed with blood. . . . Canoes were smashed again,, as usual." On the night of the row "in the hold he saw "Scott, Dr. Murray, Captain Armstrong and others firing down into the hold. ... At one o'clock in the morning the mate raised a cry that the natives had charge of the deck, and Dr. Murray called out, 'Shoot them, shoot them; shoot every one of them.' At four o'clock everything was quiet. . . . One of the crew said, 'Why, there is not a man dead in the hold,' and Mount said, 'That is well.' Dr. Murray put down his coffee and went forward. He was absent about five minutes, and then returned and fetched his revolver. The second mate got an inch auger and bored some holes in the bulkheads of the forecabin, through which Dr. Murray fired. . . . The first and second /nates fired as well. After a bit Dr. Murray came aft. Lewis, the second mate, said, 'What would people say to my killing twelve niggers before breakfast?' Dr. Murray replied, ' My word, that's the proper way to pop them off? Lewis said, 'That's a nne plan to get at them,' meaning the holes bored in the bulkhead." The throwing over of the wounded is told — the first, a boy, wounded in the wrist, being pushed overboard by Murray. The dead were hauled up by a bowline, and thrown overboard — thirty-five. The hold was washed, scrubbed, and cleaned up, and ultimately whitewashed. The vessel was boarded subsequently by an officer from H. M. S. Rosario, but he seems to have left satisfied. Murray wanted to procure more labour, but after this last butchery passengers and crew alike refused to have any more of such work.
The consular inspection was as perfunctory as the man-of-war's. "We had about fifty natives when we reached Leonka. Consul March then came on board and passed these natives. He asked Lewis, the supercargo, who was also second mate, how he got the natives. Of course Lewis swore he got them in a proper manner. The consul asked Lewis if the natives could answer to their names, and Lewis said 'Yes.' 'Then,' said the consul, 'will you swear you got these men by right means?' 'Yes,' said Lewis. 'How long were they engaged for?' 'Three years,' said Lewis. One of the niggers was then called, and asked by the supercargo, 'How long? How many yams?' The poor innocent nig
ger held up three fingers and said, 'Three fellow yams.' The consul then said the men were passed, and that was all the inquiry he had made. Lewis was the interpreter. There was no other." This is one of the heroes of the auger-hole butchery. Could this farce be exceeded?
We have selected the latest and bestauthenticated case of slavery in the South Seas. But these atrocities have been paralleled within the last few years, and the Carl brig is no singular offender. Two points, however, are prominently brought out by this case — the uselessness of our war-snips for the purpose of regulating the traffic by overhauling and examining the labour-vessels, and the farce of consular inspection. The Carl was boarded from H. M. S. Rosario, not long after the massacre, and no suspicion excited. The survivors of the massacre were examined by Consul March. If the examination was as superficial as stated in evidence, we need not wonder that such a humbug and sham left the natives where it found them. The regulation of this traffic is a myth. Consul March has swelled the blue-books with the exhaustive and comprehensive system he has planned for preventing the abuses of the trade; and he has shown us his practical working of them.
The only satisfactory regulation is total suppression. Total suppression is the duty of Great Britain, and there is only one way to do it — viz. to convert the Fiji Islands into a British colony. The situation at present is full of difficulties awaiting solution. King Cacoban has blessed his subjects with a Constitution, and a responsible Ministry of seven — five of whom are whites—a Legislature, and a Chief Justice. A large number of British subjects have protested against the establishment of the Government there, and have announced their determination to resist it, on the ground that British subjects, who constitute the majority of the white population, cannot form themselves into a separate nation. Lord Kimberley has directed Colonial Governors to deal with it as a de facto Government. The Law Officers of the Crown have advised that her Majesty's Government may interfere with- the acts of British subjects within Fiji, and that British subjects beyond the limits of the new state, not yet duly recognized, should not be accepted as citizens of the new state. Meanwhile, j the British consul declines to give any official recognition to this Government, and according to the complaint of the leading member of Cacoban's Cabinet, opposes it in every way, thwarts and impedes its every action, and encourages resistance to its authority.
If England would boldly assume the sovereignty of the Fijis, we should very shortly witness the extinction of the slavetrade, and the cessation of the native feuds, the civilization and settlement of the islands, the spread of the Christian religion, and the protection and welfare of the British subject. Had she accepted the offer made her in 1859, tne South
Seas might have been spared the horrors and atrocities perpetrated by British raanstealers. The bulk of the white population would now gladly see her assume the sovereignty. Neither Cacoban nor his natives can feel very strongly about their Constitution or the Ministry of the day; and the Pacific Islanders would find established in their midst a power which would protect right by might.
Edwin Gordon Blackmork.
House of Assembly, Adelaide.
Ivories, Ancient And Medieval.—The earliest carvings on ivory extant are those found in the caves of Le Monstier and La Madelaine in the Dordogne, consisting of fragments of mammoth ivory and reindeer's bone incised or carved with representations of various animals. These were probably executed, says Sir John Lubbock, at " a time so remote that the reindeer was abundant in the south of France, and probably even the mammoth had not entirely disappeared." Of course the celebrated Egyptian and Assyrian ivories in the British Museum are modern compared with these. There arc examples in that collection of the time of Moses, or 1800 1!.C. Fifty Assyrian ivories, also there, show the characteristics of the art at that period. When sent to England by Mr. Layard, they were in a state of decay, but the decomposition was arrested, at the suggestion of Professor Owen, by boiling them in a solution of gelatine. The various substances included under the term ivory are the tusk of the elephant, the walrus, narwhal, and hippopotamus. To these we must add the fossil ivory, so often used in early carvings. This was obtained from Siberia, where the tusks of the mammoth are found along the banks of the large rivers. It is a curious fact that the largest tusks of ivory now procured would not furnish pieces as large as those which were used in the Middle Ages. There is every probability that the ancients softened the ivory, and could then enlarge the pieces. A fifteenthcentury recipe in the British Museum directs that the ivory should be placed in muriatic acid, and it will become as soft as wax. By being placed in white vinegar, it hardens again. The Greeks used ivory to decorate their couches, and also shields and arms. Greek sculptors did not think it beneath them to work in the substance. Pausanias has left us an account of some of these early statues which he saw on his travels, among them an ivory statue of Venus, at Megara, by Praxiteles; one of Ilcbe, by Naucvdes; an ivory and gold example, the work of Phidias, at Elis; ana the coffer which the Cypselidx sent as an offering to Olympia, c. 600 B.C. Ivories of this period
'are of the utmost rarity. The British Museum fortunately possesses several examples which may fairly be considered the work of Greek artists. Early Roman specimens are also extremely scarce. The South Kensington Museum has a plaque of the second century, part of a cup, representing a sacrificial procession; and one leaf of a Roman diptych of the third century (the other portion being in the museum of the Hotel dc Cluny), upon which a priestess is shown standing before an altar, sprinkling incense in a fire kindled upon jt. In the Mayer Museum, at Liverpool, two leaves of a diptych are preserved, upon which ^Esculapius and Hygieia are carved. These fine examples are probably of the third century. The following remarks by Mr. Maskell will show the interest and importance of mediaeval ivories: — " From the middle of the fourth century down to the end of the sixteenth, we have an unbroken chain of examples, still existing. Individual pieces may, perhaps, inmanyinstancesbeof questionable origin as regards the country of the artist, and sometimes with respect to the exact date within fifty, or even a hundred years. But there is no doubt whatever that, increasing in number as they come nearer to the middle ages, we can refer to carved ivories of every century preserved in museums in England and abroad. Their importance with reference to the history of art can not be overrated. There is no such continuous chain in manuscripts or mosaics, or gems or enamels. Perhaps, with the exception of manuscripts, there never was in any of these classes so large a number executed, nor the demand for them so great. The material itself, or the decorations by which other works were surrounded, very probably tempted people to destroy them; and we may thank the valueless character of many a piece of carved ivory, except as a work of art, for its preservation to our own days." The word diptych means anything doubled or folded, and, among the ancients, referred to tablets upon which wax was spread for writing. A diptych, was in two portions, a triptych in three, and the outer portions of the leaves were ornamented with carving. — Chambers' Journal.
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