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Old Jake's to the fore, with his fiddle and bow, BY SAMUEL SLICK, JUNR.
And Jonathan brings his horn;
We'll end with a dance at the room in the mill, THE BLAZE * ON THE HEART.
Then home at the peep of dawn. Then good-bye, Joe; you've gone, I'm told,
Then come, come, come! Away to the far-off West;
Though Margery, Bess, and Sue, And the old folks say, and the Deacon, too,
Jenny, and Kate, will all be there, They're sure it's all for the best,
They ain't a touch to you!
My sakes! you'd make an angel cuss,
Mebbe the Governor's good enough,
If we're such small affairs.
I'm blessed if I don't ask Bella to come,
She'd give her eyes to go;
Her eyes ain't bad- you know they ain't -
And her neck is like the snow.
Then come, come, come! I often think of the days of old,
Though Margery, Bess, and Sue, When we tapped the maple-tree,
Jenny, and Kate, will all be there, And you swore the sap war’nt half as sweet
They ain't a touch to you!
I knew yer meant to go.
It's 'cause I love you, Barbara dear, But the stars, somehow, don't shine so bright,
I sometimes hate you so. And the sky don't seem so blue.
Come, let's get spliced; its time, I guess :
Let's drop these pets for life.
I'd like some pets of a different sort,
With Barbara for my wife.
Then come, come, come!
Though Margery, Bess, and Sue, The blaze you made on the juniper-tree
Jenny, and Kate, will all be there, Long years will wear away,
They ain't a touch to you!
Till age has turned me grey.
THE LONG VOYAGE.
The mackerel boats sailed slowly out Till I kinder wish for an endless sleep.
Into the darkening sea, One last, long dream of you.
| But the grey gull's flight was landward,
The kestrel skimmed the lea.
Strange whisperings were in the air;
And though no leaflet stirred,
The echo of the distant storm,
The moaning sough, was heard. • A backwoodsman's mark on a tree, - shows that some chap's been along that way before.
It came — the swift-winged hurricane,
Bursting upon the shore,
Till the wild bird's nest, and the fishers's cot, OH, Barbara dear, you'll come with me, | All trembled at its roar.
And Siss will go with Bly;
| And women wept, and watched, and wept, With hay-cart, buggy, and fly.
i And prayed for the night to wane;
And watched and prayed, though the setting # In the North-Eastern States, and in New Bruns
sun wick and Nova Scotia, there are extensive tracts, called " Barrens," over which fires have swept that have burned up the very soil itself, and have left nothing be “A sail!” hind them but bare rocks, lofty rampikes (the blackened
That sail is not for you; stems of pine-trecs), and bluerries. At the end of August all creation begins to think that blueberries taste! It slowly fades away. nice. The bears camp out on the barrens, and grow | The sun may set; the moon may rise; fat and saucy. Clouds of wild pigeons cluster on the
The night may turn to day; old rampikes as thick as blackberries; and the boys and ! girls hitch their horses into hay-waggons half filled with
emn stars hay, and off they go "a-berryin'," and pick barrels of blueberries, which mother afterwards dries and pre-! Glide on - but all in vain! serves for winter's use. It's great fun, I tell you. Boys, They have sailed away on a long, long voyage; girls, birds, and bears --- all nature goes in for one big!
They'll never come back blueberry frolic;" and if they haven't a good time, Il
in They'll never come back again.
ey just want to know. -S.S., Jr.
From The Edinburgh Review. I the greatest marvel of our existence. MAURY ON SLEEP AND DREAMS.* This, indeed, is one of the numerous inWe place M. Maury's volume at the stances where we look heedlessly upon head of this article, as one of the most phenomena become habitual to us, but recent and remarkable on the phenomena which, seen as solitary or infrequent of Sleep and Dreams. He is among the events, are the subjects of admiration or few authors who have made them the terror. We gaze with careless eye on subject of experiment as well as of sim- the daily march of the Sun through the ple observation. But in reviewing his heavens, on the midnight magnificence of work we shall have occasion to refer to the starry sky. Our wonder and awe are several others, in which these phenomena reserved for the comet or the eclipse. are treated of, either especially or as a We witness the flowing and ebbing of the part of human physiology ; many of them ocean and river tides at their calculated works of much intrinsic value, though times, ignorant or indifferent to the fact not, as we think, wholly exhausting the that these changes express the action of subject. Attention has been somewhat the greatest law of the universe. Traveltoo exclusively given to the physical ling by railroad, we look with idle eyes causes and conditions of sleep, without on those thin wire lines, traversing the adequate notice of the wonderful charac-l air beside us, which at the very moment ters which connect it with the other por-are carrying currents of electricity under tion of our existence ; rendering it, human bidding – the instantaneous transthrough dreams, an interpreter of many mitters of human language and thought. of those complex relations of mind and We think and speak, we see and hear, body which have perplexed philosophy in breathe and walk, indifferent as to the every age of the world. Sleep and dreams nature of these marvellous functions, or may justly be deemed one of the great how their unceasing work is carried on. mysteries of our nature. Our knowledge And well it is for our happiness, and for of them is far from having reached the the integrity of the functions themselves, realities of a science. Many of the prob- that it should be so. The mere act of lems, physical and psychological, they in- mental attention to any one of them, is volve, are among the most profound in enough to alter or disturb its natural acmental philosophy, and meet us at the tion - a fact of supreme importance in very threshold of the inquiry. And if human physiology. some of these questions do admit of solu-| All this is eminently true as regards the tion, others are so deeply hidden in the subject before us. An habitual indifferultimate mystery of the mind itself, as to ence to the phenomena of sleep is found be wholly inscrutable by any means hu- as much among men of general intelliman reason can apply to them.
gence as in the mass of the unthinking It may seem strange to many of our world. Assembled in the morning round readers, that we should preface the sub- the breakfast-table, we laugh and jest ject of Sleep and Dreams by phrases thus over tales of the dreams of the night; not grave and forbidding in their tenor. Acts reflecting that these wild and entangled so familiar, and periodically habitual in vagaries - illusions as to persons, time, our lives, might be thought of easy inter- and place - are part and parcel of that pretation. The sleep of the rocking- continuous personal identity, which at cradle, of the bed, of the arm-chair or car- other times manifests itself in acts of riage, witnessed in their ever-recurring reason, discourse, and deliberate funcroutine, would seem to tell all that can tions of the will. We are jesting here or need be known on these subjects. But upon things which have perplexed the it is this very familiarity which disguises philosophy of all ages. No less a probtheir nature, and begets indifference to lem than the intimate nature of the hu• Le Sommeil et les Rêves. Par L. F. Alfred
man soul is concerned in these phenomeMaury, Membre de l'Institut. Troisième Edition. na. Where more than a fourth part of Paris : 1865.
| life, even in its adult and healthiest
stages, is passed in sleeping and dream- karaopovñgai púlıov, ořte teldivai.) But with ing, these functions must be taken as an his wonted sagacity, he indicates the reaintegral and necessary part of our exist-sons which justify distrust as to a Divine ence — not less natural than our waking interposition, thus partial and frivolous in acts, and associated with them by various its alleged ministrations to man. He sees intermediate phenomena, to which we clearly that the event is often the parent shall presently allude. These phenom- of the prophetic dream, and that in the ena, indeed, may be said really to main- endless and complex relations of human tain that unity of the thinking and con- life, it must needfully happen that coinciscious being which in other ways they dences often occur without any real relaseem so strangely to disturb. A line of tion of the events so associated. These rigid demarcation between the states of chapters of Aristotle well deserve perusal waking and sleeping might well appear to as evidences of the clear and acute inteldissever this unity. But no such line ligence of this great philosopher. We exists; and it may readily be shown, have acquired more knowledge of the under appeal to individual experience, physiology of sleep as a vital function, that these various states endlessly com- but in its connection with dreams are litmingle and graduate into each other ; tle advanced beyond what he has told us. thus affording mutual illustration, and, as Cicero, in his Second Book “De we believe, a more intimate knowledge of Divinatione," discusses the question the mysteries of the human mind than whether there be a divine influence occan be obtained from any other source. casionally embodied in dreams still more
It would hardly be worth while to pre- largely and conclusively. Called upon to face what we have to say on Sleep and confront strong popular superstitions, he Dreams, by citing what ancient writers meets them fairly and boldly. But bephilosophers, physicians, and poets - yond this negative conclusion, his treatise have bequeathed to us on the subject. does little to illustrate the phemomena or The phenomena were to them the same philosophy of the functions in question. as to us — the dream, perhaps, more ex- ! While revelling in the beauty of the citing to the imagination from its connec-poetry, ancient and modern, which has tion with various superstitions of the age. found a theme in sleep and dreams — and Seeing, indeed, the tendency of their none more fertile for fancy to work upon mythology and poetry to deify whatever — we cannot look for any fresh knowledge is wonderful in man or nature, it is not from this source. Lucretius, indeed, with surprising that they should clothe these his supreme mastery of verse, comprises great functions of life with a personality, something of the philosophy of dreams in vague indeed in kind, but such as to sat- his grand description of them. From isfy the popular and poetic feeling of the Homer and the Greek dramatists down to time. Nor can we wonder that they Virgil, Ovid, Statius, &c., we have abunshould have been the sul;jects of super-dant passages, finely describing or invokstitious belief, seeing how variously and ing sleep, but it is the poetry only of the strangely these functions are blended subject. We must not, however, quit this with the spiritual part of our nature. I topic without referring to those many Even now, when science imposes so striking passages in Shakespeare where many new checks upon credulity, the in- | the genius of the man revels in the wild, spired dream - the "Ovap ÉK ALÒS — has its fantastic world of our sleeping existence. occasional place among other still less He grasped human nature too universally rational beliefs of the world.
to leave untouched this wonderful part Aristotle, whose chapters on Sleep and of it. We need but refer to the passages Dreams rank foremost of all that the an- in “Henry IV.," “ Richard III.,” “Romeo cients have left us on the subject, says on and Juliet,” “ Macbeth,” and “Midsumthe question of inspiration of dreams, mer Night's Dream," in proof of what we that it is not easy “either to despise the are saying. The memory of our readers evidence or to be convinced by it" (ořte / will furnish them with numerous other
passages on the subject from English, mentions his own habits as to sleep, as German, and Italian poets ; but none, we being singularly favourable to these meththink, so abounding in thought and poe- ods of observation ; and we are well distry as those of Shakespeare.
posed to believe in the results thus ob
tained. Nevertheless, the chances of We have already stated our reason for error are so great in this land of shadows, taking M. Maury's volume as the text for that we should be glad to find the reour article. We learn from his preface search taken up by others, with such varithat he has zealously devoted himself to ations as individual temperament may the subject for a long series of years ; suggest. It is obvious that the latter embodying his researches in successive point is one of singular importance. The publications, of which this is the latest. sleep and dreams of one man interpret These researches comprise certain curi- only partially and doubtfully those of anous methods of experiment, ingeniously other, and we must check as well as muldevised, and, as far as we know, never tiply the proofs before setting down anysystematically used before. We cannot | thing as certain. In common life, the better illustrate these methods than by very nature of a dream gives a sanction giving his own words. After speaking of to a loose or exaggerated relation of it. the need of long, continuous, and cau- No one is disposed to quarrel with the tious observation, to obtain any assured relater for filling up gaps in his dream results, he adds :
with the little parentheses needed to comJe m'observe tantôt dans mon lit, tantôt dans plete his story ; or, if a little of the marmon fauteuil, au moment où le sommeil me vellous be brought into the subject — one gagne. Je note exactement dans quelles dis- of those strange coincidences to which positions je me trouvais avant de m'endomir; the vision of the night contributes its et je prie la personne qui est près de moi, de part — we generally find truth more deeply m'éveiller à des instants plus ou moins éloignés trespassed upon. Stories, vague and loose du moment où je me suis assoupi. Réveillé in their origin, are made more compact by en sursaut, la mémoire du rêve, auquel on m'a successive additions, and often go on soudainement arraché, est encore présenté à fro
a from one generation to another, acquiring mon esprit, dans la fraîcheur même de l’im
im a sort of spurious credit from age, and pression. Il m'est alors facile de rapprocher les détails de ce rêve des circonstances où je
from the impossibility of refuting them m'étais placé pour m'endomir. Je consigne by any living evidence. sur un cahier ces observations, comme le fait! We come now more directly to the subun médecin pour les cas qu'il observe. Et ject before us, embodying, as M. Maury en relisant le répertoire que je me suis has done, under a single title our considainsi dressé, j'ai saisi entre des rêves qui eration of these great acts of life — Sleep s'étaient produits à diverses époques de ma and Dreaming. They cannot, indeed, be vie, des coincidences, des analogies dont la treated of separately. Their conjunction similitude des circonstances qui les avaient is so general, if not universal, and they provoquées m'ont bien souvent donne la clef. are linked together by such complex ties.
M. Maury goes on to state the neces- that we are almost compelled to view sity of having a coadjutor with him in this them as a single function of our being. inquiry, not solely for the purpose here Still there are certain considerations mentioned of being awakened at particu- which must be admitted as possible lar times, but also for the due observation grounds of distinction. We cannot prove of what may be called the utterances of that the conjunction of sleep and dreams sleep. Sounds made and words spoken is absolute and universal. There may be by the sleeper, must be recorded in rela- times and conditions of sleep, in which tion to the dreams afterwards remem- there is a total inactivity of brain -a bered. Even simple attitudes and move-complete absence of those images and ments of the body, especially such as ex-trains of thought which form the dream. press agitation, require the same record, In connection with this comes the furand for the same purpose. M. Maury ther consideration, that sleep is a necessity of our nature - a state required for Sir William Hamilton, Sir Henry Holthe rest and repair of functions, both bod- land, Drs. Carpenter, Laycock, and Macily and mental, which are incapable of nish, have severally, in one way or other, being repaired in any other way. The encountered this problem. Lord Broug. same cannot be said of dreams. They ham has grappled with it, amidst the many depend on functions of the brain, which, other questions which exercised his bold though unchecked by the senses and the and facile pen. He considers dreams an will, and distorted in their mode of ac- ( incidental not a constant part of sleeption, are yet identical in kind with those a sort of fringe edging its boders. Sir which are exercised in evolving the W. Hamilton, on the contrary, believes thoughts and emotions of the waking that no condition of sleep exists without state. The notion of repair and restora- dreaming ; but all have felt the difficulty tion can hardly therefore be associated of dealing only with incomplete or negawith the act of dreaming. "Frequent ex- tive evidence, and the question remains perience, moreover, teaches us that what in abeyance for future research or hypothwe call “unrefreshing nights” are at-esis to work upon. tended by troublous dreams; and, though Hypothesis and speculation may well this may often admit of other explanation, indeed be awakened by this particular yet is the fact significant as regards the mystery of our nature. In theory we candistinction just drawn. The repose and not affirm that a total suspension of the restoration obtained from sleep would mental functions is more impossible than seem to be in an inverse ratio to the in- the actual changes they undergo in dreamtensity of the dreams attending it. Jing, in the delirium of fever, insanity, in
Is there then any condition or moment toxication, and other morbid conditions of sleep absolutely devoid of dreaming? of the brain. The sleep of the newly-born a state in which all thoughts and emotions, infant cannot be construed otherwise than whether connected or vaguely incongru- as a state in which sensorial actions either ous, are annulled, and our mental or con- do not exist, or are limited to some vague scious existence lost in the simple physi- recurrence of the simple impressions made cal condition of sleep? The import of on the untutored senses. An ordinary this question will readily be understood. fainting-fit leaves no trace behind of any. The answer might seem easy, but is far thing having passed during the time of from being so. Positive proof is wholly deliquium. To the patient this time is a wanting, and the only evidence attainable nullity of his being. It may be that the is that derived from the memory of the memory only is annihilated, that the mind dreamer, or the observations of those who never actually ceases in its workings; watch him during those hours of which but this view is little more than a subter. he has no remembrance. It is certain fuge to meet a difficulty which we cannot from such observation, and indeed from otherwise encounter. common experience, that dreams are of Plunging thus far into the metaphysical very frequent occurrence, of which all in-perplexities of this question, whether the stant memory is lost. Aristotle, in dis- mind, or sensorial consciousness, is actucussing this very topic, puts the question, ally lost during certain times of sleep, why some sleep occurs with dreams, oth- and recovered, as far as dreaming can be er sleep without ? or, if always dreaming, called recovery, we are bound to notice a why some dreams are remembered, others doctrine closely connected with this innot? The question, so propounded, marks quiry, to which the name and writings of the clear intelligence of the philosopher. Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Laycock, and others In the memory or oblivion of dreams we have justly given authority. This is, the trace their connexion with our physical hypothesis of “ Unconscious Cerebraorganization, and thus gain a step, though tion” — so termed because it supposes a slight one, to the better understanding the brain capable, under certain condiof their nature.
tions, of acts or changes utterly aithout The doubt just denoted as to the uni- mental consciousness, yet strictly analoversality of dreams during sleep, has con-| gous to those through which it ministers tinued to our time. If ever resolved, it to mental functions - acts of intellect must be by some such methods as those detached, as it were, from the intellectual adopted by M. Maury. He does not him- personality of our being. This is a bold self, indeedi, meet the question in its dis- assumption ; but curious cases are protinct form, or dwell upon its profound duced which might seem to authenticate metaphysical relations. Other writers on it. Such are instances where soine questhe subject, among whom we may name / tion left on the mind at bed-time unsolved,