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Fifth Series,
Volume II.S

No. 1512. — May 31, 1873.

From Beginning,


· 515

· 529 . 543

CONTENTS. I. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE MORALITY. By Edward A. Freeman, · · · · · Fortnightly Kevier

Fortnightly Review, · ·
II. INNOCENT: A Tale of Modern Life. By Mrs.

Oliphant, author of “Salem Chapel," " The
Minister's Wife,” “Squire Arden," etc.

Part IV., . . . . . . . Graphic, · · · ·
III. Sir John BURGOYNE, . . . . . Blackwood's Magazine, .
IV. THE PARISIANS." By Lord Lytton, author of

“ The Last Days of Pompeii,” “My Novel,”

“The Caxtons, etc. Part X., . . . Blackwood's Magazine, . V. THE COLLIERS OF CARRICK, . . . . Good Words, . . . VI. STORY OF A FRENCH REFUGEE, . . . Chambers' Journal, . VII. THE LATE EMPEROR'S SUPERSTITION, . . Spectator, . . . VIII. THE PROGRESS OF THE SPANISH REVOLUTION, Spectator, . . . .


514 | AN ENGLISH SWALLOW-SONG, . WILLY, . . . . . . . 514 |

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He talks to God, in angel's tongue,

And in his heart such songs are sung

As our dull ears can never hear. I WATCHED the seawinds wake and fill

He would not have us drop one tear, The sails that bare my love from me;

Since he is happy, having God. I climbed the lofty lighthouse hill

To catch them gleaming down the sea. Willy in darkness is not sad. I looked towards my lonely home,

We, who have sight, and all things glad, I heard the shipmen gaily sing,

Are we as patient as is he? As swift they swept across the foam,

Father, oh teach us so to be, Against the gold red sunset ring.

And in the end, let Willy see! And ever when my lone heart fails,

Good Things. C. C. FRASER-TYTLER To this sweet comfort shall I hold; - I saw my true love's passing sails,

But they were lit with gleams of gold. In hope I wait; the years go by;

AN ENGLISH SWALLOW-SONG. I gaze across the cruel tide, The kind-heart gossips draw them nigh,

THE Rhodians in their sunny isle To weep in pity at my side.

Sang swallow-songs to greet They tell me of wild stormy skies,

Thy sight, where roses ever smile, Of one that comes no more to me,

And all the skies are sweet. They whisper how he drowned lies,

Here, myriad welcomes greet thy wing, Ah, dead ! my love, far out at sea.

That gladsome twitt'ring cry, But, when my broken spirit fails,

As down the river, bird of Spring,
A glimpse of other worlds is given :

Thou sweepest glitt'ring by!
The jasper sea, glad Home-set sails,
All golden with the lights of Heaven.

A speck that dims the living blue,
The Month.

F. E. W.

An instant dost thou gleam,
A sudden flash of light shot through

The joys of April's dream.
For many a day beside the flow

Of waters may we pass,

No blossoms by the current blow,
He sits upon his mother's knee,

No daisies star the grass;
Patient, with eyes that cannot see.
He hears the soughing of the trees,

The sullen streams in eddies curl

'Neath clouds piled ridge o'er ridge; He hears the booming of the bees

O bliss! when first in joyous whirl Among the myrtles and the thyme.

Thou dashest round the bridge; He knows when one has stayed his boom,

For, gleeful creature, on thy flight In sweeping through the sunny room,

Perpetual summer tends; Knows that its velvet body lies

Egypt's hot sands thou quitt'st at night, Drawing the sweetness of its prize

To glad with morn old friends; Out of the slender lily's chime.

To circle o'er the drowsy wood;
He knows the time for flowers to blow;

Beneath my roof to rear
What time the first red rose should show; In trustful guilelessness thy brood;
When the first nest is lined, to hold

To skim the lilied mere;
Its little eggs; and just how old

Charming me daily with thy wheels The starlings are, beneath the thatch.

Above the murm'rous lime, But if the trees be green or not;

Soothing my fancy till it feels
Or if the bumble-bee have spot

No more the weight of time;
Upon his velvet legs or head;
Or if the eggs the sparrow laid

Till hopes long dead and love's sweet pain Be blue, or brown, or all to match,

Revive before thy wing,

And youthful longings bud again, He cannot tell you. God has made

As in Life's golden Spring. This Willy blind. He lives in shade

A myriad welcomes, then, be thine, Far darker than the yew trees throw

Bright bird! for thou hast brought Over the garden. Yet there grow

Old mem'ries to me, pleasures fine, Sweet flowers of heaven in his heart.

And many a precious thought! To us he cannot say, “I see.”

Ah! cheer my garden, cheer the land, Much that we know of, knows not he.

Where'er thy pinions roam! So Willy in a world alone

And round these limes, by zephyrs fanned, Keeps 'mid delights that are his own,

Forget the salt sea-foam! He has his garden set apart.

Chambers' Journal.

From The Fortnightly Review. of strong national feeling. Still, the idea of PUBLIC AND PRIVATE MORALITY. the State as almost a personal being, as a I was led lately, in the course of lec- living parent whose welfare should be presturing at the Royal Institution on what I ent to every man's thoughts at every moventured to call Comparative Politics, ment of his life, the feeling which reached into a somewhat full examination, and its height when the personified City of into a still further course of reflexion, as Rome became an object of worship and to the different ideas of the State, as enter- sacrifice, is certainly felt in Modern Eutained in the small commonwealths of old rope in a much lower degree than it was Greece and in the large countries of mod- in Athens or Florence. The difference ern Europe. In what the main difference is, I think, one of the unavoidable differconsists is obvious. In the one case, the ences between large and small states ; for State of which a man is a member, and to we must remember that, in contrast to which his public duties are owing, is con- the city-communities of Greece and Italy, ceived as being a city; in the other case the smallest European kingdom must be it is conceived as being a nation or coun- counted as a large state. Of small states try of large extent, whether kingdom or on the ancient or mediæval scale, modern commonwealth matters not. The train of Europe can no longer show any examthought into which that inquiry led made ples. Andorre and San Marino are rathme think whether it was not closely con- er curious survivals of a past state of nected with another which had been for things than practical members of the Eusome time in my mind, but which would ropean body. The smaller Cantons of have been quite unfit for discussion in Switzerland, the few surviving Free Cities what was meant to be a scientific compar- of Germany, still keep much in common ison of various forms of government and with the ancient commonwealths; but their origin. Many things, both great the restrictions of the Federal tie hinder and small, forcibly bring before the mind them from showing forth their political the thought that there is a sense in which life in all its fulness. And Switzerland, we who live in the great kingdoms and as a whole, undoubtedly ranks as a large commonwealths of modern Europe, are state compared with Athens or Sparta. I less patriotic than the citizens of the an- linsist on this question of size, because I cient city-communities. There are many feel sure that the difference of which I points in which our political life is far speak has more to do with the size of the more healthy than theirs was; but it cer-state than with the form of its governtainly seems that we have not, as a rule, ment, shutting out, of course, mere anthat living feeling of the State, as some-archy and mere tyranny, as not worthy to thing ever present to our thoughts, as be called forms of government at all. In something demanding of us constant ef- a large state, in our sense, be it of the forts and constant sacrifices, which the size of Denmark or of the size of Russia, loyal citizens of an ancient or mediæval it is impossible that the existence of the commonwealth certainly had. Modern State can be brought home to every man European nations are certainly not lack- as something in which he is personally ing in national feeling, nor are they lack-and daily concerned, in the same way in ing in readiness to do their duty to their which it can in a state composed only of country to the full under the pressure and a single city. The average citizen cannot excitement of actual warfare. The last have the same constant personal knowlgreat war has fully shown this; no one edge of public affairs, the same personal can charge either the French or the Ger- share in them, which he may have in a man army with any failure either in pro-city-commonwealth. Be the constitution fessional courage or in patriotic feeling of of the State never so free, the ordinary a higher kind. The very cry of “nous citizen hears more of a government which sommes trahis" on every occasion of de- is set over him than of a commonwealth feat, utterly unreasonable as it is, and fa- of which he forms a part. The natural, tal to all energetic action, is itself a sign the unavoidable, result is a comparative

deadness of public feeling. On a great great days of her democracy. But we may emergency, a war for instance, when the be also sure that the number of men who being of the State and his personal duties would betray their country for their own towards it are strongly brought home to gain, the number of men who would seek him, the citizen of a large state will be as to win party ends by surrendering or ready for patriotic action as the citizen of jeoparding the independence of their a small state. But he needs to have the country, is relatively smaller in a yet existence of the State, and his duties to- higher degree. The patriot and the traiwards it, brought home to him in this tor in truth sprang from the same root ; special way. He is not, like the citizen the traitor was perhaps very often å paof the small commonwealth, brought face triot in his own eyes. We must not to face with them every moment of his think that every oligarch who thought to life.

Toverthrow the democracy, or even every It must, of course, not be forgotten, in oligarch who was ready to purchase the comparing the two systems and their dif- destruction of the democracy at the cost ferent results, that, if we reap the fruits of receiving a Spartan garrison, was in of the worse side of the difference, we his own eyes an enemy of his country. reap the fruits of the good side also. If His argument would rather be that he the patriotism of a small state is ardent loved Athens so well that he would give and active, it is also apt to be turbulent her what he deemed the best form of gove and aggressive. Men who are ready to ernment at any hazard and at any sacrigive their goods and their lives for their fice. Traitors of this kind, traitors who own commonwealth are also apt to forget thus pushed their zeal for a party within that other commonwealths have equal their country to such a pitch as to berights with their own. The ideal Roman, come treason to their country itself, are in whose eyes Rome was so precious that as natural a growth of a small commonhimself and all that he had seemed as wealth as are the patriots of a more ennothing when compared with her inter- lightened kind. In a large state party ests, was, from the very same cause, spirit does not run so high ; it does not ready to sacrifice truth and justice when- get so easily mixed up with personal enever it seemed that by the sacrifice of mities. And again, in modern times the truth and justice the interests of Rome political parties in any state for the most could be furthered. The vice and the part begin and end within that state. virtue, the heroic sacrifice of self and the Kings have indeed sometimes banded tocontemptuous disregard for the rights of gether to destroy popular rights everyothers, are here so closely connected, the where, and republican propagandists have two spring so directly from the same less commonly preached the overthrow source, that it is hardly possible to draw of kings everywhere ; but, as a rule, no the line between them. And, following purely political party in a modern Eurothe law which seems to have decreed that pean state would seek to overthrow its the same soil should be fertile in fruits political rivals by the help of a foreign of opposite kinds, where we find the force. This again is one of the results of most abundant supply of the most ardent the difference between large and small patriotism, we may also look for a cor-states. A political party in a modern responding supply of its opposite. As state may sympathize with the correan ascetic age is commonly also a profii- sponding party in any other state ; but it gate age, so, where patriots are thickest seldom happens that their communicaon the ground, we not uncommonly find tions with each other are so easy, or their traitors thickest also. We may be sure objects so exactly the same, that they can that the number of men in England who do much more than sympathize. The would willingly die for their country feeling of nationality, the difference of is — putting the case of exposure in war- language and the like, steps in, and a fare out of sight in both cases — relative-man feels that he has really more in comly smaller than it was at Athens in the mon with his own countrymen of an op

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