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attributed the ambitious crime of Mac-, and cold calculation of their poisonings bethi to a much more mature age than it Lydia Sherman in America, and Mary pleased Lord Lytton to suggest. It is Anne Cotton in England - were mature impossible to suppose, if we study the women, who did not begin to think of context, that there is any considerable in- such crimes till near the age of forty, or terval of time between the murder of Dun- beyond it. The Countess de Brinvilliers can and that of Banquo. In the scene and her accomplice Gaudin de St. Croix describing the plot for the murder of Ban- were apparently both over thirty-five when quo, Macbeth speaks of Duncan's sons as they begun their career as poisoners. having just reached England and Ireland, And a German poisoner as notorious as whither they fled on the morrow of Dun- any of them, Anna Maria Zwanziger, can's murder, so that a few weeks at most whose strange series of crimes, trial, and must be supposed to have intervened. confession Lady Duff Gordon narrated in Yet it is in the scene in which Banquo's her “ Remarkable Criminal Trials,” some ghost appears that Lady Macbeth ex- twenty-seven ago, was nearly fifty when cuses her husband to his guests for his she began to revel in the power which delirious talk, as follows:
poison gave her over human life. Indeed, if Sit, worthy friends; my Lord is often thus,
Lord Lytton had had Lady Duff Gordon's And hath been from his youth.
volume before him, he would have seen
that among the more remarkable murders, - a form of expression certainly not easily I murders of calculation like both Macbeth's implying that Macbeth was still in his
and that of the King in “ Hamlet,” it is youth. Add to this Lady Macbeth's lan
lan- very rare, instead of very common, to find guage in encouraging her husband to the
the murderers young. Anna Maria Zwanmurder, and we have additional evidence lziger.- who is sometimes called the Gerthat the time of a mother's cares was to man Brinvilliers, confessed to the Judge her imagination in the past :
that her death was fortunate for mankind, I have given suck, and know as it would have been impossible for her How tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me: to discontinue her practice of poisoning, I would, while it was smiling in my face, so much did she revel in the power she Have plucked my nipple from his boneless I felt it gave her; and we suspect that gums
Lydia Sherman and Mary Anne Cotton, And dashed his brains out, had I so sworn
and probably Catherine Wilson, the poiAs you have done to this.
soner of some ten years or so back, and A young mother could hardly have spoken Christina Edmunds, the Brighton poisoner in that way. We cannot help thinking, of last year,- none of them in their youth, from both Macbeth's and Lady Macbeth's — might have said the same ; indeed it is language, that Shakespeare intended to hardly possible to conceive that a very place them in the epoch, not of youthful young woman could have felt this frightpassion, but of hard ambition,- in middle ful pleasure in the wielding of an evil life. And again, would Lord Lytton have power of destruction,-if for no better attributed to Shakespeare the intention reason because other and more natural to make Hamlet's uncle, Claudius, a young hopes and pleasures would keep their atman under thirty when he contrived his traction till the season of youth had brother's death? Surely no hypothesis passed. Then take the more serious murcould be less like Shakespeare's picture. ders of deliberation. Certainly Sandt,
But to leave the world of dramatic fic- the German student who murdered Kotzetion, which is important only because bue, was a lad ; and Ravaillac, who murShakespeare's knowledge of men was so dered Henri IV., was only 31, a little over marvellous that what he represents is sure Lord Lytton's age ; but Felton, the murto have a basis of fact beneath it, is it derer of Buckingham, seems to have been true that the more remarkable of real a mature man ; Louvel, the murderer of murders, — murders committed not in the Duc de Berri in 1820, was 37; Guy sudden passion, but from ambitious or Fawkes was 35; and in our own time, other calculations, like those of Macbeth Orsini, who attempted the life of the late and Hamlet's uncle Claudius, — have Emperor of the French, was 39. been committed by the young ? Certainly The ages of men who first engage in in the case of women it has almost always calculated crimes of violence range, no been otherwise, though Constance Kent doubt, lower than that of women, for the was a remarkable instance to the contrary. obvious reason that women's strongest Both the women who have attained a hor- instrument in working for even the same rible notoriety this year for the number class of ends is, while young, a different this, –
one, that of persuasion, and that they are failing sense of life as the warning which only likely to have recourse to violence first precipitated him into the plot that when their chief engine fails them. But ended in the murder :in any case, Lord Lytton's analysis of the
Brief, one day I felt reason for the youth of murderers fails, | The tick of time inside me. turning-point. and it is to that we wish to draw atten-| And slight sense there was now enough of tion. It is not the experience of maturity, of the great power of the world and the That I was near my seventh climacteric little power of the individual, which deters Hard upon, if not over, the middle of life. from calculated violence, but more often,
And how does the poet describe his one might say, the sense of being utterly
murderous temper? In words carefully baffled which that experience engenders chosen to express most eloquently not in a self-willed mind whereon some one
fullness, but starvation of soul; not irradesire has fastened a firm hold, that most
tional hope and the sense of physical often leads to it. It is far less “irrational
power, but the very destructiveness of a hope and the sense of physical power,”
sort of spiritual death :than rational fear and the sense of moral | incapacity which precipitate men who And thus I see him slowly and surely edged have once fixed their desires in a particu
Off all the table-land whence life upsprings lar groove into this desperate last re- | Aspiring to be immortality,
As the snake hatched on hill-top by mischance, source. Scott's Balfour of Burley is an
Despite his wriggling, slips, slides, slidders admirable type of the higher kind of mur
down derous resolve of this sort, - the kind due Hill-side, lies low and prostrate on the smooth to a grim tenacity of purpose which can- | Level of the outer place, lapsed in the vale : not deny itself the satisfaction of a vio So I lose Guido in the loneliness, lent collision with all laws human or di- Silence and dusk, till at the doleful end, vine that seem to balk its purposes. At the horizontal line, creation's verge There is an element of desperation, rather From what just is to absolute nothingness, – than of over-sanguine, over-youthful hope
Lo! what is this he meets, strains onward still?
| What other man deep further in the fate, in almost every calculating murder, —
Who, turning at the prize of a footfall, though, as in Macbeth's case, there may
| To flatter him and promise fellowship, be a sense of predestination, too. Evi
| Discovers in the act a frightful face, dently neither he nor his wife believed Judas made monstrous by much solitude! ... that the witches' prophecy could fulfil it- | There let them grapple, denizens o' the dark, self without their own aid. The prophecy Foes or friends, but indissolubly bound, suggested to them that the murder of In their one spot out of the ken of God Duncan was the only possible path to the Or care of man, for ever and ever more! throne, and whetted their ambition for it ; That surely is a much truer picture of the but the conviction that it would be quite
n that it would be quite typical murderer than any other which impossible for the preternatural predic-I modern poetry has given us. And it is a tion to be fulfilled without their help, was picture which, contrary to Lord Lytton's akin rather to desperation, than to “irra
theory, makes such murder to spring out tional hope and the sense of physical of the selfish and wilful desperateness power.” The great calculated murders
which can hardly come till middle-age have far oftener sprung out of the savage leven to the worst man, and which has no and brutal despair of ambitious, but only part or share in the sanguine temper and too much experienced self-will, driven hopeful audacity of youth. back upon itself, and fully conscious of its want of living resource, than out of the glowing audacity and excessive hopefulness of youth. Count Guido, in Mr. Browning's “ Ring and the Book,” — a
From The Saturday Review. character painted not from imagination,
RELIGIOUS CORPORATIONS IN ROME. but from history, and after a most careful The Italian Government has now held study of the real pleadings of a real trial, possession of Rome for two years and a - is a perfect type of murderers on cal- half, and if its new conquest has given it culation ; and Count Guido is middle- some trouble, it has given it much less aged, nearly fifty, and his crime is essen-trouble than might have been expected. tially the crime of middle age, – the crime After Sedan and the establishment of the not of flowing but of ebbing life, of re- French Republic, there was no difficulty source failing and hate growing at the ex- in the way of the occupation of Rome; pense of life. He himself speaks of his i but it is only because things have gone smoothly with Italy lately that we con- curses, and gradually to establish in the ceal from ourselves how many embarrass- minds of friends and foes the fact that ments the occupation might have entailed. Rome is now a part of Italy, that Italian Italy is the luckiest of nations. It has law must prevail there, and that when the thriven by the blunders and misfortunes interests of Italy at Rome and the interof others, as well as by its own audacity ests of the religious body or hierarchy and good sense. If a danger threatens conflict, the former are to prevail. it, something is sure to happen, which no Whether the decision to make Rome the one could have expected, to save it. The capital of Italy was wise or not, whether Pope never lets his quarrel sleep for an the physical evils of the place and neighinstant, and the Pope might have made bourhood can be surmounted, and whether himself very unpleasant to Italy if he the population of Rome is suited to form had but had any external support. But the material in which the centre of Govwhile Germany kept down France and ernment resides, are questions which canAustria so as to make them unable, if not properly be answered for years to they had really been willing, to befriend come. But there can be no doubt that the Pope, the policy of the Pope sudden- Italy has derived one immediate advantly took the form of extreme hostility to age from the transfer of the capital to Germany. As Prince Bismarck lately Rome. There has been no choice but to said, it formed no part of the Imperial fight boldly with the pretensions of the plan that Germany should become the Papacy, and to carry out the doctrines of ally of Italy against the Papacy. Italy modern Italian policy to their legitimate had not been disposed to court the favour conclusions. If Rome had been subjectof Germany during the war. The King ed to the authority of the King, but had was desirous of sending his troops to aid been left as a city apart, following its own the French, and although his Ministers customs and virtually governed by its had sense enough to stop the perpetra- own laws, while Florence engrossed the tion of so fatal a blunder, they did not, or national attention, there would have alcould not, prevent Garibaldi from going ways been a non-Italian spot in the midst to kill as many Germans as he could lay of Italy. Being fixed at Rome, the Leghands on, in the name of the Universal islature has had no option but to resolve Republic. The new German Empire that in coming there it shall be found to cared for nothing except to consolidate have brought Italy with it. its unity; and Prussia had for years been Italy has been for centuries the home on the best terms with Rome, and had of ecclesiasticism in all its forms, and remade every possible concession so as to ligious bodies of many kinds have nestled avoid any opposition on the part of its and flourished there. The statesmen of Catholic provinces to the central Govern-modern Italy had at an early date after ment. Prince Bismarck did not want to the establishment of the Kingdom to have the Rhine provinces stirred to dis- consider how they would deal with these affection, intrigues revived in Polish dis- religious bodies, and they gradually tricts, and religious differences set blaz- worked out three propositions. The first ing to scare Southern from Northern was that the buildings destined for the Germany. If the Pope had been willing, use of such bodies must be held to be as he might have had very good friends and much liable to be expropriated and approtectors at Berlin; and although force plied to purposes of public utility as any of arms would not probably have been used other buildings. The second was that reto turn the Italians out of Rome, yet the ligious bodies must not be allowed to Pope in all the disputes which the occupa- hold land, as the resources of the country tion of Rome has excited would have had a were wasted, and the population encourbacking which the Italians could not have aged to live under subjection to masters afforded to disregard. Most fortunately possessed by a spirit alien to that of modfor Italy the Pope chose to quarrel with ern society. The third was that religious Germany, and the Ultramontane party set bodies must, in order to be allowed to exitself to revenge 1870 by the disruption ist at all, have some recognizable charof German unity. The consequence has acter of practical utility. They must not been that Italy has not been hampered be merely collections of persons retiring in dealing with the Pope by any external from the world to lead a saintly life. difficulties. It has been at liberty to take When the Italians got hold of Rome, they its own course, and its course has been naturally found a very vast field for the to treat the Pope respectfully and kindly, application of these principles, Rome is to care little for abuse and calumny and 'ill built, ill drained, very dirty, and very inconvenient. If it was to be improved, I visable to correspond with the Governmany of the buildings belonging to reli- ments interested in the subject, but this gious corporations must disappear in or- ought to be done unofficially, and merely der to let in light and air, and to make as an act of courtesy. The corporations new streets possible, and to give accom- are to be dispossessed of their buildings modation to the legion of national offi-| if public utility so requires. Their lands cials. A large portion of the district are to be sold, and they are to hold the round Rome is held by these corpora-proceeds invested in the funds; and they tions, and they possess much urban prop-are to have two years in which to make erty. The number of persons leading a proposals to the Government as to the purely monastic life is of course consid- | purposes which they are henceforth to erable in the capital of Catholicism. The serve, and the rules to which they are to Italian Government had, however, no be subjected. If these proposals are not hesitation in applying its principles to all satisfactory, the Government will, at the Roman religious corporations that were end of two years, have power to make of a merely local character, assemblages schemes for them. of persons who are now Italians settled These recommendations of the Comon what is now Italian soil. But many of mission are bold and logical, but statesthe religious corporations of Rome con- men have got to think of something else sisted of foreigners, had been founded by than of being bold and logical. They foreigners, and formed the chief machin- have to think of safety and prudence, and ery by which foreign adherents of the of not running their country into dangers Pope associated themselves with the life greater than those from which boldness and work of the head of their faith. How and logic propose to relieve it. The irto treat these foreign corporations was a resolution of the Italian Government puzzle which for a year baffled the wits of arose, not from their hesitation as to what the Ministry, and at last they could ar- they would like to do, but from their hesirive at nothing better, in proposing a Bill tation as to what they could dare to do. to Parliament, than an enactment that Would foreign Governments be disposed during two years the corporations should to allow that Rome was merely an Italian be at liberty to make proposals to the city like any other, and that a new body of Government, and, if those proposals were law should be imposed on their subjects not satisfactory, then that the Govern- who had for generations been encouraged ment should be at liberty to negotiate on to hold a position in harmony with a totalthe subject with the foreign Governments ly different system? It is certain that interested. A Commission was appointed unconquered France, even if the original by the Chamber to consider this Bill, and ideas of the late Emperor had been carit is only after the lapse of some months ried out, and the Italians had been perthat the Commission has been able to ar- mitted to occupy Rome, would never have rive at a conclusion. Those who served tolerated the treatment which the Comon it have had the merit of really think-mission wishes to see applied to these coring over the matter which they had in porations. Even now it is nothing but hand. The Commission could not satisfy the quarrel of the Pope with Prince Bisitself with the vague and timid proposal marck that gives the Italians a chance of of the Government. It asked itself what uniting safety with boldness and logic. was the basis on which the Italian Parlia- A year ago Italian statesmen might well ment proposed to deal with these corpo- hesitate, for they could not tell how far rations at all. This basis was that these this quarrel would proceed. Even a few corporations were established on Italian months or a few weeks ago it was not soil, possessed Italian lands as their prop- easy to say whether domestic opposition erty, and formed part of Italian society. might not cripple the action of Prince No foreign Government could have a Bismarck. The Commission has the adright to say that any of its subjects were vantage of making its Report at a moentitled to live on Italian soil, hold Italian ment when it is known that the policy of lands, and form a part of Italian society, Prince Bismarck has been successful, if they thereby prejudiced the interests or that he has made the Prussian House of evaded the law of Italy. The Commis- | Lords bow before his will, and accept the sion, therefore, decided that the bold line ecclesiastical changes he has proposed ; was the only line that could be taken, and and that the nature of these changes is that foreign Governments must be held such as to make it impossible that there to have no claim to negotiate with Italy can be a reconciliation between Germany as to these corporations. It will be ad-' and Rome.
The Banker's Almanac for 1873,
Richly Illustrated with Sixty-three Engravings,
Three Hundred Pages. Price Three Dollars. · Issued in January at the office of the Banker's Magazine, 251 Broadway, New York,
CONTAINS 1. A list of all the NATIONAL and STATE Banks of the U. 8, in operation -2,500 in number
the location, names of officers, capital, and New York correspondent of each. 2. A list of PRIVATE Bankers in the United States—2,300 in number—with the New York
correspondent of each, and population of each place. 3. A list of SAVINGS BANKS in New England, New York, California, Maryland and New
Jersey-500 in number. 4. An alphabetical list of 2,500 CASHIERB in the United States. 5. List of Stock Brokers in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, and New Orleans. 6. The fluctuations in prices of Government, State and City Bonds ; Railroad Stocks and
Bonds; of Cotton, Sugar, Corn, etc. 7. The production of Gold and Silver throughout the world, in the last twenty years. 8. Annual Report on the National Banks of the United States for eight years—1863-1872. 9. The daily premium on Gold at New York, from 1868 to December, 1872. 10. The Census of the United States for 1790, 1800, 1810, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870 (each State). 11. Population of fifty cities in the United States—1850, 1860, 1870. 12. Wealth, Taxation, and Indebtedness of each State, by the census of 1870. 13. Annual Report on Cotton, Breadstuffs, Provisions, Grain, and other staples. 14. The monthly prices of eighty leading articles of Commerce, 1872, at New York.
(Contin led annually.) 15. Finances of the United States, Revenue, Expenditure, Debt-1870-1873. 16. Weight, Fineness, and Value of Foreign Gold and Silver Coins, at the U.S. Mint. (Official.) 17. The production of Gold and Silver in each State, seventy years. 18. Coinage of the United States Mint and Branches-1796-1872. 19. The Parities of Exchange—the comparative values of English, French, German, and
United States Exchange or Currency. 20. Annual list of new publications on Banking, Finance, Commerce, Trade, Political
Economy, in England and the United States. 21. List of Foreign Bill drawers in New York, 1873, and names of their London correspondents. 22. List of Banks and Bankers in London and in Canada, 1873. 23. Annual Report of the Bank of England and the Bank of France, for 1870-1873. 24. Market Values, Dividends, and Annual Interest, on Foreign Stocks in London, 1872.
List of Sixty-three Engravings in the Banker's Almanac, 1873,
WITH THE WEIGHT, VALUE, AND FINENESS OF EACH COIN.
II. Five Yen, 1872.
Russia, 1 . Italy, 2 . . Wurtemberg, 1. Thirty Bank Buildings, etc., in United States, England, France, &c.
Twenty-second annual volume. Three hundred pages. Price three dollars, Issued at the Office of the BANKER'S MAGAZINE, 251 Broadway, New York.
e Almanac for 1874 will contain facsimiles of all the new coins of the US and other nations of the war 1873